Trends and Outlooks in Neurogastroenterology

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (16 March 2023) | Viewed by 3387

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Gastroenterology and Infectious Disease, University Hospital OWL, Campus Lippe, University of Bielefeld, Röntgenstrasse 18, 32756 Bielefeld, Detmold, Germany
Interests: neurogastroenterology; intestinal microbiome; functional GI disorders; motility; visceral pain; enteric nervous system; brain gut interaction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neurogastroenterology, along with oncology and robotics, is expected to see the greatest momentum in innovation and translation in the field of internal medicine. This is particularly linked to the increasing deciphering of the importance of the intestinal microbiome for health and disease. However, the classic areas of neurogastroenterology such as gastrointestinal dysfunction, irritable bowel syndrome, visceral pain perception, and the multiple intersections of "brain–gut interaction" will also help define new areas of individualized precision medicine. In particular, the interaction of the intestinal microbiome and the enteric nervous system and its importance for the genesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease or dementia, is of general interest. However, also technical innovations, such as optogenetic and chemogenetic endoscopic intravital endoscopy open new diagnostic spaces for neurogastroenterology. Combining these new possibilities with the fields of psychobiology and nutritional medicine, which is mandatory in neurogastroenterological diseases, it is easy to see the special importance of the field of nerogastroenterology in these times. We invite you to participate in this dynamic discussion with your scientific contributions from the broad field of neurogastroenterology.

Dr. Johannes J. Tebbe
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • neurogastroenterology
  • intestinal microbiome
  • functional GI disorders
  • motility
  • visceral pain
  • enteric nervous system
  • brain gut interaction

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 877 KiB  
Article
Association between Clinical and Histopathological Findings in Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia Type B: An Advance towards Its Definition as a Disease
by Anderson Cesar Gonçalves, Isabelle Stefan de Faria Oliveira, Pedro Tadao Hamamoto Filho, Erika Veruska Paiva Ortolan, Simone Antunes Terra, Maria Aparecida Marchesan Rodrigues and Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda Lourenção
Life 2023, 13(5), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13051175 - 12 May 2023
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Abstract
Introduction: Intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (IND-B) is a controversial entity that affects the submucosal nerve plexus of the distal intestine. The lack of definition of the causal relationship between histological findings and clinical symptoms has been identified as the primary point to [...] Read more.
Introduction: Intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (IND-B) is a controversial entity that affects the submucosal nerve plexus of the distal intestine. The lack of definition of the causal relationship between histological findings and clinical symptoms has been identified as the primary point to be elucidated in the scientific investigation related to IND-B, which is essential for it to be considered a disease. Objective: To investigate the relationship between histopathological findings and symptoms in a series of patients with IND-B. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with histopathological diagnosis of IND-B, according to the Frankfurt Consensus (1990), who underwent surgical treatment through colorectal resections were included. Data from medical records regarding the clinical picture of the patients at the time of diagnosis, including the intestinal symptom index (ISI) and a detailed histopathological analysis of the rectal specimens, were retrieved. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, applying the principal components method for clusters with Varimax rotation. Results: Two factors were determined: the first, determined by histopathological and clinical variables, and the second, composed of the main symptoms presented in patients with IND-B, including ISI. Factorial rotation showed the association between the two factors and, through a graph, demonstrated the proximity between ISI values and histopathological alterations. Conclusion: There was evidence of an association between the clinical features presented by patients with IND-B and the histopathological findings of the rectal samples. These results support the understanding of IND-B as a disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Outlooks in Neurogastroenterology)
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11 pages, 1547 KiB  
Article
Association between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Subsequent Development of Restless Legs Syndrome and Parkinson’s Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 35,988 Primary Care Patients in Germany
by Sven H. Loosen, Kaneschka Yaqubi, Petra May, Marcel Konrad, Celina Gollop, Tom Luedde, Karel Kostev and Christoph Roderburg
Life 2023, 13(4), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040897 - 28 Mar 2023
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Abstract
Background: In addition to the gastrointestinal symptoms, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is associated with extraintestinal manifestations, including neurological disorders, which are gaining increasing attention due to a recently increased focus on the gut–brain axis. [...] Read more.
Background: In addition to the gastrointestinal symptoms, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is associated with extraintestinal manifestations, including neurological disorders, which are gaining increasing attention due to a recently increased focus on the gut–brain axis. Here we aim to evaluate the association between IBD and restless legs syndrome (RLS) as well as Parkinson’s disease (PD) in a cohort of primary care patients in Germany. Methods: The study included 17,994 individuals with a diagnosis of IBD (7544 with CD and 10,450 with UC) and 17,994 propensity-score-matched individuals without IBD from the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA). An initial diagnosis of RLS or PD was assessed as a function of IBD. Associations between CD and UC with RLS and PD were analyzed using Cox regression models. Results: During the 10-year observation period, 3.6% of CD patients vs. 1.9% of matched non-IBD pairs (p < 0.001) and 3.2% of UC patients vs. 2.7% of matched pairs (p < 0.001) were diagnosed with RLS. The results were confirmed by Cox regression analysis, which showed a significant association between UC (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.02–1.55) and CD (HR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.23–2.09) and subsequent RLS. The incidence of PD in IBD patients was not significantly increased. However, we observed a non-significant trend towards a higher incidence of PD in male patients with CD but not UC (HR: 1.55; 95%CI: 0.98–2.45, p = 0.064). Conclusions: The present analysis suggests a significant association between IBD and the subsequent development of RLS. These findings should stimulate further pathophysiological research and may eventually lead to specific screening measures in patients with IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Outlooks in Neurogastroenterology)
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Review

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20 pages, 1052 KiB  
Review
Neuropancreatology: The Nervous System and Pain Management in Pancreatic Diseases
by Alberto Nicoletti, Federica Vitale, Mattia Paratore, Giuseppe Quero, Marcantonio Negri, Enrico Celestino Nista, Sergio Alfieri, Antonio Gasbarrini and Lorenzo Zileri Dal Verme
Life 2024, 14(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14030299 - 23 Feb 2024
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Abstract
The intricate network of the pancreatic nervous system plays a fundamental role in physiologic functions of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Several pancreatic diseases affect the normal functionality of the pancreatic nervous system. This chronic derangement leads to anatomical alterations, such as neural [...] Read more.
The intricate network of the pancreatic nervous system plays a fundamental role in physiologic functions of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Several pancreatic diseases affect the normal functionality of the pancreatic nervous system. This chronic derangement leads to anatomical alterations, such as neural hypertrophy and increased nerve density. Perineural invasion is a prominent feature of pancreatic cancer, contributing to cancer progression and metastasis. Despite the fact that these pathogenic mechanisms are still incompletely studied and understood, the constant occurrence of these alterations highlights their importance in the pathophysiology of the pancreatic diseases. The occurrence of anatomical changes is strictly linked to the appearance of pain. Pancreatic pain has peculiar features, and its management is complex in clinical practice. In the present review, the evidence on lifestyle, pharmacological and interventional approaches for the management of pancreatic pain is presented. Analgesic therapy is the cornerstone of pain treatment. However, it is important to identify the individual characteristic of the patients and personalize the approach to pain management. Nevertheless, the incomplete efficacy of these strategies makes this field an area of unmet needs. The study of neuroplasticity is crucial to understand the mechanisms that regulate the pathophysiology of pancreatic diseases. Several trials testing new drugs with specific neuromodulatory effects are ongoing. However, further studies are needed to investigate crucial targets to develop novel therapies for the modulation of the nervous system and the prevention of complications of pancreatic diseases. This comprehensive review summarizes the importance of the nervous system in pancreatic diseases with a special focus on its anatomy and physiology, its pathophysiological features and clinical relevance in pancreatic disease, the treatment of pancreatic pain, and the identification of future trends of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Outlooks in Neurogastroenterology)
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