Urban Micro-Segregation

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 11731

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Geography, Harokopio University, 17778 Athens, Greece
Interests: urban inequalities; segregation; gentrification; southern Europe
School of Urban Design, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
Interests: migration and social integration; urban socio-spatial transformation; China
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Sociology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Interests: China; immigration; segregation; urban sociology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims at bringing evidence on micro-segregation forms from diverse metropolitan contexts across the planet. Interpretations of the ways urban micro-segregation is shaped by global and local forces are also part of the scope of this SI and should pave the way to assess its impact on sociospatial reproduction. Mapping micro-segregation in different cities is also an essential element of capturing and exploring the provided evidence and brings this SI close to the scope of Land (mainly to the section: Urban Contexts and Urban–Rural Interactions).

In this Special Issue, we invite papers focusing on, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Forms of racial, ethnic and/or social micro-segregation (i.e., below the neighborhood level)
  • Trends of change in micro-segregation forms in metropolitan areas
  • Comparative studies of micro-segregation in different urban contexts
  • Mapping micro-segregation forms
  • Interpretation of the development and reproduction of micro-segregation forms
  • Exploration of the micro-segregation effect (compared to the neighborhood effect).

Authors who are interested in this Special Issue should submit abstracts (300 words) to Land@mdpi.com by 30 November 2022. These abstracts will be reviewed by the guest editors. Full manuscripts should be submitted before 30 June 2023.

Prof. Dr. Thomas Maloutas
Dr. Sainan Lin
Prof. Dr. John Logan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • micro-segregation
  • social mix
  • vertical cities
  • compact cities
  • neighborhood effect
  • vertical segregation
  • apartment and city blocks
  • micro-segregation forms
  • micro-segregation maps

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Safety Perceptions and Micro-Segregation: Exploring Gated- and Non-Gated-Community Dynamics in Quetta, Pakistan
by Asifa Iqbal, Tahira Shaukat and Humaira Nazir
Land 2024, 13(6), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060727 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 196
Abstract
Crime impacts residential neighborhoods not only through the loss of life and property but also by instilling a widespread fear among residents. To combat this fear, physical security measures like safety locks, gates, and high perimeter walls have proven effective in both developed [...] Read more.
Crime impacts residential neighborhoods not only through the loss of life and property but also by instilling a widespread fear among residents. To combat this fear, physical security measures like safety locks, gates, and high perimeter walls have proven effective in both developed and developing nations. This trend has led to the increased popularity of gated communities in Pakistan as a preferred housing choice. In addition to encouraging micro-segregation, these developments also attract a large number of residents. In order to better understand the differences in residents’ fear of crime in relation to their health and socio-economic status, this paper compares residential housing schemes in Quetta, Pakistan (gated and non-gated). Surveys and on-site observations in four different residential areas of the city underpin the methodology. The results suggest that past experiences of crime victimization strongly affect feelings of safety in both gated and non-gated communities. The study highlights the complex relationship between the perception of safety, health and well-being, socio-economic status, and the type of community, highlighting how these factors collectively influence respondents’ experiences and create micro-segregation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Micro-Segregation)
16 pages, 4340 KiB  
Article
Measuring Deprivation and Micro-Segregation in Greek Integrated Sustainable Urban Development Strategies: Time to Apply a Common Method?
by Nikos Karadimitriou and Stavros Spyrellis
Land 2024, 13(4), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13040552 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 520
Abstract
During the Programming Period 2014–2020, dozens of Greek cities drafted Integrated Territorial Investment programmes, based on Integrated Sustainable Urban Development Strategies (ITI SUDs). The Strategies justified the selection of intervention and activity areas using socio-economic analysis. The parameters of that analysis, as specified [...] Read more.
During the Programming Period 2014–2020, dozens of Greek cities drafted Integrated Territorial Investment programmes, based on Integrated Sustainable Urban Development Strategies (ITI SUDs). The Strategies justified the selection of intervention and activity areas using socio-economic analysis. The parameters of that analysis, as specified by the National Coordination Authority, reflected the socio-economic and functional parameters highlighted in the relevant EU regulations. This paper uses a recently published methodology in order to estimate and map deprivation in Greek cities with over 100,000 inhabitants, and compares the results with the activity areas identified in the ITI SUDs of those cities. The paper also makes an estimation of the potential for micro-segregation in deprived areas, in an effort to uncover the links between deprivation, built form and social composition at the micro-scale. The analysis shows that deprivation is comparatively more pronounced in Athens and Thessaloniki, and that the use of a common methodology to measuring deprivation, but with customized measurement scales, could support a more targeted allocation of urban policy resources. On the other hand, micro-segregation seems to be a factor worth exploring only in Athens and Thessaloniki, and not in Patra, Larissa, Volos and Heraklion, where the building stock in areas of deprivation is mostly low-rise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Micro-Segregation)
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23 pages, 8898 KiB  
Article
Exploring Spatial Proximity and Social Exclusion through Two Case Studies of Roma Settlements in Greece
by Thomas Maloutas, Yannis Frangopoulos, Alexandra Makridou, Eirini Kostaki, Dimitris Kourkouridis and Stavros Nikiforos Spyrellis
Land 2024, 13(2), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13020202 - 7 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1884
Abstract
Roma groups in Greece are a long-standing socially deprived population that faces extreme social exclusion and segregation. Their marginalization includes limited access to education, employment, and housing. This paper explores their spatial position and social exclusion, comparing the social profile and life conditions [...] Read more.
Roma groups in Greece are a long-standing socially deprived population that faces extreme social exclusion and segregation. Their marginalization includes limited access to education, employment, and housing. This paper explores their spatial position and social exclusion, comparing the social profile and life conditions in two case studies of Roma settlements with those of the municipal and regional units to which they belong. Methodologically, we analyze quantitative data from the 2011 Population Census to measure life conditions at three levels (settlement, municipal unit, regional unit), and we also use qualitative data from interviews with representatives of local agencies and residents of the two settlements to document our hypotheses on the causal relations between the spatial position and the social exclusion of Roma groups. The comparison shows that the two Roma settlements are clearly different from their entourage, assembling the lowest positions in the labor market, the weakest performances in education, the largest households, and the worst housing conditions. This case of extreme social exclusion in ghettoized spatial proximity raises the question about the significance of micro-segregation and the way it works in different contexts, as well as the need for further research for a more comprehensive understanding of the relation between social inequality and spatial distance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Micro-Segregation)
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25 pages, 5644 KiB  
Article
Residential Micro-Segregation and Social Capital in Lima, Peru
by Fernando Calderón-Figueroa
Land 2024, 13(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13010113 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1298
Abstract
This article addresses the bidirectional relationship between residential micro-segregation, in the form of built barriers to mobility, and social capital. I engage with two bodies of the literature. On the one hand, I critique a widespread top-down model of residential segregation. This model [...] Read more.
This article addresses the bidirectional relationship between residential micro-segregation, in the form of built barriers to mobility, and social capital. I engage with two bodies of the literature. On the one hand, I critique a widespread top-down model of residential segregation. This model suggests that higher-status groups drive segregation through direct (e.g., secluded neighbourhoods) and indirect (e.g., by funnelling housing demand) measures. On the other hand, I provide evidence of the bounding effects of segregation on social capital. While some scholars suggest residential homogeneity favours social capital, others argue that benefits occur within privileged neighbourhoods. The effects of segregation on social capital are less clear at lower scales and in highly unequal Global South cities. My argument is twofold. First, I uncover the dynamics of segregation below the neighbourhood scale. I use the notion of horizontal micro-segregation to identify the social and spatial conditions associated with a higher concentration of street-level segregating infrastructure. My methodological approach draws on data for all residential blocks in Lima, Peru (N = 99,685). I find that suburban-inspired urban design is positively associated with micro-segregating infrastructure, upon controlling for other factors such as socioeconomic status, density, and urbanization age of each block. Second, I provide evidence of the bounding effects of segregation on social capital. Using ten waves of the Lima Cómo Vamos survey (2010–2019), I show that micro-segregating infrastructure is associated with higher trust in neighbours and lower civic engagement. These findings indicate that exposure to segregation affects social capital within and across secluded neighbourhoods throughout the socioeconomic spectrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Micro-Segregation)
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17 pages, 3287 KiB  
Article
Controlling the Proximity of the Poor: Patterns of Micro-Segregation in Naples’ Upper-Class Areas
by Thomas Pfirsch
Land 2023, 12(11), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112005 - 1 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Naples has been described as a symbol of the weak segregation of Mediterranean cities, which are marked by microscale segregation rather than neighborhood segregation. This paper focuses on the upper-class areas of Naples where, besides vertical segregation, other patterns of micro-segregation can be [...] Read more.
Naples has been described as a symbol of the weak segregation of Mediterranean cities, which are marked by microscale segregation rather than neighborhood segregation. This paper focuses on the upper-class areas of Naples where, besides vertical segregation, other patterns of micro-segregation can be found and remain understudied. In such areas, Disadvantaged groups still concentrate into streets, blocks and enclaves of poverty that have resisted gentrification despite their location in the heart of upper-class nieghborhoods. Though self-segregation of the urban élite has sharply increased with globalization and postfordist capitalism, such patterns of segregation in well-off areas are largely unexplored. The paper is based on a mixed method. It uses census data to map the residential location of disadvantaged groups in Naples upper-class areas at the local scale. It also draws on ethnographic fieldwork to analyze the Neapolitan élites’ attitudes towards the proximity of the poor. The paper shows that the spatial proximity of the poor has long been accepted and promoted by the city élite as a way of maintaining social control over their patronage. But it is increasingly stigmatized as this control through proximity becomes more difficult for the decaying traditional Neapolitan élite. Residential proximity is now associated with increasing segregation in the use of public spaces. The paper discusses the theory of élite Urban Secession in globalization. In Naples, rather than Secession, the élite play a game of proximity and distance with the poor, using space as a means of social control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Micro-Segregation)
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24 pages, 17411 KiB  
Article
Micro-Segregation of Ethnic Minorities in Rome: Highlighting Specificities of National Groups in Micro-Segregated Areas
by Massimiliano Crisci and Michele Santurro
Land 2023, 12(10), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12101870 - 3 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
This paper aims to study ethnic micro-segregation in Rome, namely, high residential concentrations of ethnic groups at the micro-area level within neighbourhoods with low concentrations of these groups, with a focus on specific situations of spatial inequality often overlooked in the debate. The [...] Read more.
This paper aims to study ethnic micro-segregation in Rome, namely, high residential concentrations of ethnic groups at the micro-area level within neighbourhoods with low concentrations of these groups, with a focus on specific situations of spatial inequality often overlooked in the debate. The Italian capital is one of the five most populous cities in the European Union and a multi-ethnic metropolis with relatively low levels of segregation. It is an urban context that has been little studied, partly due to the lack of reliable and granular data. This work is based on unpublished individual data from the 2020 population register, disaggregated into 155 neighbourhoods and 13,656 census tracts with average populations of about 18,000 and 200 residents, respectively. The five minority groups considered, Bangladeshis, Chinese, Filipinos, Romanians, and migrants from developed economy countries (DECs), add up to 55% of the total foreign residents and show different settlement patterns. The concept of micro-segregated area (MSA) is central to the scope of the analysis. An MSA is a census tract that shows a strong over-representation of a specific ethnic group despite being located within a neighbourhood where that group is under-represented. MSAs can be considered ‘interstitial’ micro-areas embedded in ethnically diverse neighbourhoods. Descriptive analysis based on location quotient (LQ) mapping and bivariate logistic models is developed to highlight (a) differences in the settlement patterns of minority ethnic groups; (b) differences in the micro-segregation of minority ethnic groups in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, settlement location, and socioeconomic status; and (c) the particular characteristics of minority ethnic groups underlying these differences. The findings indicate that differences in settlement patterns can be related to the interplay between real estate constraints and labour market specialisation. National specificities in micro-segregation are mainly linked to length of stay, but the models of the Asian groups do not offer any empirical support for the spatial assimilation hypothesis, unlike those of Romanians and DECs citizens. Further development of this research will aim to explore segregation patterns and motivations to move to MSAs using a mixed method approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Micro-Segregation)
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18 pages, 3401 KiB  
Article
The Construction of the Visible and Invisible Boundaries of Microsegregation: A Case Study from Szeged, Hungary
by Ramóna Vámos, Gyula Nagy and Zoltán Kovács
Land 2023, 12(10), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12101835 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
The concept of microsegregation has gained increasing popularity among researchers dealing with socio-spatial disparities in cities. This is because urban space has become increasingly multifaceted over recent decades, and the boundaries of socio-spatial segregation have also become increasingly subtle, often taking invisible forms [...] Read more.
The concept of microsegregation has gained increasing popularity among researchers dealing with socio-spatial disparities in cities. This is because urban space has become increasingly multifaceted over recent decades, and the boundaries of socio-spatial segregation have also become increasingly subtle, often taking invisible forms below the neighborhood level. This study contributes to the literature on microsegregation by exploring small-scale forms of social disparities in one of the neighborhoods of Szeged, a second-tier city in Hungary. We used both quantitative and qualitative research methods to capture visible and invisible forms of microsegregation in the study area. An analysis of census data confirmed the coupling of socio-economic diversity and polarization at the census-tract level in three different forms as a result of various underlying factors, among which the sorting effect of the housing market plays a leading role. The results of in-depth interviews with experts and residents suggest that although the overall perception of the neighborhood is good and that serious conflicts do not occur, there are palpable socio-spatial differences and signs of segregation at the micro scale. The weak sense of segregation can be partly linked to the lack of public spaces where daily encounters between people from different social groups could take place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Micro-Segregation)
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23 pages, 18585 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal-Behavior-Based Microsegregation and Differentiated Community Ties of Residents with Different Types of Housing in Mixed-Housing Neighborhoods: A Case Study of Fuzhou, China
by Xue Zhang, Yifan Tang and Yanwei Chai
Land 2023, 12(9), 1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12091654 - 23 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
As a kind of urban neighborhood with strong internal heterogeneity, mixed-housing neighborhoods have attracted wide attention from scholars in recent years. Strengthening community ties in mixed-housing neighborhoods is of great significance for increasing neighborhood social capital, cultivating a sense of community, and promoting [...] Read more.
As a kind of urban neighborhood with strong internal heterogeneity, mixed-housing neighborhoods have attracted wide attention from scholars in recent years. Strengthening community ties in mixed-housing neighborhoods is of great significance for increasing neighborhood social capital, cultivating a sense of community, and promoting sustainable development of the neighborhood. The neighborhood activities of residents are an important factor in promoting community ties. However, different housing groups in mixed-housing neighborhoods may have differentiated or even segregated overall daily activities, which may impact their neighborhood activities and call for differentiated planning strategies. In this study, we conduct an empirical study in Fuzhou, China, to identify the spatiotemporal-behavior-based microsegregation and differentiated community ties between residents of different types of housing. The data were collected in 2021 and included residents’ activity diary data and questionnaire data about neighborhood interaction and community ties. Through an analysis of the daily overall activity space and activities within the neighborhood areas, the spatiotemporal-behavior-based social segregation of various housing groups is depicted. Furthermore, a multigroup structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the relationships among residents’ spatiotemporal behaviors, neighborhood interactions, and community ties, and the heterogeneous influence effects across housing groups. The results show that the more residents’ activity spaces overlap with the neighborhood area, the more out-of-home time they spend within the neighborhood, and that the more types of activities are conducted within the neighborhood area, the stronger their community ties are. In addition, neighborhood interaction played a linkage role in the relationships of residents’ spatiotemporal behaviors and community ties. Our research aims to further the understanding of microsegregation at the neighborhood level and provide references for the development of mixed-housing neighborhoods and urban land use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Micro-Segregation)
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19 pages, 7657 KiB  
Article
Imposing ‘Enclosed Communities’? Urban Gating of Large Housing Estates in Sweden and France
by Karin Grundström and Christine Lelévrier
Land 2023, 12(8), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12081535 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Gated communities and gated housing enclaves have primarily been identified as elite spaces of privilege that support self-imposed disaffiliation and spatial and social withdrawal by the affluent. Over the past decade, however, European countries have also seen a rise of gating in large [...] Read more.
Gated communities and gated housing enclaves have primarily been identified as elite spaces of privilege that support self-imposed disaffiliation and spatial and social withdrawal by the affluent. Over the past decade, however, European countries have also seen a rise of gating in large housing estates. Drawing on previous research and a comparative case study that includes interviews, observations, and mapping, this article analyses policies and practices of gating in large housing estates since 2010 in Malmö, Sweden and since 2000 in Paris, France. We argue, first, that gating is legitimised by policy arguments about ‘defensible space’, by a critique of the modernist design, and by a perceived need for diversification. Secondly, we expand the notion of urban gating and identify four types of enclosure: complete enclosure, semi-enclosure, enclosure through densification, and enclosure of parks and playgrounds. We conclude that the notion of the welfare state has changed, not only in financial terms but also as an urban form, leading to the micro-segregation of housing and land, which makes visible the social stratification within large housing estates. Gating of large housing estates thus leads to ‘enclosed communities’ rather than ‘gated communities’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Micro-Segregation)
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