Evolving Concepts in Respiratory Disorders: From Molecular Mechanisms to Novel Insights in Diagnosis and Management of Concurrent Comorbid Condition

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 February 2023) | Viewed by 8360

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Dipartimento di Medicina Traslazionale, Università della Campania L. Vanvitelli, 80145 Naples, Italy
2. CEINGE-Biotecnologie Avanzate, Scarl, Via Gaetano Salvatore 486, 80145 Naples, Italy
Interests: lung cancer; oncolytic viruses; cystic fibrosis; COPD; metabolomics; oxidative stress and redox signalling

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Guest Editor
Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 80145 Naples, Italy
Interests: COVID-19; interstitial lung diseases; metabolic dysfuntion in chronic respiratory disorders
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Guest Editor
1. Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, Federico II University of Naples, 80138 Naples, Italy
2. CEINGE-Biotecnologie Avanzate, Scarl, Via Gaetano Salvatore 486, 80145 Naples, Italy
Interests: COVID-19; cystic fibrosis; congenital defects of cholesterol metabolism; metabolomics; congenital diarrhea
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mortality from respiratory disease is constantly increasing year after year representing today the third main cause of death worldwide. In addition, subjects affected by lung pathologies often develop other chronic and long-term comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and others, making patient management extremely challenging.

Although many steps forward have been made in the comprehension of chronic respiratory disorders, expanding the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms as well as the development and identification of new biomarkers that can help in early diagnosis is an urgent matter that without any doubt would improve their specific treatment.

Furthermore, advances in molecular and cellular biology are making it possible to develop approaches focused on patient disease characterization opening the era of personalized medicine, where therapies can be tailored making them unique for each patient.

In this Special Issue entitled " Evolving Concepts in Respiratory Disorders: From Molecular Mechanisms to Novel Insights in Diagnosis and Management of Concurrent Comorbid Condition" we would like to include research articles that could provide a step forward in the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms underlying all lung diseases such as lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), and others. Furthermore, we welcome research articles that could provide an advance in the understanding of the connection between lung pathologies and the recurrent comorbid conditions associated. We also welcome reviews with the aim to keep the readers up to date on the most recent advances in the field.

Dr. Filippo Scialò
Dr. Fabio Perrotta
Prof. Dr. Monica Gelzo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • lung disease
  • diagnosis
  • COPD
  • interstitial lung diseases
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • comorbidities in respiratory disorder

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Different Pediatric Acute Care Settings Influence Bronchiolitis Management: A 10-Year Retrospective Study
by Carlotta Biagi, Ludovica Betti, Elisa Manieri, Arianna Dondi, Luca Pierantoni, Ramsiya Ramanathan, Daniele Zama, Monia Gennari and Marcello Lanari
Life 2023, 13(3), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030635 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Bronchiolitis is the main cause of hospitalization in infants. Diagnosis is clinical, and treatment is based on hydration and oxygen therapy. Nevertheless, unnecessary diagnostic tests and pharmacological treatments are still very common. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate whether the setting of bronchiolitis [...] Read more.
Bronchiolitis is the main cause of hospitalization in infants. Diagnosis is clinical, and treatment is based on hydration and oxygen therapy. Nevertheless, unnecessary diagnostic tests and pharmacological treatments are still very common. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate whether the setting of bronchiolitis care influences diagnostic and therapeutic choices. The management of 3201 infants, referred to our Italian Tertiary Care Center for bronchiolitis between 2010 and 2020, was analyzed by comparing children discharged from the pediatric emergency department (PEDd group) undergoing short-stay observation (SSO group) and hospitalization. Antibiotic use in PEDd, SSO, and ward was 59.3% vs. 51.6% vs. 49.7%, respectively (p < 0.001); inhaled salbutamol was mainly administered in PEDd and during SSO (76.1% and 82.2% vs. 38.3% in ward; p < 0.001); the use of corticosteroids was higher during SSO and hospitalization (59.6% and 49.1% vs. 39.0% in PEDd; p < 0.001); inhaled adrenaline was administered mostly in hospitalized infants (53.5% vs. 2.5% in SSO and 0.2% in PEDd; p < 0.001); chest X-ray use in PEDd, SSO, and ward was 30.3% vs. 49.0% vs. 70.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, undergoing SSO was found to be an independent risk factor for the use of systemic corticosteroid and salbutamol; being discharged at home was found to be a risk factor for antibiotic prescription; undergoing SSO and hospitalization resulted as independent risk factors for the use of CXR. Our study highlights that different pediatric acute care settings could influence the management of bronchiolitis. Factors influencing practice may include a high turnover of PED medical staff, personal reassurance, and parental pressure. Full article

Review

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23 pages, 790 KiB  
Review
Targeting Progression in Pulmonary Fibrosis: An Overview of Underlying Mechanisms, Molecular Biomarkers, and Therapeutic Intervention
by Vito D’Agnano, Domenica Francesca Mariniello, Michela Ruotolo, Gianluca Quarcio, Alessandro Moriello, Stefano Conte, Antonio Sorrentino, Stefano Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Andrea Bianco and Fabio Perrotta
Life 2024, 14(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14020229 - 6 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Interstitial lung diseases comprise a heterogenous range of diffuse lung disorders, potentially resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. While idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has been recognized as the paradigm of a progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease, other conditions with a progressive fibrosing phenotype characterized by a [...] Read more.
Interstitial lung diseases comprise a heterogenous range of diffuse lung disorders, potentially resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. While idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has been recognized as the paradigm of a progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease, other conditions with a progressive fibrosing phenotype characterized by a significant deterioration of the lung function may lead to a burden of significant symptoms, a reduced quality of life, and increased mortality, despite treatment. There is now evidence indicating that some common underlying biological mechanisms can be shared among different chronic fibrosing disorders; therefore, different biomarkers for disease-activity monitoring and prognostic assessment are under evaluation. Thus, understanding the common pathways that induce the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, comprehending the diversity of these diseases, and identifying new molecular markers and potential therapeutic targets remain highly crucial assignments. The purpose of this review is to examine the main pathological mechanisms regulating the progression of fibrosis in interstitial lung diseases and to provide an overview of potential biomarker and therapeutic options for patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Full article
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17 pages, 602 KiB  
Review
Cardiovascular Diseases in COPD: From Diagnosis and Prevalence to Therapy
by Anastasia Papaporfyriou, Konstantinos Bartziokas, Daniela Gompelmann, Marco Idzko, Evangelia Fouka, Stavrina Zaneli, Petros Bakakos, Stelios Loukides and Andriana I. Papaioannou
Life 2023, 13(6), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061299 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4737
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered one of the leading causes of mortality. Cardiovascular comorbidities are diagnosed often in COPD patients, not only because of the common risk factors these two diseases share, but also because of the systemic inflammation which characterizes [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered one of the leading causes of mortality. Cardiovascular comorbidities are diagnosed often in COPD patients, not only because of the common risk factors these two diseases share, but also because of the systemic inflammation which characterizes COPD and has deleterious effects in the cardiovascular system. The comorbid cardiovascular diseases in COPD result in several difficulties in the holistic treatment of these patients and affect outcomes such as morbidity and mortality. Several studies have reported that mortality from cardiovascular causes is common among COPD patients, while the risk for acute cardiovascular events increases during COPD exacerbations and remains high for a long time even after recovery. In this review, we focus on the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in COPD patients, presenting the evidence regarding the interaction of the pathophysiological pathways which characterize each disease. Furthermore, we summarize information regarding the effects of cardiovascular treatment on COPD outcomes and vice versa. Finally, we present the current evidence regarding the impact of cardiovascular comorbidities on exacerbations, quality of life and survival of COPD patients. Full article
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