Current Research on Dermatology: Pathology, Clinical Manifestation, Investigation and Therapy

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 August 2023) | Viewed by 35652

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Clinical Department, Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Dunarea de Jos University, Galati, Romania
2. Saint Parascheva Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, Head of the Dermatology Department, Galati, Romania
3. Multidisciplinary Integrated Center of Dermatological Interface Research (MICDIR), Galati, Romania
Interests: demodex; endosymbionts; cutaneous microbiome; integrative medicine; optical coherence tomography; dermoscopy; confocal microscopy ; cutaneous comorbidities; skin cancer
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Considering recent advances in the field, dermatovenerology has proven to be a specialty of clinical, investigative, and therapeutic interest. Medical history and clinical examination, followed by non-invasive imaging or blood tests or the exploration of skin structures and their pathological changes, allow pathologists to better understand, detect, and define diseases of the skin. Cutaneous signs and symptoms thus represent a window into the systemic state of the human body. Many diseases thought to be localized to the skin are now considered to be systemically involved in other areas. Each patient is unique, with their own comorbidities and anatomic or physiologic particularities. Cutaneous skin diseases vary in appearance, evolution, and prognosis as well as in their response to various treatments. The management of skin disease comorbidities requires interdisciplinary collaboration among medical and surgical specialties. Novel treatments are now available for various skin conditions, including surgical, cosmetic, and physiotherapeutic procedures. Drugs of both plant and chemical origin can produce systemic or adverse skin reactions. If classical therapy is ineffective or is not tolerated, off-the-label drugs or complementary and alternative medicine methods can be used as part of an integrative medicine treatment. The new perspectives offered by translational medicine and research on the microbiome, endosymbionts, inflammatory molecules, diagnostics, treatments, and observations of comorbidities, complications, and their management are improving the standard of skin care, placing it in the context of personalized medicine and care. This Special Issue of Life, entitled “Current Research on Dermatology: Pathology, Clinical Manifestation, Investigation and Therapy ”, will collect and present data on the latest developments in the field. We welcome reviews, research/original articles, case reports, and short review, clinical dermatology images (max: 175 words, 10 references, and 4 images). Articles should comprise roughly 3000 words and include more than 30 references. Review papers should be around 4000 words and include at least two figures or tables. Life has no restrictions on the maximum length of research manuscripts, provided that the text is concise and comprehensive. Papers may have two correspondent authors and two first authors. Submissions received before 24 June 2022 may receive a 20% discount.

Prof. Dr. Alin Laurentiu Tatu
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • demodex
  • endosymbionts
  • cutaneous microbiome
  • optical coherence tomography
  • dermoscopy
  • confocal microscopy
  • cutaneous comorbidities keyword
  • inflammatory diseases
  • hair
  • skin cancer
  • comorbidities
  • skin surgery

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 798 KiB  
Article
Clinical, Dermoscopic, and Histological Characteristics of Melanoma Patients According to the Age Groups: A Retrospective Observational Study
by Monika Słowińska, Iwona Czarnecka, Robert Czarnecki, Paulina Tatara, Anna Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Małgorzata Lorent, Szczepan Cierniak and Witold Owczarek
Life 2023, 13(6), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061369 - 12 Jun 2023
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Background: Although the role of melanoma risk factors is well documented, their correlation with patients’ age is less frequently analyzed. Method: The analysis was performed among 189 melanoma patients in different age groups, including <30 years, 31–60 years, and >60 years, to investigate [...] Read more.
Background: Although the role of melanoma risk factors is well documented, their correlation with patients’ age is less frequently analyzed. Method: The analysis was performed among 189 melanoma patients in different age groups, including <30 years, 31–60 years, and >60 years, to investigate the risk factors, topography, and coexistence of morphological features of 209 melanomas (dermoscopic and histopathological). Results: Among the youngest age group, no correlation with the presence of estimated risk factors was found. The most common dermoscopic pattern was spitzoid and multicomponent asymmetric. The group of middle-aged patients was the most diverse in terms of the occurrence of risk factors, solar lentiginosis, dermoscopic patterns, topography, histological subtypes, and invasiveness of melanomas. The oldest group characterized a strong correlation between solar lentiginosis, NMSC comorbidity, the prevalence of facial melanomas, the dermoscopic pattern of melanoma arising on chronic sun-damaged skin, and regression. Conclusion: The findings regarding the presence of age-specific features in melanoma patients, especially in the youngest and middle-aged groups, might be helpful for clinicians and to target secondary prevention efforts. Full article
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14 pages, 1577 KiB  
Article
Niosomal Curcumin Suppresses IL17/IL23 Immunopathogenic Axis in Skin Lesions of Psoriatic Patients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
by Hanieh Kolahdooz, Vahid Khori, Vahid Erfani-Moghadam, Fatemeh Livani, Saeed Mohammadi and Ali Memarian
Life 2023, 13(5), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13051076 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Psoriasis (PS) is characterized by hyperplasia of epidermis and infiltration of immune cells in the dermis. A negligible susceptibility of hypodermic permeation for local anti-inflammatory remedies is one of the major causes of medication failures. Although curcumin (CUR) has indicated effectiveness in treatment [...] Read more.
Psoriasis (PS) is characterized by hyperplasia of epidermis and infiltration of immune cells in the dermis. A negligible susceptibility of hypodermic permeation for local anti-inflammatory remedies is one of the major causes of medication failures. Although curcumin (CUR) has indicated effectiveness in treatment of inflammation, its successful permeation through the stratum corneum is yet a challenging issue. Therefore, niosome (NIO) nanoparticles were used as curcumin carriers to enhance its delivery and anti-inflammatory effects. Curcumin-niosome (CUR-NIO) formulations were constructed by the thin-film-hydration (TFH) technique and were added to hyaluronic acid and Marine-collagen gel-based formulation. Five mild-to-moderate PS patients (18–60 years) with PASI scores < 30 with symmetrical and similar lesions were included in the study. The prepared formulation (CUR 15 µM) was topically administered for 4 weeks on the skin lesions, in comparison to the placebo. Clinical skin manifestations were monitored and skin punches were obtained for further gene expression analyses. There was a significant reduction in redness, scaling, and an apparent improvement in CUR-NIO-treated group in comparison to the placebo-treated counterpart. The gene expression analyses resulted in significantly downregulation of IL17, IL23, IL22, and TNFα, S100A7, S100A12, and Ki67 in CUR-NIO-treated lesions. Consequently, CUR-NIO could provide therapeutic approaches for the patients with mild-to-moderate PS by suppressing the IL17/IL23 immunopathogenic axis. Full article
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12 pages, 683 KiB  
Article
Basal Cell Carcinoma—A Retrospective Descriptive Study Integrated in Current Literature
by Carmen Giuglea, Andrei Marin, Iulia Gavrila, Alexandra Paunescu, Nicoleta Amalia Dobrete and Silviu Adrian Marinescu
Life 2023, 13(3), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030832 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is considered to be the most common cancer in humans. It has a slow growth rhythm, and for this reason, metastases are rare. For our retrospective study, we selected 180 patients from those who underwent surgery for a variety [...] Read more.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is considered to be the most common cancer in humans. It has a slow growth rhythm, and for this reason, metastases are rare. For our retrospective study, we selected 180 patients from those who underwent surgery for a variety of skin tumours between January 2019 and August 2022 and whose histopathological examination revealed basal cell carcinoma. All surgeries were performed by plastic surgeons at the “St. John” hospital in Bucharest. The aim of this article is to provide observational data regarding BCC—in terms of histopathology and diagnostic and therapeutic management and to integrate these data into the current knowledge of this pathology. Full article
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12 pages, 920 KiB  
Article
The Many Roles of Dermoscopy in Melanoma Detection
by Cristina-Raluca (Jitian) Mihulecea, Gabriela Mariana Iancu, Mihaela Leventer and Maria Rotaru
Life 2023, 13(2), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020477 - 09 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2434
Abstract
Dermoscopy is a non-invasive method of examination that aids the clinician in many ways, especially in early skin cancer detection. Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer that can affect individuals of any age, having an increasing incidence worldwide. [...] Read more.
Dermoscopy is a non-invasive method of examination that aids the clinician in many ways, especially in early skin cancer detection. Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer that can affect individuals of any age, having an increasing incidence worldwide. The gold standard for melanoma diagnosis is histopathological examination, but dermoscopy is also very important for its detection. To highlight the many roles of dermoscopy, we analyzed 200 melanocytic lesions. The main objective of this study was to detect through dermoscopy hints of melanomagenesis in the studied lot. The most suspicious were 10 lesions which proved to be melanomas confirmed through histopathology. The second objective of this study was to establish if dermoscopy can aid in estimating the Breslow index (tumoral thickness) of the melanomas and to compare the results to the histopathological examination. We found that the tumoral thickness may be estimated through dermoscopy, but the histopathological examination is superior. To conclude, the aim of this study was to showcase the versatility and many roles of dermoscopy, besides being one of the most important tools for early melanoma diagnosis. Full article
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12 pages, 3322 KiB  
Article
Pharyngeal-Esophageal Malignancies with Dermatologic Paraneoplastic Syndrome
by Ana Fulga, Doriana Cristea Ene, Laura Bujoreanu Bezman, Oana Maria Dragostin, Iuliu Fulga, Elena Stamate, Alin Ionut Piraianu, Florin Bujoreanu and Alin Laurentiu Tatu
Life 2022, 12(11), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111705 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2693
Abstract
Systemic changes often send signals to the skin, and certain neoplastic diseases of the internal organs can also trigger skin manifestations. In this article, the authors make clinical photography presentations of the patients seen at our clinic with dermatologic paraneoplastic syndromes within pharyngeal–esophageal [...] Read more.
Systemic changes often send signals to the skin, and certain neoplastic diseases of the internal organs can also trigger skin manifestations. In this article, the authors make clinical photography presentations of the patients seen at our clinic with dermatologic paraneoplastic syndromes within pharyngeal–esophageal malignancies, describe several paraneoplastic dermatoses, and also review high-quality scientific literature in order to be able to highlight the dermatological signs of pharyngoesophageal malignant tumors. The majority of our patients with paraneoplastic dermatoses, filtering for pharyngoesophageal malignancies, had esophageal neoplasms, out of whom seven were female and two were male, making esophageal cancer more common within the paraneoplastic dermatoses within pharyngoesophageal malignancies. An early recognition of paraneoplastic dermatoses can diagnose neoplasms and sequentially contribute to a better prognosis for the patient. This matter is also useful for front-line medical personnel in order to improve early diagnosis of the underlying malignancy, curative interventions with prompt therapy administration and good prognosis. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 5162 KiB  
Review
Annular Erythemas and Purpuras
by Nicolas Kluger
Life 2023, 13(6), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061245 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 5453
Abstract
Annular dermatoses are a heterogeneous and extremely diverse group of skin diseases, which share in common annular, ring-like patterns with centrifugal spreading. Numerous skin diseases can sometimes display annular lesions, but some specific skin conditions are originally annular. We take the opportunity to [...] Read more.
Annular dermatoses are a heterogeneous and extremely diverse group of skin diseases, which share in common annular, ring-like patterns with centrifugal spreading. Numerous skin diseases can sometimes display annular lesions, but some specific skin conditions are originally annular. We take the opportunity to review here mainly the causes of primary annular erythemas and their differential diagnoses, but also the rare causes of annular purpuras. Full article
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16 pages, 355 KiB  
Review
Review: The Key Factors to Melanomagenesis
by Cristina-Raluca (Jitian) Mihulecea and Maria Rotaru
Life 2023, 13(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010181 - 08 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer that develops from the malignant transformation of the melanocytes located in the basal layer of the epidermis (cutaneous melanoma). Melanocytes may also be found in the meninges, eyes, ears, gastrointestinal tract, genito-urinary system, or [...] Read more.
Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer that develops from the malignant transformation of the melanocytes located in the basal layer of the epidermis (cutaneous melanoma). Melanocytes may also be found in the meninges, eyes, ears, gastrointestinal tract, genito-urinary system, or other mucosal surfaces (mucosal melanoma). Melanoma is caused by an uncontrolled proliferation of melanocytes, that at first may form a benign lesion (nevogenesis), but in time, it may transition to melanoma, determining what it is named, melanomagenesis. Some tumors may appear spontaneously (de novo melanoma) or on preexisting lesions (nevus-associated melanoma). The exact cause of melanoma may not be fully understood yet, but there are some factors that initiate and promote this malignant process. This study aims to provide a summary of the latest articles regarding the key factors that may lead to melanomagenesis. The secondary objectives are to reveal the relationship between nevi and melanoma, to understand the cause of “de novo” and “nevus-associated melanoma” and highlight the differences between these subtypes. Full article
15 pages, 944 KiB  
Review
Psoriasis Management Challenges Regarding Difficult-to-Treat Areas: Therapeutic Decision and Effectiveness
by Alin Codrut Nicolescu, Marius-Anton Ionescu, Maria Magdalena Constantin, Ioan Ancuta, Sinziana Ionescu, Elena Niculet, Alin Laurentiu Tatu, Henner Zirpel and Diamant Thaçi
Life 2022, 12(12), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12122050 - 07 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3876
Abstract
Psoriasis is not optimally controlled in spite of newly developed treatments, possibly due to the difficulty of objectively quantifying the disease’s severity, considering the limitations of the clinical scores used in clinical practice. A major challenge addresses difficult-to-treat areas, especially in the absence [...] Read more.
Psoriasis is not optimally controlled in spite of newly developed treatments, possibly due to the difficulty of objectively quantifying the disease’s severity, considering the limitations of the clinical scores used in clinical practice. A major challenge addresses difficult-to-treat areas, especially in the absence of significant body surface involvement. It is controversial whether the severity evaluation of patients with several affected areas (having at least one difficult-to-treat area) should be done differently from current methods. Scores used for special areas (PSSI, NAPSI and ESIF) allow an accurate assessment of disease severity in difficult-to-treat areas, but the issue of whether to integrate these scores into PASI, BSA or DLQI remains. The review’s purpose resides in providing an overview of the main current issues in determining psoriasis severity in patients with psoriasis in difficult-to-treat areas and suggesting possible solutions for the optimal integration of the area assessment in current scores: severity can be either established according to the highest calculated score (PASI or PSSI or NAPSI or ESIF) or by adding a correction factor in the calculation of PASI for special areas. Full article
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Other

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10 pages, 2104 KiB  
Brief Report
Immunohistochemical Analysis of Adhesion Molecules E-Selectin, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 in Inflammatory Lesions of Atopic Dermatitis
by Sandra Marinović Kulišić, Marta Takahashi, Marta Himelreich Perić, Vedrana Mužić Radović and Ružica Jurakić Tončić
Life 2023, 13(4), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040933 - 02 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
E-selectin, ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) play a role in atopic dermatitis (AD). This study aimed to evaluate their expression in skin biopsy specimens of patients diagnosed with AD using an optimized computer program. A descriptive analysis and [...] Read more.
E-selectin, ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) play a role in atopic dermatitis (AD). This study aimed to evaluate their expression in skin biopsy specimens of patients diagnosed with AD using an optimized computer program. A descriptive analysis and comparison of digitally measured surface area and cell number were performed. The number of E-selectin-positive cells did not vary between the groups. In patients with AD, decreases of 1.2-fold for ICAM-1- and 1.3-fold for VCAM-1- positive cells were observed. The E-selectin-positive epidermal surface area increased (p < 0.001), while ICAM1 and VCAM1 decreased 2.5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, compared to controls. In the AD-affected skin, the E-selectin-positive endothelial area was 3.5-fold larger (p < 0.001), and the ICAM1-positive area was almost 4-fold larger (p < 0.001). E-selectin and ICAM-1 were expressed in the control dermis moderately and weakly, respectively. A strong E-selectin signal was detected in the AD-affected skin macrophages and a strong ICAM-1 signal in the dermal vessel endothelium. In the endothelial cells of AD-affected skin, no VCAM-1 signal could be found. E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 expression show significant disease-specific changes between AD-affected and control skin. The combination of digital analysis and a pathologist’s evaluation may present a valuable follow-up of AD activity parameters. Full article
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23 pages, 1065 KiB  
Systematic Review
Erosive Pustular Dermatosis: Delving into Etiopathogenesis and Management
by Shashank Bhargava, Sara Yumeen, Esther Henebeng and George Kroumpouzos
Life 2022, 12(12), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12122097 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Erosive pustular dermatosis (EPD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that usually affects mature individuals. It predominantly affects the scalp and can lead to scarring alopecia. Risk factors include actinic damage and androgenetic alopecia. A traumatic insult to the skin is considered a [...] Read more.
Erosive pustular dermatosis (EPD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that usually affects mature individuals. It predominantly affects the scalp and can lead to scarring alopecia. Risk factors include actinic damage and androgenetic alopecia. A traumatic insult to the skin is considered a vital trigger of the condition. EPD is a diagnosis of exclusion; thus, several neoplastic, infectious, vesiculobullous, and inflammatory conditions should be ruled out. Biopsy and clinicopathologic correlation are required to differentiate between EPD and these entities. A dysregulated, chronic immune response is considered central to the etiopathogenesis of EPD. We performed an evidence-based systematic review of the management options. There were predominantly studies with level IV and V evidence and only two with level III. Despite the responsiveness of EPD to potent topical steroids, such as clobetasol propionate, recurrence occurs after treatment withdrawal. With the available data, tacrolimus 0.1%, curettage-assisted aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy, and systemic retinoids can be considered second-line options for EPD with a role in maintenance regimens. However, controlled data and more powerful studies are needed to make solid recommendations. Full article
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10 pages, 4441 KiB  
Case Report
Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma Co-Existing with Mycosis Fungoides—A Case Report and Overview of the Literature
by Doriana Sorina Chilom, Simona Sorina Farcaș and Nicoleta Ioana Andreescu
Life 2022, 12(12), 2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12122067 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4327
Abstract
The existence of two sequential lymphomas, one localized and one systemic, either both with B or T lymphocytes, or one with B cells and one with T cells, with the same patient, is a known possibility. The second lymphoma is often induced by [...] Read more.
The existence of two sequential lymphomas, one localized and one systemic, either both with B or T lymphocytes, or one with B cells and one with T cells, with the same patient, is a known possibility. The second lymphoma is often induced by immunodepression or by the initial treatment. However, the existence of two cutaneous lymphomas with different cell lines, without systemic involvement, represents an uncommon situation. In this report, we describe the case of a 37-year-old man with an initial diagnosis of PMZBCL that over 10 months also developed a MF patch/plaque on the left leg. Full article
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5 pages, 461 KiB  
Case Report
Treatment of Severe Atopic Dermatitis with Dupilumab in Three Patients with Renal Diseases
by Caterina Foti, Paolo Romita, Francesca Ambrogio, Carlo Manno, Raffaele Filotico, Nicoletta Cassano, Gino Antonio Vena, Aurora De Marco, Gerardo Cazzato and Biagina Gisella Mennuni
Life 2022, 12(12), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12122002 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease that can affect patients’ quality of life. Dupilumab is the first biologic agent approved for the treatment of patients with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe AD and its mechanism of action is based on [...] Read more.
Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease that can affect patients’ quality of life. Dupilumab is the first biologic agent approved for the treatment of patients with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe AD and its mechanism of action is based on the inhibition of the interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 signaling. There are only a few data on the safety of dupilumab in AD patients with comorbidities, including kidney disorders. Materials and Methods: Descriptive retrospective series of three patients with chronic kidney diseases (Alport syndrome, IgA nephropathy, and hypertensive nephrosclerosis, respectively) receiving dupilumab for their concomitant severe AD. Results: Treatment with a standard dosage of dupilumab caused a relevant improvement of AD in all patients without any adverse events or worsening of renal function. In a patient with severe renal failure, the drug was effective and well tolerated without the need for any dose adjustments, also after the initiation of peritoneal dialytic treatment. Conclusion: Our case series suggests the use of dupilumab as an effective and safe treatment for AD patients suffering from renal diseases, although additional studies are required to confirm such preliminary findings. Full article
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10 pages, 1742 KiB  
Case Report
Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Associating Neuropsychiatric Manifestations with a Significant Impact on Disease Management—Case Report and Literature Review
by Fabiola Sârbu, Violeta Diana Oprea, Alin Laurențiu Tatu, Eduard Polea Drima, Violeta Claudia Bojincă and Aurelia Romila
Life 2022, 12(7), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12071059 - 15 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2309
Abstract
(1) Background: Genetic hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is clinically diagnosed. The clinical manifestations and lack of curative therapeutic interventions may lead to mental illnesses, mainly from the depression–anxiety spectrum. (2) Methods: We report the case of a 69-year-old patient diagnosed with HHT and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Genetic hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is clinically diagnosed. The clinical manifestations and lack of curative therapeutic interventions may lead to mental illnesses, mainly from the depression–anxiety spectrum. (2) Methods: We report the case of a 69-year-old patient diagnosed with HHT and associated psychiatric disorders; a comprehensive literature review was performed based on relevant keywords. (3) Results: Curaçao diagnostic criteria based the HHT diagnosis in our patient case at 63 years old around the surgical interventions for a basal cell carcinoma, after multiple episodes of epistaxis beginning in childhood, but with a long symptom-free period between 20 and 45 years of age. The anxiety–depressive disorder associated with nosocomephobia resulted in a delayed diagnosis and low adherence to medical monitoring. A comprehensive literature review revealed the scarcity of publications analyzing the impact of psychiatric disorders linked to this rare condition, frequently associating behavioral disengagement as a coping strategy, psychological distress, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. (4) Conclusions: As patients with HHT face traumatic experiences from disease-related causes as well as recurring emergency hospital visits, active monitoring for mental illnesses and psychological support should be considered as part of the initial medical approach and throughout the continuum of care. Full article
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