Preservation, Reuse and Reveal of Cultural Heritage through Sustainable Land Management, Rural and Urban Development II

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 24034

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: cultural heritage; building materials; nondestructive testing; sustainable development; circular economy; development schemes; environmental management; GIS
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Photogrammetry, School of Rural, Surveying and Geoinformatics Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: cultural heritage geometric documentation; HBIM; multi-dimensional modelling; city modelling; change detection; data fusion; photogrammetry; land management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: cultural heritage; conservation science; building materials; nondestructive testing; sustainable development; environmental management; GIS
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cultural heritage contributes considerably in promoting economic, social and territory cohesion, as it enhances locals’ identity and appreciation for their land and its history.

However, cultural heritage is exposed to multiple risks due to ageing, adverse environmental conditions, and human pressure. As the environmental crisis is emphasized by intense climatic changes and extreme natural hazards, new demands on preservation strategies arise, to remediate and prevent damage on cultural heritage. In parallel and even though cultural tourism is acknowledged and used these last decades as a development and growth tool by many countries, nowadays it has experience overtourism in several cases. On the other hand, there are urban or rural areas, unable to assure a satisfactory standard of living for their population, thus facing underdevelopment and population decrease, even if these areas are rich in cultural reserve.

These kind of inequalities within urban matrices and/or regions require innovative methodologies and successfully applied expertise strategies in order to be diminished. Cultural heritage can be used as a growth pole for underdeveloped areas, whereas in overdeveloped areas alteration of socio-spatial patterns can lead to the improvement of cultural sites safeguarding and locals’ life quality. Whatever the case is, the principles of sustainability and circular economy can play a key role in land management and urban/rural development for achieving the goals of revitalization and balanced economic growth.

To sum up, this Special Issue aims to investigate as many as possible sides of the nexus: cultural heritage preservation, sustainable urban/rural land management, local society enhancement, and economic growth, to shed light into this multi-variant and complex scientific area, suggesting viable and novel resolving strategies.

Prof. Dr. Antonia Moropoulou
Prof. Dr. Charalabos Ioannidis
Dr. Ekaterini Delegou
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • sustainable development
  • remote sensing
  • 3D modeling
  • spatial planning
  • GIS / HBIM
  • cultural routes
  • tangible/intangible cultural heritage
  • historical settlements
  • historical cities
  • circular economy
  • cultural tourism
  • environmental management

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 13752 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution of Relationship between Historical Monuments and Tourism: The Case Study of Bihor County in Romania
by Grigore Vasile Herman, Lucian Blaga, Claudiu Filimon, Tudor Caciora, Luminița Filimon, Laura Mariana Herman and Jan A. Wendt
Land 2024, 13(5), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13050668 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Tourism is one of the emerging branches of the economy, playing an important role in the development of specific economies within local communities. In this context, the perspectives of exploiting historical monuments, seen as raw material in the tourism industry, represent a desirable [...] Read more.
Tourism is one of the emerging branches of the economy, playing an important role in the development of specific economies within local communities. In this context, the perspectives of exploiting historical monuments, seen as raw material in the tourism industry, represent a desirable goal worth considering at the locality and territorial administrative unit level. The purpose of this study is to highlight the relationship between historical monuments, viewed as factors generating tourist motivation and tourism. This was made possible by conducting a spatial analysis (at the level of territorial administrative units and localities) of the defining criteria for historical monuments and tourism in Bihor County, Romania. The research methodology involved the use of multicriteria analysis to identify and establish the types of relationships between historical monuments and tourism, at a spatial level. The results of the study aimed to present an image of the spatial distribution of the characteristics of historical monuments and tourism, as well as to establish and depict spatial relationships between them, thus partially confirming the working hypothesis that the number and importance of historical monuments influence and determine tourist activity within a given area. Thus, although the studied area has 455 historical monuments, they are not exploited from a tourist point of view, with there being no strong relationships, except at the level of 19 territorial administrative units (18.8%), respectively, in 15 localities (3.3%). Among them, the obtained values stand out for the territorial administrative units of Oradea and Biharia, respectively, in the localities of Oradea and Beiuș. Full article
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27 pages, 9687 KiB  
Article
Formation Process and Spatial Representation of Tourist Destination Personality from the Perspective of Cultural Heritage: Application in Traditional Villages in Ancient Huizhou, China
by Kai Ren and Jin Xu
Land 2024, 13(4), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13040423 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 726
Abstract
Tourism destinations are cultural heritage and spatial landscape systems of organic coexistence between humans and the Earth, and are formed through the long historical evolution of a specific geographical environment. With the development of large-scale cultural and tourism projects and the construction of [...] Read more.
Tourism destinations are cultural heritage and spatial landscape systems of organic coexistence between humans and the Earth, and are formed through the long historical evolution of a specific geographical environment. With the development of large-scale cultural and tourism projects and the construction of scenic areas, many tourist destinations face conflicts between people and the environment and the crisis of discontinuity in the landscape and the cultural context. The concept of tourist destination personality provides a perspective for studying the interaction between humans and the environment in tourist destinations. However, existing research has not delved into the mechanisms of temporal–spatial interaction and spatial representation of regional cultural heritage in regional systems. Therefore, from the perspectives of geography and urban–rural planning, this study selects traditional villages in ancient Huizhou as the research object and employs relevant theories from cultural ecology to construct a paradigm for analyzing the formation path of tourist destination personality based on a cultural core from a regional systemic perspective. Building on this, this study develops a coupling analysis framework for the “accumulation anchoring” of heritage landscape representation in traditional villages in ancient Huizhou based on a cognitive understanding of tourist destination heritage landscape and a ‘time–space’ interactive model. The research reveals that the formation of personality in traditional villages in ancient Huizhou centers around cultural cores such as production methods, social organizations, construction mechanisms, and social beliefs. It is driven by basic forces such as resource endowment vitality, a social structure driving force, and a historical choice regulatory force, with the logic of forming dominant functions and obtaining expected benefits such as the core. The spatial representation of traditional village heritage in ancient Huizhou exhibits a synergistic evolution mechanism between ‘culture and landscape’. The research process and conclusions provide a basic framework and methodological system for the study of tourist destination personality and heritage revitalization, expanding the understanding of the process of human–environment interaction and spatial patterns in tourist destinations. Full article
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39 pages, 24351 KiB  
Article
Designing Cultural Routes as a Tool of Responsible Tourism and Sustainable Local Development in Isolated and Less Developed Islands: The Case of Symi Island in Greece
by Aspasia E. Fafouti, Anastasia Vythoulka, Ekaterini T. Delegou, Nikolaos Farmakidis, Maria Ioannou, Komninos Perellis, Antonis Giannikouris, Nikolaos A. Kampanis, George Alexandrakis and Antonia Moropoulou
Land 2023, 12(8), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12081590 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3066
Abstract
Responsible tourism practices promote the idea that responsibility refers to both visitors and local communities, ensuring the protection and conservation of the natural environment and cultural heritage and contributing to a better quality of life. The role of “sustainability” in a tourist development [...] Read more.
Responsible tourism practices promote the idea that responsibility refers to both visitors and local communities, ensuring the protection and conservation of the natural environment and cultural heritage and contributing to a better quality of life. The role of “sustainability” in a tourist development strategy is to protect and reveal what already exists (“reuse, recycle, renovate”) rather than consume. In these terms, cultural routes can serve as valuable tourism assets that can attract visitors and generate economic activity, while protecting the environmental and cultural heritage. This study is focused on Symi, a small and remote Greek island better known as a religious tourism destination, examining how cultural routes could be at the core of an economic development and social cohesion strategic plan. Symi served as a case study due to the island’s rich cultural and natural heritage, including historic buildings, natural attractions, monuments, and archaeological sites. The revealing of those assets is crucial for the advancement of an integrated local strategy for cultural tourism in terms of responsible tourism. The primary objective of this study is to analyze how the development of a cultural routes network, integrating monuments from diverse historical periods, significant religious sites, and areas of significant architectural and environmental value, can contribute to a responsible tourism approach and further a sustainable development that generates multiple benefits for the local community in an insular region. Full article
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39 pages, 16376 KiB  
Article
Preservation of Cultural Landscape as a Tool for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas: The Case of Mani Peninsula in Greece
by Eleni Oikonomopoulou, Ekaterini T. Delegou, John Sayas, Anastasia Vythoulka and Antonia Moropoulou
Land 2023, 12(8), 1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12081579 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
A cultural landscape is a complex and integrating concept with both material–physical and immaterial substance. Nevertheless, even today, the strategies for the protection and promotion of cultural landscapes are concentrated only at their material cultural elements, separated from their immaterial existence, or even [...] Read more.
A cultural landscape is a complex and integrating concept with both material–physical and immaterial substance. Nevertheless, even today, the strategies for the protection and promotion of cultural landscapes are concentrated only at their material cultural elements, separated from their immaterial existence, or even from the natural environment in which they are placed. This study investigates the correlation of the tangible historical and natural heritage of a cultural landscape with its intangible content, as a spatial planning tool for its sustainable development. The proposed methodology was applied in the region of the Mani Peninsula, located in the southern Peloponnese, in Greece. During the documentation stage, literature research and fieldwork provided descriptive information, which was classified through standardization processes. GIS management and analysis procedures were used among the different layers of data of the current preservation state and the existing development frameworks for the study area. New thematic cultural routes are proposed to connect tangible cultural heritage and environmental values of the region under study, with the landscape’s geomorphological characteristics and intangible content. Protected areas are also proposed for the protection of monuments and sites of historical or natural importance. The results of this study demonstrate that, through integrated strategic planning for the development of cultural activities and networks, which incorporates the principles of spatial and urban planning, not only is the protection of the natural and cultural wealth of the region achieved, but also a balanced economic development and social cohesion, which ultimately leads to sustainable development. Full article
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18 pages, 2324 KiB  
Article
Towards a Regenerative Role of Cultural Heritage in Climate Resilience; the Case of the Indian Water Infrastructure Heritage
by Mehrnaz Rajabi
Land 2023, 12(8), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12081539 - 3 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Despite great efforts in facing climate change challenges—especially by the UN Paris Agreement, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and companion documents (Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the New Urban Agenda)—generally speaking, current policies on climate change and Disaster Risk Reduction [...] Read more.
Despite great efforts in facing climate change challenges—especially by the UN Paris Agreement, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and companion documents (Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the New Urban Agenda)—generally speaking, current policies on climate change and Disaster Risk Reduction at both national and international levels have not yet been centrally positioned in respective plans for heritage, and cultural heritage still does not have a central role in such policies. The main aim of this paper is to explore the culture/cultural heritage’s complex interrelationship with climate change by delving into critical issues/gaps and recommendatory encounters of heritage framework in climate change framework and vice versa at the international level and an example in India. Accordingly, this paper showcases a type of Indian Water Infrastructure Heritage; Stepwells, traditional underground water management systems in arid western India which, unfortunately, with modernization, lost their original function and hence, nowadays, most are abandoned. Thus, by the situational analysis of such an Indian urban-scale type of heritage, this paper concludes with critical reflections on the necessity of the systemic relationship among sustainability, conservation, and development, especially in practice and the need to recall the notion of sustainability again. Full article
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19 pages, 12241 KiB  
Article
Geospatial Tool Development for the Management of Historical Hiking Trails—The Case of the Holy Site of Meteora
by Chryssy Potsiou, Charalabos Ioannidis, Sofia Soile, Argyro-Maria Boutsi, Regina Chliverou, Konstantinos Apostolopoulos, Maria Gkeli and Fotis Bourexis
Land 2023, 12(8), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12081530 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
This paper presents a holistic guiding methodology for the development of a geospatial tool to be used for the documentation, planning, smart management and dissemination of a country’s network of historic hiking trails. To deal with the challenges and to ensure the sustainability [...] Read more.
This paper presents a holistic guiding methodology for the development of a geospatial tool to be used for the documentation, planning, smart management and dissemination of a country’s network of historic hiking trails. To deal with the challenges and to ensure the sustainability of a historic site, geospatial documentation merging authoritative and crowdsourced data and a WebGIS-based spatial analysis is necessary. Geospatial data collection should include professional field surveys, professional and crowdsourced photographic documentation and video recording of the existing historic walking/hiking trails. A geodatabase, structured using relational model technology, including vector spatial entities (feature classes), mosaics (raster) and tabulated data (geodatabase tables), should be developed on a commercial or open platform; in this case, the ArcGIS Pro is used. Entities with embedded descriptive information and metadata for the technical, legal, historical, and administrative context may then be created. An object-oriented data model is needed to connect spatial and descriptive information. Spatial and descriptive queries or correlations between attribute fields of spatial entities must be enabled for specialized information retrieval by either experts or users. Next, a web GIS application to present the developed geodatabase in a visually appealing and informative way is created. It should integrate 2D maps with built-in tools and should support advanced functionalities, such as: (i) pop-ups that display brief information and images about specific spots along the trails; (ii) dynamic visualization of the vertical profile of each trail; (iii) multimedia information about landmarks, natural features and scenic viewpoints. Finally, the tool includes a feedback service and continuous efficiency monitoring and assessment, and enables adjustments, if and where needed. The tool is tested and used for 10 historical walking/hiking trails of the archaeological and Holy Site of Meteora, Central Greece. This is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The network, with a total length of 35 km, leads to six monasteries, still active since the 12th century, passing by gigantic rocks and beautiful natural landscapes. The site is famous globally and the greater area is continuously overcrowded with visitors. The tool is anticipated to be used for the documentation and management of the whole walking/hiking historic trail network of Greece in the future. Full article
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16 pages, 14764 KiB  
Article
Preservation of Abandoned Historic Centres—The Case of Poggioreale antica (Sicily)
by Caterina F. Carocci, Francesco Cannizzaro, Salvatore Cocina, Alessia Di Martino, Renata Finocchiaro, Nicola Impollonia, Valentina Macca, Antonino Terrana and Cesare Tocci
Land 2023, 12(7), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071376 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Among the fourteen towns most damaged by the earthquake that struck western Sicily in 1968, Poggioreale was subjected to total relocation a few kilometres away, and to the transfer of its whole population. More than half a century later, the damaged settlement is [...] Read more.
Among the fourteen towns most damaged by the earthquake that struck western Sicily in 1968, Poggioreale was subjected to total relocation a few kilometres away, and to the transfer of its whole population. More than half a century later, the damaged settlement is still largely recognisable and has been experiencing a new season of interest for some years now, both from the local community and various kinds of outsiders who imagine economic spin-offs of an uncertain nature in its enhancement. The research we present questions the chance of survival for the settlement, forgotten for decades, in the context of interventions aimed at its reuse. Alternative strategies are discussed: on the one hand, that of bringing the ancient centre back to life, even in part, with a limited inclusion of collective functions and without claiming to inhabit it again; on the other hand, and in the authors’ opinion, more likely, that of reusing the ruins as an archaeological area preserving their memory in a different form. In either case, the kinds of operations to be carried out on the body of the ancient buildings for their physical preservation play a key role. These issues are addressed as a whole through the canonical procedure of correlating the phases of knowledge, interpretation, and definition of minimal and compatible intervention criteria. Full article
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35 pages, 22546 KiB  
Article
The In-Situ Spatial-Temporal Evolution of the Settlement Space along the Grand Canal Tianjin Section from the Perspective of Cultural Heritage
by Yan Zhao, Guangmeng Bian, Tianyi Sun and Jianwei Yan
Land 2023, 12(5), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12051023 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
The Grand Canal of China, as a traffic artery in ancient China, has exerted profound influence on the development of the cities, towns and rural settlements along it. Now, with China’s rapid urbanization, numerous settlements along the canal are confronted with problems like [...] Read more.
The Grand Canal of China, as a traffic artery in ancient China, has exerted profound influence on the development of the cities, towns and rural settlements along it. Now, with China’s rapid urbanization, numerous settlements along the canal are confronted with problems like slow cognition of the cultural heritage, loss of the local culture and damage of historical relics. Hence, research on the protection and updating of the settlement space along the canal is in urgent need. This paper, targeting the settlement space along the Grand Canal Tianjin Section, adopts such research methods as the Historical GIS analytical method, the kernel density estimation method and the average nearest-neighbor method to quantitatively analyze the evolution stage and distribution characteristics of the settlement space along the Grand Canal Tianjin Section from the perspective of cultural relics to reveal the in-situ rules of evolution of the settlement space. The research result indicates that the spatial-temporal evolution of the settlement space can be divided into five such periods of the settlements along the canal as the pre-canal period, the rudimentary period, the development period, the mature period and the transformation period. Each period features different cultural relics and settlement distribution patterns. The research shows that the natural geographical environment, the grain transportation projects and management systems, the wasteland opening, grain growing and military defense policies, the agricultural, commercial and economic growth and the migration and folk culture are the influencing factors of the spatial evolution of the settlement space along the Grand Canal Tianjin Section. Full article
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24 pages, 1470 KiB  
Article
A Multicriteria Approach to Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Heritage: Case Studies of Riverside Power Plants
by María V. Añibarro, María J. Andrade and Eduardo Jiménez-Morales
Land 2023, 12(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12020314 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4261
Abstract
City riverbanks usually have great landscape value and are iconic public spaces. However, there are many cities with large abandoned industrial buildings, such as power plants, on their riverbanks. Such buildings run the risk of being demolished in order to recover the surrounding [...] Read more.
City riverbanks usually have great landscape value and are iconic public spaces. However, there are many cities with large abandoned industrial buildings, such as power plants, on their riverbanks. Such buildings run the risk of being demolished in order to recover the surrounding natural landscape, despite having an important presence in the collective memory of the citizens and in the history of the city. This article seeks to analyse the reuse and refurbishment of industrial power plants on riversides from a modern artistic/recreational approach in order to restore and enhance the landscape value of the site by regenerating the environs and turning them into hubs of activity. Two case studies from different locations are considered in order to extract the information. A methodology is used that allows us to analyse and study a complex reality in a straightforward, concise and direct way. That means it can be used by many agents currently involved in those reuse processes to compare and to monitor the different cases over time. This research has sought to highlight the power plant typology, its relationship with the riverside, and subsequently, to extrapolate the criteria used to study other industrial buildings. Full article
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20 pages, 5230 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution of Urban Heritage and Landscape Approach to Urban Contextual Continuity: The Case of Suzhou
by Jun Jiang, Tongguang Zang, Jianglong Xing and Konomi Ikebe
Land 2023, 12(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12010150 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2489
Abstract
Suzhou, one of the most famous historical cities in China, has undergone significant urbanization over recent decades. These changes have caused a gradual separation of Suzhou’s urban heritage from its urban development and hindered the further growth of the city. This study analyzes [...] Read more.
Suzhou, one of the most famous historical cities in China, has undergone significant urbanization over recent decades. These changes have caused a gradual separation of Suzhou’s urban heritage from its urban development and hindered the further growth of the city. This study analyzes the distribution of tangible and intangible heritages that constitute the context of Suzhou combined with the historic urban landscape approach to obtain the following conclusions: (1) The current distribution of Suzhou’s urban heritage does not completely overlap with the built-up area of the city, and the non-overlapping areas reveal the imbalance of the current urban development and the fracture of the context of Suzhou; this imbalance is still a blind spot in the planning process. (2) The use of intangible cultural heritage will help to establish the possibility of contextual continuation in areas that lack urban heritage. (3) Multi-use community spaces that carry the intangible cultural heritage are particularly important for new urban areas, as they can help urban residents understand the traditional way of life in the region. (4) An approach to heritage management that goes beyond elitism, in conjunction with residents and communities, will help the ancient city to find a better balance between contextual continuity and economic development. Full article
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18 pages, 3385 KiB  
Article
Spatial Differentiation, Influencing Factors, and Development Paths of Rural Tourism Resources in Guangdong Province
by Chenmei Liao, Yifan Zuo, Rob Law, Yingying Wang and Mu Zhang
Land 2022, 11(11), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11112046 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2300
Abstract
Rural tourism resources are the core carriers of rural tourism. It is, therefore, beneficial to further optimize the layout of rural tourism and to explore the spatial differentiation of rural tourism resources and their influencing factors. Taking 4670 rural tourism resources in Guangdong [...] Read more.
Rural tourism resources are the core carriers of rural tourism. It is, therefore, beneficial to further optimize the layout of rural tourism and to explore the spatial differentiation of rural tourism resources and their influencing factors. Taking 4670 rural tourism resources in Guangdong Province in China as the research object, this study explores the spatial distribution patterns of rural tourism resources through the nearest neighbor index, grid dimension analysis, kernel density analysis, and standard deviation ellipse method. Geodetectors are used to identify the influencing factors of the spatial heterogeneity of these resources in Guangdong Province. The findings reveal the following: (1) The distribution of rural tourism resources in Guangdong Province shows a tendency of agglomeration along the Tropic of Cancer, and the spatial distribution is unbalanced. The hot and cold spots show a “northeast-southwest” distribution trend. Furthermore, most of the hotspots form three high-density core areas, the sub-dense stretch zones connect into a w-shaped belt, and the sub-cold areas and sub-hot areas show a large expansion trend, thus forming five radiation areas. (2) The distribution of rural tourism resources in Guangdong Province is affected by multiple factors. In particular, the force of agricultural resource endowment, tourism resource endowment and transportation location are relatively strong, and social economy and tourist source market are the weak factors. Full article
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