Historical Data for Natural Hazard Risk Mitigation and Land Use Planning

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 September 2024 | Viewed by 28011

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, Italian National Research Council, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino, Italy
Interests: land-use planning; urbanization and geo-hydrological processes; historical research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of History and Archaeology, University of Barcelona, 08001 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: historical climatology; reconstruction of meteorological extreme events from historical documentary sources; preparation of databases at high resolution for floods; droughts and other severe weather events; analysis of impacts and strategies of adaptation of society in front of natural hazards for different historical contexts

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Institute of Heritage Science, National Research Council (ISPC-CNR), Area Della Ricerca, C.da S. Loja, Tito, 85050 Potenza, Italy
Interests: natural hazards; historical seismicity; historical floods; historical landslides; disaster response; natural hazard insurance; natural hazards and cultural heritage; heritage science; bibliometrics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Geography, Institute of Environmental Social Science and Geography, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
Interests: climate change; risk analysis; land use and land cover change; regional studies; KI

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Geological Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07749 Jena, Germany
Interests: paleoseismology; natural hazards; earthquake geology; tsunami; geomorphology

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, Italy
Interests: history of Southern Italy; environmental history; historical floods; historical landslides

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Napoli Osservatorio Vesuviano, Via Diocleziano, 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy
2. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-ISA, Via Roma 64, 80100 Avellino, Italy
Interests: natural hazards; active tectonics; historical and recent seismicity; seismic risk; seismic hazard; paleoseismology; floods; historical floods; effects induced by earthquakes; cultural heritage; resilience
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geography and Planning, School of Environmental Sciences, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZT, UK
Interests: geohazards and their societal responses; historical records; environmental reconstruction; human-induced landscape change; environmental history; environmental management

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council, Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Turin, Italy
Interests: mitigation of geo-hydrological risk; historical floods; debris flow; anthropocene environmental evolution; natural hazards; geomorphological analysis of landscape

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Globally, natural hazards present a serious and critical threat to life, as a result of both endogenous and exogenous processes. Natural hazards (geological, geomorphological, hydrological and meteorological) quickly present a risk to individuals, communities and societies when they are threatened with disruption or losses, with the impact being a function of their ability to cope and respond.

Historical research is a key tool in determining the appropriate strategies for the identification of risk scenarios. Many parts of the world suffer from a dearth of instrumental information and data, as such qualitative accounts and records provide a crucial source of information in understanding the risks presented. The significance of long records is particularly pertinent when considering extremes, and such knowledge is crucial in better understanding the risks presented and in undertaking targeted mitigation strategies to reduce the socio-economic consequences and physical impact on private properties, strategic buildings, infrastructures and cultural heritage.

This Special Issue aims to stress the importance of historical information and data as a strategic tool in framing planning decisions. Objective one is to demonstrate the significance of historical information in better understanding the risks presented by natural hazards (geological, geomorphological, hydrological and meteorological). Objective two is to stimulate a discussion between the international scientific community, technicians, policymakers and urban planners about the use of historical data and land use, planning and zonation.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following themes:

1) Use of historical information in hazard and risk analysis;

2) Use of historical sources to assess and mitigate natural hazard risks to cultural heritage;

3) Land use planning and geo-risk assessment using historical data;

4) Analysis of the spatial–temporal distribution of extreme events;

5) Methodologies for data collection and management from documentary sources;

6) Geomorphological hazard and risk studies by historical sources;

7) Historical climatology and reconstruction of extreme weather events;

8) The analysis of natural hazards in data-poor regions.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Fabio Luino
Dr. Mariano Barriendos Vallvé
Dr. Fabrizio Terenzio Gizzi
Prof. Dr. Ruediger Glaser
Dr. Christoph Gruetzner
Dr. Walter Palmieri
Dr. Sabina Porfido
Dr. Heather Sangster
Dr. Laura Turconi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • documentary sources
  • historical documents and materials
  • historical archives
  • qualitative and visual materials
  • hazard database(s)
  • geohazard reconstruction and analysis
  • historical seismic scenarios
  • land use planning and/or zoning
  • disaster and risk reduction
  • cultural heritage and resilience

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

21 pages, 9755 KiB  
Editorial
Historical Data for Natural Hazard Risk Mitigation and Land Use Planning
by Fabio Luino, Mariano Barriendos, Fabrizio Terenzio Gizzi, Ruediger Glaser, Christoph Gruetzner, Walter Palmieri, Sabina Porfido, Heather Sangster and Laura Turconi
Land 2023, 12(9), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12091777 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1775
Abstract
This paper demonstrates how historical research is a valuable tool for identifying past geological, geomorphological and climatic hazards and therefore critical for mitigating and reducing future risk. The authors describe the potential of a scientific field that straddles that of the geologist, geographer, [...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates how historical research is a valuable tool for identifying past geological, geomorphological and climatic hazards and therefore critical for mitigating and reducing future risk. The authors describe the potential of a scientific field that straddles that of the geologist, geographer, historian and archivist. Historical records include a range of materials and sources of information, which can be very diverse; from written documents to cartographies, and from drawings to marble tombstones. They are all useful and convey important data, on the date of the event, the size of the phenomena, sometimes on ground effects, damage or magnitude. The authors discuss how to conduct historical research by providing a list of locations and how important historical documents can be found. Works that mention geological phenomena are listed, starting with the first occasional descriptions by individuals in letters, up to very specific publications in individual fields of interest. With this introduction, the editors of the Special Issue wish to draw attention to the importance of historical documentation, which is too often ignored or considered of low priority by the scientific community, but can contain key information on events, their impacts and social and cultural adaptations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Research

Jump to: Editorial

29 pages, 22515 KiB  
Article
Historical Floods and Territorial Planning: Lessons Learned and Opportunities Lost after the Santa Teresa Flood (1879) in the Segura Basin (Spain)
by Antonio Oliva and Jorge Olcina
Land 2024, 13(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13010028 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Historical cartography is one of the principal tools used in correct flood adaptation and management based on territorial planning. In fact, Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks includes the analysis and inventory of historical floods in a river basin [...] Read more.
Historical cartography is one of the principal tools used in correct flood adaptation and management based on territorial planning. In fact, Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks includes the analysis and inventory of historical floods in a river basin for assessing the flood hazard and risk existing in a geographical space. This study seeks to analyse the largest flood registered in the Segura basin, occurring on 14–15 October 1879, which attracted enormous interest on a national and international level. The methodology applied is based on the consultation of historical sources and historical cartography, and the elaboration of maps using GIS, enabling comparisons to be made with current flood zones. The results show that the Santa Teresa flood was very similar to the Spanish National Cartographic Systems for Flood Areas (SNCZI) map for a 500-year return period. Furthermore, it allows the identification of the sensitive points along the course of the river or those prone to burst banks or overflowing, which practically coincide with the current maps and modelling conducted by the official bodies. Furthermore, the buildings in the floodable area in the historical cartography have been counted and reconstructed on a GIS map and the SNCZI. Massive anthropic occupation through the construction of settlements and infrastructures (hospitals, schools, centers for the elderly, roads and railways) in the Guadalentín valley and the Segura River increases the risk of flooding in the study area, despite the numerous control and regulation works carried out in the Segura River basin. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

39 pages, 41064 KiB  
Article
Historical Memory as an Effective and Useful Tool for Proper Land Use Planning: Lessons Learnt from Some Italian Cases
by Fabio Luino, Fabrizio Terenzio Gizzi, Walter Palmieri, Sabina Porfido and Laura Turconi
Land 2023, 12(9), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12091751 - 8 Sep 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
Many Italian cities and towns have been affected by geological or geohydrological processes. However, due to the loss of historical memory, lessons of the past have been ignored; new urbanized areas have expanded into the same zones where damage and casualties occurred in [...] Read more.
Many Italian cities and towns have been affected by geological or geohydrological processes. However, due to the loss of historical memory, lessons of the past have been ignored; new urbanized areas have expanded into the same zones where damage and casualties occurred in the past. Despite current practices, researchers are showing how historical data can be among the most valid tools for identifying the most affected and hazardous areas. When the completeness and quality of historical sources are sufficiently high, we can make useful statistical inferences regarding the spatiotemporal variations of natural processes. This information is of great importance for land use planning, as it makes us able to rely not only on the current state of the investigated areas but also on their dynamic evolutionary framework over time. In this article, we present a chronological review of past Italian works describing the occurrence of natural extreme events making use of historical data. Then, we present some Italian case studies in which the awareness of hazards gained by paying attention to past information would have ensured better management of the risk for the benefit of public safety. Finally, the authors stress the need to safeguard, manage, and enhance the large collection of historical data that constitutes Italy’s heritage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 42504 KiB  
Article
The Role of Historical Data to Investigate Slow-Moving Landslides by Long-Term Monitoring Systems in Lower Austria
by Philipp Marr, Yenny Alejandra Jiménez Donato, Edoardo Carraro, Robert Kanta and Thomas Glade
Land 2023, 12(3), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12030659 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Landslides are one of the most significant natural hazards worldwide. They can have far-reaching negative impacts on societies in different socio-economic sectors as well as on the landscape. Among the different types and processes that can also affect infrastructure and land use planning, [...] Read more.
Landslides are one of the most significant natural hazards worldwide. They can have far-reaching negative impacts on societies in different socio-economic sectors as well as on the landscape. Among the different types and processes that can also affect infrastructure and land use planning, slow-moving landslides are often underestimated. Therefore, studying areas affected by slow movements provide an opportunity to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of these processes, their forcings, mechanisms, and potential risks. This study aims to investigate the importance of historical data for improving landslide hazard assessment in Lower Austria (Austria), which is particularly prone to landslides. This paper focuses on how historical information formed the basis for the establishment of three long-term landslide monitoring observatories in this region. The analysis conducted highlights the importance of using historical data to better assess the frequency and magnitude relationships and phases of landslide activity. In particular, they can extend the temporal window and provide relevant information on past events and accelerations to improve knowledge of landslide dynamics and the resulting socio-economic impacts. In order to better assess the landslide hazard associated, it is necessary to integrate historical data and monitoring datasets obtained by surface and subsurface methods. Both components allow for the characterization of the spatio-temporal evolution of slow movements and the analysis of the hazard over time. Based on a variety of historical sources, it was possible to install the instruments constituting the long-term landslide monitoring observatories in a meaningful manner. The results demonstrate the influential role of human impact on the stability conditions, which may also contribute to landslide occurrence. In this regard, the attempt to combine historical data and long-term, continuous monitoring systems in the presented landslide observatories can improve landslide risk reduction measures in the region. The integration of different techniques and tools, along with ongoing research and collaboration with local authorities, will further improve our understanding of these slow-moving processes and the development of effective management strategies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4433 KiB  
Article
Historical Floods on the Spanish Mediterranean Basin: A Methodological Proposal for the Classification of Information at High Spatio–Temporal Resolution—AMICME Database (CE 1035–2022)
by Jordi Tuset, Mariano Barriendos and Josep Barriendos
Land 2022, 11(12), 2311; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122311 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
The uncertainties raised by climate change in the Mediterranean region justify a detailed study on rainfall regime over a long time scale. This study is not just about reconstructing and characterizing climate variability, but also identifying the hydrometeorological episodes of greater severity and [...] Read more.
The uncertainties raised by climate change in the Mediterranean region justify a detailed study on rainfall regime over a long time scale. This study is not just about reconstructing and characterizing climate variability, but also identifying the hydrometeorological episodes of greater severity and low frequency. These phenomena, such as floods and droughts, affect the availability of water resources, generate casualties and have significant impacts on human activity. In this context of global warming, knowledge of past extreme hydrometeorological events has gained importance over time. Moreover, the ability to classify these past extreme events in order to compare them with current ones strengthens research capabilities. For this reason, this paper proposes a multivariable classification system for flood episodes, both historical and recent. The classification considers the physical conditions of a flood, its damage to structures and its social impacts. The proposed methodology has been applied to the AMICME flood database for the Spanish Mediterranean catchment areas from CE 1035 to 2022. This paper shows the application of this methodology for six flood episodes from different centuries and locations. It has been possible to display all the indexed information for the different flood cases of every episode through cartographic summary representations. Results prove the adaptability of the classification system to different hydrographical and historical contexts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 8350 KiB  
Article
Merging Historical Archives with Remote Sensing Data: A Methodology to Improve Rockfall Mitigation Strategy for Small Communities
by Davide Notti, Diego Guenzi, Rosa Lasaponara and Daniele Giordan
Land 2022, 11(11), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11111951 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Both in the literature and in practical applications, several works have dealt with rockfall analysis and the planning of mitigation measures. It is also possible to find inventories and papers that describe historical events. However, it is challenging to find methodologies or studies [...] Read more.
Both in the literature and in practical applications, several works have dealt with rockfall analysis and the planning of mitigation measures. It is also possible to find inventories and papers that describe historical events. However, it is challenging to find methodologies or studies about inventorying rockfall mitigation or their efficiency over time. In Italy, many rockfall barriers and other mitigation solutions have been built in the last decades, and one of the most urgent problems is their correct management and maintenance. Lauria, a small town in southern Italy, can be considered an example of this common condition exacerbated by a wildfire in 2017. This work presents a methodology for assessing rockfall risk and creating a geodatabase of mitigation structures focused on small communities. We used digitalization of archival sources to reconstruct and geocode the record of mitigation works. An available database of historical landslides was used to reconstruct the most relevant rockfall events. Moreover, we coupled this with Sentinel-2 images and high-resolution orthophotos to map the wildfire area. Data obtained from the UAV-LiDAR survey were used to map the mitigation structures. The aim was to create a reliable state-of-the-art method, described in an operational monograph, to be used by experts for the design of new rockfall mitigation structures in both an affordable and efficient way. Moreover, we created a simple webGIS and a 3-D interactive view, helpful in disseminating rockfall hazards and mitigation strategies among the population at risk. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 15540 KiB  
Article
Flood Hazard Index Application in Arid Catchments: Case of the Taguenit Wadi Watershed, Lakhssas, Morocco
by Mustapha Ikirri, Farid Faik, Fatima Zahra Echogdali, Isabel Margarida Horta Ribeiro Antunes, Mohamed Abioui, Kamal Abdelrahman, Mohammed S. Fnais, Abderrahmane Wanaim, Mouna Id-Belqas, Said Boutaleb, Kochappi Sathyan Sajinkumar and Adolfo Quesada-Román
Land 2022, 11(8), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081178 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3177
Abstract
During the last decade, climate change has generated extreme rainfall events triggering flash floods in short periods worldwide. The delimitation of flood zones by detailed mapping generally makes it possible to avoid human and economic losses, especially in regions at high risk of [...] Read more.
During the last decade, climate change has generated extreme rainfall events triggering flash floods in short periods worldwide. The delimitation of flood zones by detailed mapping generally makes it possible to avoid human and economic losses, especially in regions at high risk of flooding. The Taguenit basin, located in southern Morocco, is a particular case. The mapping of the flood zones of this basin by the method of the Flood Hazard Index (FHI) in a GIS geographic information systems environment was based on the multi-criteria analysis, taking into consideration the seven parameters influencing these extreme phenomena, namely rainfall, slope, flow accumulation, drainage network density, distance from rivers, permeability, and land use. Average annual rainfall data for 37 years (1980 to 2016) was used in this study for floodplain mapping. A weight was calculated for each parameter using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The combination of the maps of the different parameters made it possible to draw up a final map classified into five risk intervals: very high, high, moderate, lower and very lower presenting, respectively, 8.04%, 20.63%, 31.47%, 15.36%, and 24.50% of the area of the basin. The reliability of this method was tested by a Flood susceptibility analysis. The results generated by the Flood Hazard Index (FHI) model are similar to those of previous historical events. Realistic and applicable solutions have been proposed to minimize the impact of these floods as much as possible. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 9269 KiB  
Article
Landscape, Memory, and Adverse Shocks: The 1968 Earthquake in Belìce Valley (Sicily, Italy): A Case Study
by Gianni Petino, Maria Donata Napoli and Mario Mattia
Land 2022, 11(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11050754 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3268
Abstract
The interaction between humans and nature dramatically reveals the role of sudden and destructive events in the progressive and never-ending trend of depletion of the territorial dimension of the Belìce Valley (Valle del Belìce, Sicily, Italy). If on the one hand a tragic [...] Read more.
The interaction between humans and nature dramatically reveals the role of sudden and destructive events in the progressive and never-ending trend of depletion of the territorial dimension of the Belìce Valley (Valle del Belìce, Sicily, Italy). If on the one hand a tragic event, such as the earthquake of 1968, that destroyed towns and villages in the Belìce Valley, represented a moment of pain and suffering for local communities and their territories, on the other, more than 50 years after the event, we are able to shed light on the reaction to the earthquake effects through an in-depth analysis of the heritage of the physical and immaterial rubble. Our research is aimed at framing, through special geovisual tools, the paths of this rebuilding process and to verify whether the “new” interaction of humans and nature has reached an acceptable balance. After introducing the concept of landscape and investigating some local manifestations within the Belìce Valley, we tackle the technical question of re-photography as a powerful and quick method for observing the territorial changes that occurred after the earthquake. This approach is based on the collection of historical photographs and, subsequently, onsite activities for the creation of a contemporary archive of images. The method used for comparing the images was that of re-photographic overlapping, a useful technique to compare different moments of the history of a landscape and to analyze the effectiveness of the process of rebuilding. Finally, this analysis introduces us to a new perspective where in our opinion, it is possible to frame some features of the Belìce Valley and some more general aspects that are useful for other territories hit by destructive events and having to face choices related to the future of their communities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 8210 KiB  
Article
Torrential Hazard Prevention in Alpine Small Basin through Historical, Empirical and Geomorphological Cross Analysis in NW Italy
by Laura Turconi, Domenico Tropeano, Gabriele Savio, Barbara Bono, Sunil Kumar De, Marco Frasca and Fabio Luino
Land 2022, 11(5), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11050699 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
Debris flow is one of the most dangerous natural processes in mountain regions and it occur in a wide variety of environments throughout the world. In the Italian Alps, some tens of thousands of damaging debris flow and, in general, torrential floods associated [...] Read more.
Debris flow is one of the most dangerous natural processes in mountain regions and it occur in a wide variety of environments throughout the world. In the Italian Alps, some tens of thousands of damaging debris flow and, in general, torrential floods associated to intense sediment transport in secondary catchments have been documented in the last 300 years. These have caused socio-economic damage, damage to anthropogenic structures or infrastructures and in many cases casualties. Often, in the same basins, the occurrence of debris-flow processes recurs many years later. Prediction can often be spatial and based on the magnitude of the largest known process, while the temporal forecast is the most uncertain. It is also possible to increase the resilience of the population and of the territory. The present study aims at investigating different levels of debris-flow hazard in urban areas on Alpine alluvial fans and proposes a strategy for debris-flow prevention based on historical research and on a simplified analytical approach, methods that also involve relatively low costs. For such analysis, Ischiator stream catchment (ca. 20 km2) and its alluvial fan (NW Italy) were selected. This area was partly affected by historical torrential flood associated to intense sediment transport and debris-flow processes. Present-day instability conditions along the slope and the stream network were detected and synthesized through surveys and aerial photo interpretation integrated by satellite images (period 1954–2021). An estimation of the potential amount of moving detritus, referred to as debris flow, was carried out regarding the June 1957 debris-flow event, based on the predictive models. The individual hazard index value was estimated based on different methods. The results indicate that 56% of the area is exposed to flood associated to intense sediment transport hazard, which fluctuates from high to very high levels; such results are supported by debris-flow historical records. Since today almost half of the settlement (Bagni di Vinadio) is located on potentially risk-exposed areas, the urban evolution policy adopted after the 1957 event failed to manage the risk connection to debris-flow activity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 6936 KiB  
Article
Multisource and Multilevel Investigations on a Historical Landslide: The 1907 Servigliano Earth Flow in Montemurro (Basilicata, Southern Italy)
by Mario Bentivenga, Fabrizio Terenzio Gizzi, Giuseppe Palladino, Marco Piccarreta, Maria Rosaria Potenza, Angela Perrone, Jessica Bellanova, Giuseppe Calamita and Sabatino Piscitelli
Land 2022, 11(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11030408 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3254
Abstract
Italy is one of the European countries most affected by landslides. In order to mitigate the risk, the analysis of such phenomena should involve a broad spectrum of studies to understand the geological and geomorphological properties of the unstable areas, the geometric features [...] Read more.
Italy is one of the European countries most affected by landslides. In order to mitigate the risk, the analysis of such phenomena should involve a broad spectrum of studies to understand the geological and geomorphological properties of the unstable areas, the geometric features of the landslides and the causes of their trigger, the evolution over time, and the works of risk mitigation taken as well as their effectiveness over time. This article is concerned with multidisciplinary investigations on a historical earth flow occurred in Montemurro (Basilicata, Southern Italy) in 1907. We analyse unpublished archive sources strictly coupled with new geological and geomorphological surveys. Furthermore, to gain information on the geometrical features of the landslide body, geophysical prospections (ERT) is used alongside the field surveys. Lastly, to gain insight on the landslide triggering factors, we employed historical–climatological analysis: in particular, we made use of the monthly simple daily intensity index (SDII) to evaluate extreme events and the standardised precipitation index (SPI) to consider previous wetness conditions. The earth flow was triggered on 26 February 1907 and the main movement lasted about one week, involving several buildings, including those of cultural interest. Historical documentary investigations and historical climatological analysis both indicate that the earth flow was triggered by a preceding heavy rain period, which independent historical sources suggest also caused the activation of landslides over a wider area around Montemurro. Currently, the earth flow is NE–SW oriented, extends for a length of ~1.1 km, and has an average width of ~220 m. The landslide is in a dormant activity phase. From a methodological point of view, the research stresses the importance of integrated approaches to investigate natural hazards, particularly by the use of historical data. This research may be of interest to academics, practitioners, and policymakers for both the methodological approach followed and results gained, useful in view of both risk mitigation and territorial planning of landslide-prone areas. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 6798 KiB  
Article
Documentary Evidence of 17th Century Landcover and Climate Change in Northern China and Mongolia Compared to Modern Spectral Greening Trends
by Michael Kempf
Land 2022, 11(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11010100 - 8 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
Fighting land degradation of semi-arid and climate-sensitive grasslands are among the most urgent tasks of current eco-political agenda. Particularly, northern China and Mongolia are prone to climate-induced surface transformations, which were reinforced by the heavily increased numbers of livestock during the 20th century. [...] Read more.
Fighting land degradation of semi-arid and climate-sensitive grasslands are among the most urgent tasks of current eco-political agenda. Particularly, northern China and Mongolia are prone to climate-induced surface transformations, which were reinforced by the heavily increased numbers of livestock during the 20th century. Extensive overgrazing and resource exploitation amplified regional climate change effects and triggered intensified land degradation that forced policy-driven interventions to prevent desertification. In the past, however, the regions have been subject to continuous shifts in environmental and socio-cultural and political conditions, which makes it particularly difficult to distinguish into regional anthropogenic impact and global climate change effects. This article presents analyses of historical written sources, palaeoenvironmental data, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) temporal series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to compare landcover change during the Little Ice Age (LIA) and current spectral greening trends over the period 2001–2020. Results show that decreasing precipitation and temperature records triggered increased land degradation during the late 17th century in the transition zone from northern China and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to Mongolia. From current climate change perspectives, modern vegetation shows enhanced physical vegetation response related to an increase in precipitation (Ptotal) and temperature (T). Vegetation response is strongly related to Ptotal and T and an increase in physical plant condition indicates local to regional grassland recovery compared to the past 20-year average. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop