Effects of Environmental Factors on Challenges of Plant Breeding

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 July 2024 | Viewed by 3613

Special Issue Editors

Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm (IAREF), University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 12, 4400 Nyiregyháza, Hungary
Interests: plant breeding; crop improvement; plant biotechnology; plant biology; food science; evolutionary biology; molecular biology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm (IAREF), University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 12, H-4400 Nyíregyháza, Hungary
Interests: plant breeding; crop improvement; plant biotechnology; plant biology; food science; plant physiology; plant stress; agronomy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate change, including global warming, has led to new challenges as well as new opportunities in agriculture and plant breeding. In addition to emerging new biotic risks, including invasive weeds, insects and diseases that threaten many plants, abiotic stressors such as drought and high temperatures are also expected to increase. Plant breeders have to fit their breeding aims to mitigate these harmful effects. However, new conditions have created new facilities in expanding the growing area of some field and horticultural crops, and/or growing season, especially the sowing date.

Due to all of the above, autumn-sown varieties of traditionally spring-sown plants are playing an increasingly important role in crop production, especially, but not restricted to, under a temperate climate. Autumn-sown crops—compared to spring varieties—can be characterized by earlier ripening, lower production risk, higher yield and trouble-free harvesting.

In this Special Issue, we aim to provide a platform for original research papers, short communications, and reviews related to breeding results, including conventional (field, green house, laboratory) and new (molecular genetics, marker assisted selection, etc.) breeding methods. Studies on the physiological background of plants responses to an altered environment (low temperature, frost, photoperiod, etc.) related to winter hardiness are highlighted. High-quality comparison of the performance of autumn/spring-sown genotypes with different sowing dates and informative descriptions of new cultivars, including new cultivation technology, are also welcome, in order to spread valuable information about varieties that can be sown in autumn.

Dr. Katalin Magyar-Tábori
Dr. Nóra Mendler-Drienyovszki
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • plant breeding
  • winter hardiness
  • sowing time
  • adaptation to cold/frost
  • physiology of cold/frost tolerance
  • snow cover

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 1459 KiB  
Article
Combining Genetic and Phenotypic Analyses for Detecting Bread Wheat Genotypes of Drought Tolerance through Multivariate Analysis Techniques
Life 2024, 14(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14020183 - 25 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Successfully promoting drought tolerance in wheat genotypes will require several procedures, such as field experimentations, measuring relevant traits, using analysis tools of high precision and efficiency, and taking a complementary approach that combines analyses of phenotyping and genotyping at once. The aim of [...] Read more.
Successfully promoting drought tolerance in wheat genotypes will require several procedures, such as field experimentations, measuring relevant traits, using analysis tools of high precision and efficiency, and taking a complementary approach that combines analyses of phenotyping and genotyping at once. The aim of this study is to assess the genetic diversity of 60 genotypes using SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers collected from several regions of the world and select 13 of them as more genetically diverse to be re-evaluated under field conditions to study drought stress by estimating 30 agro-physio-biochemical traits. Genetic parameters and multivariate analysis were used to compare genotype traits and identify which traits are increasingly efficient at detecting wheat genotypes of drought tolerance. Hierarchical cluster (HC) analysis of SSR markers divided the genotypes into five main categories of drought tolerance: four high tolerant (HT), eight tolerant (T), nine moderate tolerant (MT), six sensitive (S), and 33 high sensitive (HS). Six traits exhibit a combination of high heritability (>60%) and genetic gain (>20%). Analyses of principal components and stepwise multiple linear regression together identified nine traits (grain yield, flag leaf area, stomatal conductance, plant height, relative turgidity, glycine betaine, polyphenol oxidase, chlorophyll content, and grain-filling duration) as a screening tool that effectively detects the variation among the 13 genotypes used. HC analysis of the nine traits divided genotypes into three main categories: T, MT, and S, representing three, five, and five genotypes, respectively, and were completely identical in linear discriminant analysis. But in the case of SSR markers, they were classified into three main categories: T, MT, and S, representing five, three, and five genotypes, respectively, which are both significantly correlated as per the Mantel test. The SSR markers were associated with nine traits, which are considered an assistance tool in the selection process for drought tolerance. So, this study is useful and has successfully detected several agro-physio-biochemical traits, associated SSR markers, and some drought-tolerant genotypes, coupled with our knowledge of the phenotypic and genotypic basis of wheat genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Environmental Factors on Challenges of Plant Breeding)
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18 pages, 4415 KiB  
Article
Death and Dying: Grapevine Survival, Cold Hardiness, and BLUPs and Winter BLUEs in North Dakota Vineyards
Life 2024, 14(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14020178 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 544
Abstract
A total of fourteen diverse, interspecific hybrid grapevines (Vitis spp.) were evaluated for their adaptability to North Dakota winter conditions using differential thermal analysis (DTA) of low-temperature exotherms (LTE) and bud cross-sectional assessment of survival techniques. This research was conducted in two [...] Read more.
A total of fourteen diverse, interspecific hybrid grapevines (Vitis spp.) were evaluated for their adaptability to North Dakota winter conditions using differential thermal analysis (DTA) of low-temperature exotherms (LTE) and bud cross-sectional assessment of survival techniques. This research was conducted in two vineyard locations in eastern North Dakota. This work demonstrates the use of DTA for monitoring and selecting cultivars capable of withstanding sub-zero temperatures. These results were assessed for quantitative genetic traits. High heritability was observed for bud LTE traits and may thus be a useful target for cold hardiness breeding programs; however, it is necessary to ensure that variance is reduced when pooling multiple sample events. After DTA sampling, grapevines were assessed for survival of primary and secondary dormant buds using cross-sectional visual evaluation of death. ‘Valiant’ had the greatest primary bud survival (68%), followed by ‘Frontenac gris’, ‘Crimson Pearl’, and ‘King of the North’. These varieties are among those with potential for production in eastern North Dakota’s environment. The newly evaluated relationships between traits and the heritability of DTA results provide valuable tools to grapevine breeders for the development of cold-tolerant genotypes for future climatic challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Environmental Factors on Challenges of Plant Breeding)
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0 pages, 4859 KiB  
Article
Leaf Morphological and Epidermal Traits Variability along Environmental Gradients in Ten Natural Populations of Pistacia lentiscus
Life 2023, 13(7), 1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071617 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1462
Abstract
The species belonging to the genus Pistacia possess ecological, economic, and medicinal value. They show a very high ecological plasticity. This research is a contribution to the study of the intraspecific diversity and variability of 10 populations of Pistacia lentiscus in different bioclimates. [...] Read more.
The species belonging to the genus Pistacia possess ecological, economic, and medicinal value. They show a very high ecological plasticity. This research is a contribution to the study of the intraspecific diversity and variability of 10 populations of Pistacia lentiscus in different bioclimates. Nine locations in Algeria and one site in France have been selected in order to understand the strategies developed by this species under extreme conditions, including altitude and aridity, and to identify the adaptive processes that can be observed based on the morphological and ultrastructural features of the leaf. As a result of this research, we have collected a large quantity of important information on morphological and microphytodermal leaf variability for the ten studied populations. The statistical analyses showed a very important difference in the studied characteristics between these populations. It has been demonstrated that environmental factors also have a significant impact on the heterogeneity of most measured leaf features. Moreover, the observations with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) enabled us to highlight new characteristics of the studied species, such as the glandular trichomes on the leaflets and embedded stomata in the epidermis. These criteria could supplement the existing morphological characteristics used in the systematic classification of the Pistacia genus. Overall, the studied species have shown xeromorphy features, which give them the opportunity to be used in desertification mitigation programs, due to their ability to withstand conditions of extreme aridity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Environmental Factors on Challenges of Plant Breeding)
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