Land Use and Climate Change

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Land–Climate Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 45317

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Interests: land use/land cover change; ecosystem services; food security; ecological livability; urbanization
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Guest Editor
Department of Combat Desertification, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Interests: climatology; climate change; agrometeorology; IPCC LA(SREX-SRCCL-AR6)

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Guest Editor
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe, Germany
Interests: crop; cropping systems; soil fertility; sustainable agriculture; climate change and agriculture; field experimentation; GHG emissions; water stress

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Paris Agreement adopted in 2015 reset its long-term goal for countries to limit the global mean temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Moving the goal from 2 to 1.5 °C means great efforts should be taken to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and thus, more strict environmental management regulations on different sectors are required to make further contributions to reducing GHG emissions. GHG emissions increase induced by land use change and agricultural activities is found to be one of the contributors to climate change. It is estimated that from 1990 to 2012, GHG emissions generated by land use change and agricultural activities accounted for one quarter of the total global emissions, mainly from deforestation, animal feeding, fertilizer use, and land use management.

To achieve the 1.5 °C limit goal, governments, industrials, and organizations have been motivated to promote sound environment manage regulations/policies to reduce GHG emissions. Environment committees or agencies of different countries have launched several environmental and climate protection strategies to reduce carbon emission. As an important sector closely related to climate change, land also plays a crucial role in achieving the targets of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Clarifying the relationship between land use, climate change and human activities, and exploring the complex interrelationship and feedback among the climate system, land system and socioeconomic system at different scales are of great significance for climate governance, sustainable land management, and sustainable development. Therefore, we invite academics and researchers to submit proposals for papers that deal but are not limited to with the following topics:

  • Land use and land cover change
  • Climate change
  • Land–atmosphere interactions
  • Scenarios and potential future on coupling with climate change
  • Land-based mitigation and adaptation
  • Sustainable land management approach
  • Land governance for low carbon management
  • Environmental management regulations/policies


Prof. Dr. Xiangzheng Deng
Dr. Mohammad Rahimi
Dr. Baldur Janz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • land use and land cover change
  • climate change
  • land–climate interactions
  • land based mitigation and adaptation
  • scenario analysis
  • sustainable land management

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 7840 KiB  
Article
Flood Risk Assessment under Land Use and Climate Change in Wuhan City of the Yangtze River Basin, China
by Zhihui Li, Keyu Song and Lu Peng
Land 2021, 10(8), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10080878 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3883
Abstract
Frequently occurring flood disasters caused by extreme climate and urbanization processes have become the most common natural hazard and pose a great threat to human society. Therefore, urban flood risk assessment is of great significance for disaster mitigation and prevention. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Frequently occurring flood disasters caused by extreme climate and urbanization processes have become the most common natural hazard and pose a great threat to human society. Therefore, urban flood risk assessment is of great significance for disaster mitigation and prevention. In this paper, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to quantify the spatiotemporal variations in flood risk in Wuhan during 2000–2018. A comprehensive flood risk assessment index system was constructed from the hazard, sensitivity, and vulnerability components with seven indices. The results showed that the central urban area, especially the area in the west bank of the Yangtze river, had high risk due to its high flood sensitivity that was determined by land use type and high vulnerability with dense population and per unit GDP. Specifically, the Jianghan, Qiaokou, Jiangan, and Wuchang districts had the highest flood risk, more than 60% of whose area was in medium or above-medium risk regions. During 2000–2018, the flood risk overall showed an increasing trend, with Hongshan district increasing the most, and the year of 2010 was identified as a turning point for rapid risk increase. In addition, the comparison between the risk maps and actual historical inundation point records showed good agreement, indicating that the assessment framework and method proposed in this study can be useful to assist flood mitigation and management, and relevant policy recommendations were proposed based on the assessment results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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17 pages, 2305 KiB  
Article
Climate Change and Adaptive Management: Case Study in Agriculture, Forestry and Pastoral Areas
by Xin Xuan, Bing Liu and Fan Zhang
Land 2021, 10(8), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10080832 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2477
Abstract
Adaptive management has very important practical significance for climate change adaptation and will play a great role in climate change risk mitigation in agricultural, forestry, and pastoral areas of China. Based on the theory of adaptive management, this paper selects Yuanping City from [...] Read more.
Adaptive management has very important practical significance for climate change adaptation and will play a great role in climate change risk mitigation in agricultural, forestry, and pastoral areas of China. Based on the theory of adaptive management, this paper selects Yuanping City from Shanxi Province, Qingyuan County from Liaoning Province, and Kulun Banner from Inner Mongolia as representative cases in agricultural, forestry, and pastoral areas, respectively, to carry out field research, and it uses 1970–2017 meteorological station data to apply vulnerability assessment and climate element change trend analysis, combined with the meteorological hazards data, and explore the adaptive management measures for agricultural, forestry, and pastoral areas in China. The conclusions are as follows: (1) the vulnerability of precipitation in Yuanping is high, the increase in temperature and drought and floods are the most important factors affecting crop yields in agricultural areas, and the key to climate change adaptive management lies in the awareness of farmers of climate change risks and the institutional guarantee of the government; (2) Qingyuan has high temperature vulnerability, and the forest areas have relatively strong adaptive capacity to climate change, but climate change will significantly affect the forest’s carbon sequestration function, and the focus of climate change adaptive management in the forestry sector is on engineering and technology field practices; (3) Kulun has the highest vulnerability to climate change, the frequent meteorological disasters seriously impact livestock development, and climate change adaptive management in pastoral areas relies on the participation of pastoralists’ local knowledge and also needs the support of the government and society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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19 pages, 2556 KiB  
Article
Net Carbon Sequestration Performance of Cropland Use in China’s Principal Grain-Producing Area: An Evaluation and Spatiotemporal Divergence
by Haoyue Wu, Jin Tang, Hanjiao Huang, Wenkuan Chen and Yue Meng
Land 2021, 10(7), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070714 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
As cropland possess dual carbon effects of emitting and sequestering, giving full attention to its net carbon sequestration is an effective option for mitigating global warming. By analyzing the carbon cycle of a cropland use system, we develop an inventory for measuring the [...] Read more.
As cropland possess dual carbon effects of emitting and sequestering, giving full attention to its net carbon sequestration is an effective option for mitigating global warming. By analyzing the carbon cycle of a cropland use system, we develop an inventory for measuring the net carbon sequestration, covering four carbon sources, i.e., agricultural materials, rice fields, soils, straw burning, with the crop carbon sequestration considered. Different from conventional studies that have focused on quantity, in this study, we define net carbon sequestration performance of cropland use (NCSPC) as the ratio of actual net carbon sequestration to an optimal value per unit of cropland. We estimate the net carbon sequestration of cropland use, from 2000 to 2019, for the study area consisting of the 13 principal grain-producing provinces in China. Then, global-SBM is applied to measure the provincial NCSPC; furthermore, the Theil index and convergence test are employed to portray the spatiotemporal characteristics and regional divergence. The results show the following: (1) The net carbon sequestration was 3.837 t per hectare of cropland in the principal grain-producing area, of which the sequestration and the emission were 6.343 t and 2.506 t, respectively. The share of emissions, from largest to smallest, was methane from rice paddies, agricultural materials, straw burning, and soil nitrous oxide. Specifically, cropland use in Henan exhibited the strongest net carbon sequestration, whereas in Hunan it was the lowest. (2) The average NCSPC was 0.774 in the principal grain-producing area, indicating that 22.6% of the net carbon sequestration per unit of cropland remained to be explored under the corresponding production technology and input combinations. Temporally, the NCSPC had an annual change rate of −0.30%, displaying a slowly declining trend. Spatially, the NCSPC evolved from a scattered distribution to blocky agglomeration, eventually presenting a decreasing pattern from north to south. (3) First, the total Theil index increased, and then decreased, indicating that the regional disparity of the NCSPC expanded early but shrank later. From 2011 to 2019, inter-regional disparity took up more in the total. Over time, both the whole region and the subregions obeyed the σ convergence. Unlike the benign trends observed in Zones I and II, the NCSPC values of Zone III converged to a low level. This study aims to provide a theoretical base for emission mitigation and sequestration promotion for cropland use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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20 pages, 3033 KiB  
Article
The Energy System of an Ecovillage: Barriers and Enablers
by Zita Szabó, Viola Prohászka and Ágnes Sallay
Land 2021, 10(7), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070682 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2986
Abstract
Nowadays, in the context of climate change, efficient energy management and increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix are helping to reduce greenhouse gases. In this research, we present the energy system and its management and the possibilities of [...] Read more.
Nowadays, in the context of climate change, efficient energy management and increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix are helping to reduce greenhouse gases. In this research, we present the energy system and its management and the possibilities of its development through the example of an ecovillage. The basic goal of such a community is to be economically, socially, and ecologically sustainable, so the study of energy system of an ecovillage is especially justified. As the goal of this community is sustainability, potential technological and efficiency barriers to the use of renewable energy sources will also become visible. Our sample area is Visnyeszéplak ecovillage, where we examined the energy production and consumption habits and possibilities of the community with the help of interviews, literature, and map databases. By examining the spatial structure of the settlement, we examined the spatial structure of energy management. We formulated development proposals that can make the community’s energy management system more efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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17 pages, 5170 KiB  
Article
Changes in Coastal Agricultural Land Use in Response to Climate Change: An Assessment Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data in Tien Hai District, Thai Binh Province, Vietnam
by Duong H. Nong, An T. Ngo, Hoa P. T. Nguyen, Thuy T. Nguyen, Lan T. Nguyen and Summet Saksena
Land 2021, 10(6), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060627 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3455
Abstract
We analyzed the agricultural land-use changes in the coastal areas of Tien Hai district, Thai Binh province, in 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020, using Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 data. We used the object-oriented classification method with the maximum likelihood algorithm to classify [...] Read more.
We analyzed the agricultural land-use changes in the coastal areas of Tien Hai district, Thai Binh province, in 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020, using Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 data. We used the object-oriented classification method with the maximum likelihood algorithm to classify six types of land uses. The series of land-use maps we produced had an overall accuracy of more than 80%. We then conducted a spatial analysis of the 5-year land-use change using ArcGIS software. In addition, we surveyed 150 farm households using a structured questionnaire regarding the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity and land uses, as well as farmers’ adaptation and responses. The results showed that from 2005 to 2020, cropland decreased, while aquaculture land and forest land increased. We observed that the most remarkable decreases were in the area of rice (485.58 ha), the area of perennial crops (109.7 ha), and the area of non-agricultural land (747.35 ha). The area of land used for aquaculture and forest increased by 566.88 ha and 772.60 ha, respectively. We found that the manifestations of climate change, such as extreme weather events, saltwater intrusion, drought, and floods, have had a profound impact on agricultural production and land uses in the district, especially for annual crops and aquaculture. The results provide useful information for state authorities to design land-management strategies and solutions that are economic and effective in adapting to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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16 pages, 7536 KiB  
Article
Exploring on the Eco-Climatic Effects of Land Use Changes in the Influence Area of the Yellow River Basin from 2000 to 2015
by Qian Chi, Shenghui Zhou, Lijun Wang, Mengyao Zhu, Dandan Liu, Weichao Tang, Yaoping Cui and Jay Lee
Land 2021, 10(6), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060601 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2322
Abstract
The Yellow River is the second largest river in China, and the provinces and cities affected by the Yellow River are called the Yellow River Basin influence area. The relationship between land use and surface thermal effects in the influence area of the [...] Read more.
The Yellow River is the second largest river in China, and the provinces and cities affected by the Yellow River are called the Yellow River Basin influence area. The relationship between land use and surface thermal effects in the influence area of the Yellow River Basin from 2000 to 2015 was analyzed using MODIS remote sensing data and an energy balance algorithm. The results showed that: (1) net radiation and latent heat flux both increased, and the high value areas were located in the urban expansion areas and natural and seminatural areas, respectively; (2) net surface energy intake showed a upward trend, and increased as the intensity of human influence increased, indicating that human activities had strengthed the positive trend of net surface energy intake and increased the warming effect; (3) net radiation had a greater impact on surface energy intake than latent heat flux, and this relationship was more obvious in land use types that were greatly affected by human activities. This study emphasizes the difference in energy budgets of different land use types under the influence of human activities. It provides a theoretical basis for judging the climate change trend and urban heat island effect in the influence area of the Yellow River Basin from the perspective of biogeophysics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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16 pages, 4067 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Roadside Woody Vegetation on the Surface Temperature of Cycle Paths
by Nikola Žižlavská, Tomáš Mikita and Zdeněk Patočka
Land 2021, 10(5), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10050483 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
The article is on the effects of woody vegetation growing on the roadside on the temperature of the surface of cycle paths. The main hypothesis of the study is that vegetation has the effect of lowering the temperature of the surroundings in its [...] Read more.
The article is on the effects of woody vegetation growing on the roadside on the temperature of the surface of cycle paths. The main hypothesis of the study is that vegetation has the effect of lowering the temperature of the surroundings in its shadow and thus improves the comfort of users of cycle paths in the summer months. The second hypothesis is to find out which type of road surface is most suitable for the thermal well-being of users. This goal was achieved by measuring the temperature of selected locations on cycle paths with different types of construction surfaces with nearby woody vegetation using a contactless thermometer over several days at regular intervals. The positions of the selected locations were measured using GNSS and the whole locality of interest was photographed using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), or drone, and subsequently a digital surface model (DSM) of the area was created using a Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm. This model served for the calculation of incident solar radiation during the selected days using the Solar Area Graphics tool with ArcGIS software. Subsequently, the effect of the shade of the surrounding vegetation on the temperature during the day was analysed and statistically evaluated. The results are presented in many graphs and their interpretation used to evaluate the effects of nearby woody vegetation and the type of road surface on the surrounding air temperature and the comfort of users of these routes. The results demonstrate the benefits of using UAVs for the purpose of modelling the course of solar radiation during the day, showing the effect of roadside vegetation on reducing the surface temperature of the earth’s surface and thus confirming the need for planting and maintaining such vegetation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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31 pages, 9073 KiB  
Article
Predicting Shifts in Land Suitability for Maize Cultivation Worldwide Due to Climate Change: A Modeling Approach
by Yuan Gao, Anyu Zhang, Yaojie Yue, Jing’ai Wang and Peng Su
Land 2021, 10(3), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030295 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
Suitable land is an important prerequisite for crop cultivation and, given the prospect of climate change, it is essential to assess such suitability to minimize crop production risks and to ensure food security. Although a variety of methods to assess the suitability are [...] Read more.
Suitable land is an important prerequisite for crop cultivation and, given the prospect of climate change, it is essential to assess such suitability to minimize crop production risks and to ensure food security. Although a variety of methods to assess the suitability are available, a comprehensive, objective, and large-scale screening of environmental variables that influence the results—and therefore their accuracy—of these methods has rarely been explored. An approach to the selection of such variables is proposed and the criteria established for large-scale assessment of land, based on big data, for its suitability to maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation as a case study. The predicted suitability matched the past distribution of maize with an overall accuracy of 79% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.72. The land suitability for maize is likely to decrease markedly at low latitudes and even at mid latitudes. The total area suitable for maize globally and in most major maize-producing countries will decrease, the decrease being particularly steep in those regions optimally suited for maize at present. Compared with earlier research, the method proposed in the present paper is simple yet objective, comprehensive, and reliable for large-scale assessment. The findings of the study highlight the necessity of adopting relevant strategies to cope with the adverse impacts of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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21 pages, 24587 KiB  
Article
Spatial–Temporal Characteristics of Precipitation and Its Relationship with Land Use/Cover Change on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
by Bo Zhang and Wei Zhou
Land 2021, 10(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030269 - 06 Mar 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3064
Abstract
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is an area sensitive to global climate change, and land use/land cover change (LUCC) plays a vital role in regulating climate system at different temporal and spatial scales. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial trend of [...] Read more.
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is an area sensitive to global climate change, and land use/land cover change (LUCC) plays a vital role in regulating climate system at different temporal and spatial scales. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial trend of precipitation and the characteristics of LUCC on the QTP. Meanwhile, we also used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as an indicator of LUCC to discuss the relationship between LUCC and precipitation. The results show the following: (1) Annual precipitation showed a fluctuant upward trend at a rate of 11.5 mm/decade in this area from 1967 to 2016; three periods (i.e., 22 years, 12 years, and 2 years) of oscillations in annual precipitation were observed, in which expectant 22 years is the main oscillation period. It was predicted that QTP will still be in the stage of increasing precipitation. (2) The LUCC of the plateau changed apparently from 1980 to 2018. The area of grassland decreased by 9.47%, and the area of unused land increased by 7.25%. From the perspective of spatial distribution, the transfer of grassland to unused land occurred in the western part of the QTP, while the reverse transfer was mainly distributed in the northwestern part of the QTP. (3) NDVI in the northern and southwestern parts of the QTP is positively correlated with precipitation, while negative correlations are mainly distributed in the southeast of the QTP, including parts of Sichuan and Yunnan Province. Our results show that precipitation in the QTP has shown a fluctuating growth trend in recent years, and precipitation and NDVI are mainly positively correlated. Furthermore, we hope that this work can provide a theoretical basis for predicting regional hydrology, climate change, and LUCC research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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13 pages, 1001 KiB  
Article
To Mitigate or Adapt? Explaining Why Citizens Responding to Climate Change Favour the Former
by Kristina Blennow and Johannes Persson
Land 2021, 10(3), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030240 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3134
Abstract
Why do citizens’ decisions made because they favour the mitigation of climate change outnumber those made because they favour adaptation to its impacts? Using data collected in a survey of 338 citizens of Malmö, Sweden, we tested two hypotheses. H1: the motivation for [...] Read more.
Why do citizens’ decisions made because they favour the mitigation of climate change outnumber those made because they favour adaptation to its impacts? Using data collected in a survey of 338 citizens of Malmö, Sweden, we tested two hypotheses. H1: the motivation for personal decisions because they favour adaptation to the impacts of climate change correlates with the decision-making agent´s knowledge of specific local impacts of climate change, and H2: the motivation for personal decisions because they favour mitigation of climate change correlates with the risk perception of the decision-making agent. While decisions made because they favour mitigation correlated with negative net values of expected impacts of climate change (risk perception), decisions made because they favour adaptation correlated with its absolute value unless tipping point behaviour occurred. Tipping point behaviour occurs here when the decision-making agent abstains from decisions in response to climate change in spite of a strongly negative or positive net value of expected impacts. Hence, the decision-making agents´ lack of knowledge of specific climate change impacts inhibited decisions promoting adaptation. Moreover, positive experiences of climate change inhibited mitigation decisions. Discussing the results, we emphasised the importance of understanding the drivers of adaptation and mitigation decisions. In particular, we stress that attention needs to be paid to the balance between decisions solving problems ‘here and now’ and those focusing on the ‘there and then’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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13 pages, 3522 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Changes in Land-Use and Land Cover on Temperature over Northern and North-Eastern India
by Sridhara Nayak, Suman Maity, Kuvar S. Singh, Hara Prasad Nayak and Soma Dutta
Land 2021, 10(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010052 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2833
Abstract
This study explores the influence of land-use and land cover (LULC) changes on the temperature over North India (NI) and North-Eastern India (NEI) during 1981–2006 by subtracting the reanalysis temperature from the observed temperature (observation minus reanalysis (OMR) method). The normalized difference vegetation [...] Read more.
This study explores the influence of land-use and land cover (LULC) changes on the temperature over North India (NI) and North-Eastern India (NEI) during 1981–2006 by subtracting the reanalysis temperature from the observed temperature (observation minus reanalysis (OMR) method). The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data of the AVHRR satellite for the period 1981–2006 were analyzed to understand the type of LULC changes during this period and their linkage with the temperature change over the two regions. The results from OMR indicated that the LULC change over NI during 1981–2006 resulted a warming of 0.03 °C, and that of NEI during this period resulted a cooling of 1.5 °C. The results from LULC changes during the said period indicated an increase of dry land/snow cover and agriculture/fallow land by ~0.1% of total area and a decrease of shrubs/small vegetation and dense forest over NI by about 0.1–0.2%. Over NEI, the areas under agricultural/fallow land, open forest and dense forest showed an increase by about 0.8–2.4% during this period, and the areas under dry/snow cover and shrubs/small vegetation indicated a decrease by ~0.7–3.6%. The comparison between the OMR analysis and LULC changes indicated that the warming over NI during 1981–2006 is due to the expansion of the dry land and the decline of dense forest. On the other hand, the cooling over NEI during the period is attributed to the decline of non-vegetated/small vegetated lands and the expansion of agricultural land/forest covers in that period. This study has an overall implication towards the modeling studies for the impact assessment of LULC changes in the present as well as future climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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13 pages, 1420 KiB  
Article
Effects of Land Cover Changes on Net Primary Productivity in the Terrestrial Ecosystems of China from 2001 to 2012
by Hanwei Li, Juhua Ding, Jiang Zhang, Zhenan Yang, Bin Yang, Qiuan Zhu and Changhui Peng
Land 2020, 9(12), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120480 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2409
Abstract
The 2001–2012 MODIS MCD12Q1 land cover data and MOD17A3 NPP data were used to calculate changes in land cover in China and annual changes in net primary productivity (NPP) during a 12-year period and to quantitatively analyze the effects of land cover change [...] Read more.
The 2001–2012 MODIS MCD12Q1 land cover data and MOD17A3 NPP data were used to calculate changes in land cover in China and annual changes in net primary productivity (NPP) during a 12-year period and to quantitatively analyze the effects of land cover change on the NPP of China’s terrestrial ecosystems. The results revealed that during the study period, no changes in land cover type occurred in 7447.31 thousand km2 of China, while the area of vegetation cover increased by 160.97 thousand km2 in the rest of the country. Forest cover increased to 20.91%, which was mainly due to the conversion of large areas of savanna (345.19 thousand km2) and cropland (178.96 thousand km2) to forest. During the 12-year study period, the annual mean NPP of China was 2.70 PgC and increased by 0.25 PgC, from 2.50 to 2.75 PgC. Of this change, 0.21 PgC occurred in areas where there was no land cover change, while 0.04 PgC occurred in areas where there was land cover change. The contributions of forest and cropland to NPP exhibited increasing trends, while the contributions of shrubland and grassland to NPP decreased. Among these land cover types, the contributions of forest and cropland to the national NPP were the greatest, accounting for 40.97% and 27.95%, respectively, of the annual total NPP. There was no significant correlation between changes in forest area and changes in total annual NPP (R2 < 0.1), while the correlation coefficient for changes in cropland area and total annual NPP was 0.48. Additionally, the area of cropland converted to other land cover types was negatively correlated with the changes in NPP, and the loss of cropland caused a reduction in the national NPP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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13 pages, 893 KiB  
Article
Changes in Livestock Grazing Efficiency Incorporating Grassland Productivity: The Case of Hulun Buir, China
by Zhe Zhao, Yuping Bai, Xiangzheng Deng, Jiancheng Chen, Jian Hou and Zhihui Li
Land 2020, 9(11), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110447 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
Recently, improving technical efficiency is an effective way to enhance the quality of grass-based livestock husbandry production and promote an increase in the income of herdsmen, especially in the background of a continuing intensification of climate change processes. This paper, based on the [...] Read more.
Recently, improving technical efficiency is an effective way to enhance the quality of grass-based livestock husbandry production and promote an increase in the income of herdsmen, especially in the background of a continuing intensification of climate change processes. This paper, based on the survey data, constructs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model, incorporates net primary productivity (NPP) into the production function as an ecological variable, refines it to the herdsman scale to investigate grassland quality and production capacity, and quantitatively evaluates the technical efficiency of grass-based livestock husbandry and identifies the key influencing factors. The results show that the maximum value of technical efficiency was up to 0.90, and the average value was around 0.53; the herdsmen’s production gap was large and the overall level was relatively low. Additionally, the lack of forage caused by drought was the key factor restricting the current grass-based livestock husbandry production level, and the herdsmen’s adaptive measures, mainly represented as “purchasing forage” and “selling livestock”, had a positive significance for improving technical efficiency. Based on this, expanding the planting area of artificial grassland, improving the efficiency of resource utilization, and enhancing the supply capacity of livestock products while ensuring the ecological security of grassland are effective ways to increase the production level of grass-based livestock husbandry in Hulun Buir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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15 pages, 4322 KiB  
Article
Global and Regional Implications of Biome Evolution on the Hydrologic Cycle and Climate in the NCAR Dynamic Vegetation Model
by Jessica Levey and Jung-Eun Lee
Land 2020, 9(10), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100342 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2371
Abstract
Vegetation influences climate by altering water and energy budgets. With intensifying threats from anthropogenic activities, both terrestrial biomes and climate are expected to change, and the need to understand land–atmosphere interactions will become increasingly crucial. We ran a climate model coupled with a [...] Read more.
Vegetation influences climate by altering water and energy budgets. With intensifying threats from anthropogenic activities, both terrestrial biomes and climate are expected to change, and the need to understand land–atmosphere interactions will become increasingly crucial. We ran a climate model coupled with a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) to investigate the establishment of terrestrial biomes starting from a bareground scenario and how these biomes influence the climate throughout their evolution. Vegetation reaches quasi-equilibrium after ~350 years, and the vegetation establishment results in global increases in temperature (~2.5 °C), precipitation (~5.5%) and evapotranspiration as well as declines in albedo and sea ice volumes. In high latitude regions, vegetation establishment decreases albedo, causing an increase in global temperatures as well as a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Low latitude tropical afforestation results in greater evapotranspiration and precipitation, and an initial decrease in temperatures due to evaporative cooling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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Article
Impacts of Climate Change and Human Activity on the Runoff Changes in the Guishui River Basin
by Meilin Wang, Yaqi Shao, Qun’ou Jiang, Ling Xiao, Haiming Yan, Xiaowei Gao, Lijun Wang and Peibin Liu
Land 2020, 9(9), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090291 - 23 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3499
Abstract
Guishui River Basin in northwestern Beijing has ecological significance and will be one of the venues of the upcoming Beijing Winter Olympic Games in 2022. However, accelerating climate change and human disturbance in recent decades has posed an increasing challenge to the sustainable [...] Read more.
Guishui River Basin in northwestern Beijing has ecological significance and will be one of the venues of the upcoming Beijing Winter Olympic Games in 2022. However, accelerating climate change and human disturbance in recent decades has posed an increasing challenge to the sustainable use of water in the basin. This study simulated the runoff of the Guishui River Basin using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to reveal the spatio-temporal variations of runoff in the basin and the impacts of climate change and human activities on the runoff changes. The results showed that annual runoff from 2004 to 2018 was relatively small, with an uneven intra-annual runoff distribution. The seasonal trends in runoff showed a decreasing trend in spring and winter while an increasing trend in summer and autumn. There was a first increasing and then decreasing trend of average annual runoff depth from northwest to southeast in the study area. In addition, the contributions of climate change and human activities to changes in runoff of the Guishui River Basin were 60% and 40%, respectively, but with opposite effects. The results can contribute to the rational utilization of water resources in the Guishui River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Climate Change)
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