Biomarkers for Osteoarthritis Diseases

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 15820

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Flow Cytometry Lab, IRCCS San Raffaele Roma, 00166 Rome, Italy
Interests: immune activation; immune regulation; chronic inflammation; biomarkers; leukocytes; rehabilitation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Osteoarthritis represents one of the most frequent and invalidating musculoskeletal disorders, with a profound impact on quality of life and increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide, as its main risk factors are age and increased body mass index. Clinically, osteoarthritis is characterized by cartilage degradation of the articular joints, bone sclerosis, soft tissue damage and joint malfunction. Low-grade chronic inflammation in the joint is involved in disease progression. As it is an irreversible process, osteoarthritis is one of the major causes of chronic pain and disability, and it also has an economic impact, as its only end-point treatment is joint replacement surgery. The present challenge in dealing with osteoarthritis is to identify markers that are linked to disease physiopathology, in order to have tools to perform early diagnosis of the disease, to predict its evolution, to identify possible progressors among patients, to predict the efficacy of specific treatments in individuals and to monitor the effects of therapies.

A powerful biomarker should be non-invasive, easily and rapidly measured and inexpensive; it should be measured in easy-to-collect specimens (i.e., blood or urine); it should have a high sensitivity and specificity; it should change rapidly with disease progression or in response to treatments and it should be directly linked to disease pathophysiology.

This Special Issue will collect original research focused on the exploitation of new or already described biomarkers as helpful tools in decision making and patient management.

Dr. Laura Vitiello
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • osteoarthritis
  • biomarkers
  • cartilage
  • matrix
  • musculoskeletal disorders
  • synovium
  • inflammation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 2663 KiB  
Article
Serum Metabolomic Alteration in Rats with Osteoarthritis Treated with Palm Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Alone or in Combination with Glucosamine Sulphate
by Sophia Ogechi Ekeuku, Jen-Kit Tan, Hiba Murtadha Al-Saadi, Fairus Ahmad, Mohd Ramli Elvy Suhana, Azlan Mohd Arlamsyah, Fadhlullah Zuhair Japar Sidik, Juliana Abdul Hamid, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana and Kok-Yong Chin
Life 2023, 13(12), 2343; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13122343 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 850
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint condition with limited disease-modifying treatments currently. Palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) has been previously shown to be effective against OA, but its mechanism of action remains elusive. This study aims to compare serum metabolomic alteration in Sprague–Dawley rats [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint condition with limited disease-modifying treatments currently. Palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) has been previously shown to be effective against OA, but its mechanism of action remains elusive. This study aims to compare serum metabolomic alteration in Sprague–Dawley rats with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA which were treated with palm TRF, glucosamine sulphate, or a combination of both. This study was performed on thirty adult male rats, which were divided into normal control (n = 6) and OA groups (n = 24). The OA group received intra-articular injections of MIA and daily oral treatments of refined olive oil (vehicle, n = 6), palm TRF (100 mg/kg, n = 6), glucosamine sulphate (250 mg/kg, n = 6), or a combination of TRF and glucosamine (n = 6) for four weeks. Serum was collected at the study’s conclusion for metabolomic analysis. The findings revealed that MIA-induced OA influences amino acid metabolism, leading to changes in metabolites associated with the biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan as well as alterations in the metabolism of phenylalanine, tryptophan, arginine and proline. Supplementation with glucosamine sulphate, TRF, or both effectively reversed these metabolic changes induced by OA. The amelioration of metabolic effects induced by OA is linked to the therapeutic effects of TRF and glucosamine. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are direct or indirect in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers for Osteoarthritis Diseases)
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11 pages, 1007 KiB  
Article
Serum Metabolomic Signatures for Knee Cartilage Volume Loss over 10 Years in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
by Zikun Xie, Dawn Aitken, Ming Liu, Guanghua Lei, Graeme Jones, Flavia Cicuttini and Guangju Zhai
Life 2022, 12(6), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12060869 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disorder characterized by joint structural pathological changes with the loss of articular cartilage as its hallmark. Tools that can predict cartilage loss would help identify people at high risk, thus preventing OA development. The recent advance [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disorder characterized by joint structural pathological changes with the loss of articular cartilage as its hallmark. Tools that can predict cartilage loss would help identify people at high risk, thus preventing OA development. The recent advance of the metabolomics provides a new avenue to systematically investigate metabolic alterations in disease and identify biomarkers for early diagnosis. Using a metabolomics approach, the current study aimed to identify serum metabolomic signatures for predicting knee cartilage volume loss over 10 years in the Tasmania Older Adult Cohort (TASOAC). Cartilage volume was measured in the medial, lateral, and patellar compartments of the knee by MRI at baseline and follow-up. Changes in cartilage volume over 10 years were calculated as percentage change per year. Fasting serum samples collected at 2.6-year follow-up were metabolomically profiled using the TMIC Prime Metabolomics Profiling Assay and pairwise metabolite ratios as the proxies of enzymatic reaction were calculated. Linear regression was used to identify metabolite ratio(s) associated with change in cartilage volume in each of the knee compartments with adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. The significance level was defined at α = 3.0 × 10−6 to control multiple testing. A total of 344 participants (51% females) were included in the study. The mean age was 62.83 ± 6.13 years and the mean BMI was 27.48 ± 4.41 kg/m2 at baseline. The average follow-up time was 10.84 ± 0.66 years. Cartilage volume was reduced by 1.34 ± 0.72%, 1.06 ± 0.58%, and 0.98 ± 0.46% per year in the medial, lateral, and patellar compartments, respectively. Our data showed that the increased ratios of hexadecenoylcarnitine (C16:1) to tetradecanoylcarnitine (C14) and C16:1 to dodecanoylcarnitine (C12) were associated with 0.12 ± 0.02% reduction per year in patellar cartilage volume (both p < 3.03 × 10−6). In conclusion, our data suggested that alteration of long chain fatty acid β-oxidation was involved in patellar cartilage loss. While confirmation is needed, the ratios of C16:1 to C14 and C12 might be used to predict long-term cartilage loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers for Osteoarthritis Diseases)
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Review

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19 pages, 779 KiB  
Review
Biomarkers of Osteoarthritis—A Narrative Review on Causal Links with Metabolic Syndrome
by Samuel James Lynskey, Marc Julian Macaluso, Stephen D. Gill, Sean L. McGee and Richard S. Page
Life 2023, 13(3), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030730 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4568
Abstract
Development of OA (OA) is multifactorial and is strongly associated with risk factors such as aging, trauma, metabolic disorders, and obesity. Metabolic Syndrome (MetS)-associated OA, collectively coined MetS-OA, is an increasingly recognized entity in which metabolic disorders and low-grade inflammation play a key [...] Read more.
Development of OA (OA) is multifactorial and is strongly associated with risk factors such as aging, trauma, metabolic disorders, and obesity. Metabolic Syndrome (MetS)-associated OA, collectively coined MetS-OA, is an increasingly recognized entity in which metabolic disorders and low-grade inflammation play a key mechanistic role in the disruption of joint homeostasis and cartilage degradation. Although there have been enormous efforts to discover biomarkers of MetS and OA, studies investigating a pathophysiological link between MetS and OA are relatively limited, and no serum blood marker has proved diagnostic so far. OA biomarkers that are necessary to discriminate and diagnose early disease remain to be elicited, explained in part by limited prospective studies, and therefore limited tools available to utilize in any prognostic capacity. Biomarker validation projects have been established by the Biomarker Consortium to determine biochemical markers demonstrating predictive validity for knee OA. Given that the metabolic constituents of MetS are treatable to varying extents, it stands to reason that treating these, and monitoring such treatment, may help to mitigate deleterious links with OA development. This narrative review will describe the current state of biomarker identification and utility in OA associated with MetS. We discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of disease according to constituent pathologies of MetS and how identification of biomarkers may guide future investigation of novel targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers for Osteoarthritis Diseases)
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17 pages, 658 KiB  
Review
Radiographic Biomarkers for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Review
by Ahmad Almhdie-Imjabbar, Hechmi Toumi and Eric Lespessailles
Life 2023, 13(1), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010237 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
Conventional radiography remains the most widely available imaging modality in clinical practice in knee osteoarthritis. Recent research has been carried out to develop novel radiographic biomarkers to establish the diagnosis and to monitor the progression of the disease. The growing number of publications [...] Read more.
Conventional radiography remains the most widely available imaging modality in clinical practice in knee osteoarthritis. Recent research has been carried out to develop novel radiographic biomarkers to establish the diagnosis and to monitor the progression of the disease. The growing number of publications on this topic over time highlights the necessity of a renewed review. Herein, we propose a narrative review of a selection of original full-text articles describing human studies on radiographic imaging biomarkers used for the prediction of knee osteoarthritis-related outcomes. To achieve this, a PubMed database search was used. A total of 24 studies were obtained and then classified based on three outcomes: (1) prediction of radiographic knee osteoarthritis incidence, (2) knee osteoarthritis progression and (3) knee arthroplasty risk. Results showed that numerous studies have reported the relevance of joint space narrowing score, Kellgren–Lawrence score and trabecular bone texture features as potential bioimaging markers in the prediction of the three outcomes. Performance results of reviewed prediction models were presented in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. However, fair and valid comparisons of the models’ performance were not possible due to the lack of a unique definition of each of the three outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers for Osteoarthritis Diseases)
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14 pages, 1130 KiB  
Review
Osteoarthritis and microRNAs: Do They Provide Novel Insights into the Pathophysiology of This Degenerative Disorder?
by Stefan Iulian Stanciugelu, Claudia Homorogan, Cosmin Selaru, Jenel Marian Patrascu, Jenel Marian Patrascu, Raymond Stoica, Diana Nitusca and Catalin Marian
Life 2022, 12(11), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111914 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent degenerative joint diseases in older adults and a leading cause of disability. Recent research studies have evidenced the importance of mi-croRNAs (miRs) in the pathogenesis of OA. In the present review, we focused on current [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent degenerative joint diseases in older adults and a leading cause of disability. Recent research studies have evidenced the importance of mi-croRNAs (miRs) in the pathogenesis of OA. In the present review, we focused on current literature findings on dysregulated miRs involved in the pathophysiology of OA. From the 35 case-control studies including OA patients compared to healthy controls, a total of 54 human miRs were identified to be dysregulated in OA. In total, 41 miRs were involved in the pathophysiological processes of OA, including apoptosis, inflammation, and proliferation, having either a protective or a progressive role in OA. The discovery of altered miR levels in OA patients compared to healthy controls determines a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of OA and could open novel horizons in the field of orthopedics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers for Osteoarthritis Diseases)
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11 pages, 281 KiB  
Review
Biomarkers for Osteoarthritis Diseases
by Jacob A. Braaten, Mark T. Banovetz, Nicholas N. DePhillipo, Filippo Familiari, Raffaella Russo, Nicholas I. Kennedy and Robert F. LaPrade
Life 2022, 12(11), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111799 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Growing evidence has revealed the pivotal role of inflammatory biomarkers in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. There is significant interest in the prognostic value of select biomarkers, given the potential for early identification and treatment of patients at risk of osteoarthritis prior to the [...] Read more.
Growing evidence has revealed the pivotal role of inflammatory biomarkers in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. There is significant interest in the prognostic value of select biomarkers, given the potential for early identification and treatment of patients at risk of osteoarthritis prior to the development of irreversible clinical disease. Clinical trials of novel therapeutics that disrupt the inflammatory pathways of osteoarthritis are also ongoing. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on key biomarkers within the context of osteoarthritis pathogenesis, clinical symptom development, and treatment capabilities. Multiple recent studies have established biomarkers that signal the existence of osteoarthritis pathology and the development of clinical symptomology. However, prior to implementation in clinical practice, additional research is required to precisely define the prognostic value for numerous biomarkers and standardize their measurement. Biomarker-driven investigations represent a promising avenue for the early diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers for Osteoarthritis Diseases)

Other

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17 pages, 3549 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effectiveness of Dry Needling in Patients with Hip or Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Sandra Jiménez-del-Barrio, Ricardo Medrano-de-la-Fuente, Ignacio Hernando-Garijo, María Teresa Mingo-Gómez, Elena Estébanez-de-Miguel and Luis Ceballos-Laita
Life 2022, 12(10), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101575 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common degenerative joint diseases. The main symptoms of the osteoarthritis have been linked to the presence of myofascial trigger points in the soft tissues. Dry needing (DN) is the most investigated technique for the treatment of [...] Read more.
Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common degenerative joint diseases. The main symptoms of the osteoarthritis have been linked to the presence of myofascial trigger points in the soft tissues. Dry needing (DN) is the most investigated technique for the treatment of myofascial trigger points. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of DN in pain and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis in the short-, medium- and long-term. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, PEDro, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases were searched in September 2022. Randomized controlled trials involving DN compared to non-pharmacological interventions, sham techniques or no additional treatment were selected. Quality of the studies was assessed with PEDro scale and risk of bias with Cochrane Collaboration tool. Meta-analyses were conducted using fixed or random effects models according to the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Results: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis involving 291 patients with osteoarthritis. The methodological quality of the included studies ranged from fair to high. DN showed significant improvements in pain intensity (SMD = −0.76; 95% CI: −1.24, −0.29; I2: 74%) and physical function (SMD = −0.98; 95% CI: −1.54, −0.42; I2: 75%) in the short-term. No differences were found in the medium- or long-term. The risk of bias, heterogeneity, and imprecision of the results downgraded the level of evidence to very low. Conclusions: Very low-quality evidence suggests a positive effect of DN for reducing pain intensity and improving physical function in the short term in patients with osteoarthritis. Further investigation is needed to determine a medium- and long-term effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers for Osteoarthritis Diseases)
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