Personalized Medicine of Cognitive Impairments Associated with Psychiatric Disorders

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Personalized Therapy and Drug Delivery".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 July 2024 | Viewed by 8351

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Toho University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: cognitive enhancement; neurocognition; neuroscience; psychopharmacology; rehabilitation; social cognition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Patients with psychosis show impairment over a broad spectrum of the cognitive domain, with deficits in attention, memory, executive function, and social cognition. Moreover, cognitive functioning is a predictor of social functioning, which includes such aspects as the ability to carry out activities of daily living, level of work functioning, and quality of interpersonal relations. Cognitive impairments also lead to difficulties for patients and families with nonpsychotic disorders. The clinical symptoms that define a disease are often linked to different pathophysiological processes that may not be immediately obvious in the clinical setting, making the optimal treatment for an individual patient uncertain and leading to a suboptimal trial-and-error treatment process. Complementary to the disease is the patient who may respond to certain treatments more optimally than other treatments. Understanding the underlying biology of disease and individual patient variation may improve care for patients, leading to more optimal outcomes. Both pharmacotherapy and psychological intervention are currently the main treatments for such cognitive impairments, and this special issue welcomes the latest research on pharmacotherapy and psychological intervention for all psychiatric disorders. Throughout this Special Issue, I look forward to facilitating active discussion on this topic.

Sincerely,

Prof. Dr. Takahiro Nemoto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cognitive enhancement
  • mental illness
  • neurocognition
  • neuroimaging
  • neuroscience
  • pharmacotherapy
  • psychiatry
  • psychosis
  • rehabilitation
  • social cognition

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

5 pages, 210 KiB  
Editorial
Cognitive Impairments and Rehabilitation in Individuals with at-Risk Mental State for Psychosis
by Takahiro Nemoto
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(6), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13060952 - 5 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
In recent years, importance has been attached to early intervention in the field of healthcare, in general [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

12 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Improvements in Treatment Adherence after Family Psychoeducation in Patients Affected by Psychosis: Preliminary Findings
by Salvatore Iuso, Melania Severo, Nicoletta Trotta, Antonio Ventriglio, Pietro Fiore, Antonello Bellomo and Annamaria Petito
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(10), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13101437 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
(1) Background: Family psychoeducation is a well-recognized intervention which aims to improve the outcomes of illness in patients affected by psychosis. It has benefits in treatment adherence and leads to a reduction in relapses, higher levels of patient insight, and lower levels of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Family psychoeducation is a well-recognized intervention which aims to improve the outcomes of illness in patients affected by psychosis. It has benefits in treatment adherence and leads to a reduction in relapses, higher levels of patient insight, and lower levels of stress within the family and among caregivers. (2) Methods: Eight patients and their families were recruited and randomly assigned to a Falloon-based family psychoeducation (FPP) intervention, and nine patients and their families were randomized to a Gestalt-based family intervention (GT). We compared the outcomes of these two treatment groups at a baseline assessment (T0), at the end of the programs (T1), and 6 and 12 months after the end of the programs (T2 and T3). The assessments included examinations of cognition (The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and The Five Point Test (5 Point)), the psychopathology and severity of illness (The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and The Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI)), expressed emotion in families (Expressed Emotionality (Family Questionnaire-EE)), patient quality of life (The World Health Organization Quality of Life—BREF (WHOQOL-B)), social functioning (The Personal Social Performance (SPS)), aggression (Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS)), and treatment adherence (The Brief Medication Adherence Report Scale (BMARS)). The primary aim was to test whether the FFP vs. GT program was more effective in improving treatment adherence over time. (3) Results: treatment adherence improved much more in the FFP group over time at any follow-up: +43.1% at T1, +24.0% at T2, and +41.6% at T3. Other characteristics, including psychopathology and the clinical stability of the subject, did not change over time. (4) Discussion: Family psychoeducation based on the Falloon program was effective at improving treatment adherence and contributed to avoiding relapses in the long term. Further studies on larger samples should be conducted to confirm this evidence, and similar psychoeducational programs should be routinely promoted in the clinical setting. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 1820 KiB  
Article
Unsupervised Machine Learning Driven Analysis of Verbatims of Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia Patients Having Followed Avatar Therapy
by Alexandre Hudon, Mélissa Beaudoin, Kingsada Phraxayavong, Stéphane Potvin and Alexandre Dumais
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(5), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13050801 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
(1) Background: The therapeutic mechanisms underlying psychotherapeutic interventions for individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia are mostly unknown. One of these treatment techniques is avatar therapy (AT), in which the patient engages in immersive sessions while interacting with an avatar representing their primary persistent auditory [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The therapeutic mechanisms underlying psychotherapeutic interventions for individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia are mostly unknown. One of these treatment techniques is avatar therapy (AT), in which the patient engages in immersive sessions while interacting with an avatar representing their primary persistent auditory verbal hallucination. The aim of this study was to conduct an unsupervised machine-learning analysis of verbatims of treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients that have followed AT. The second aim of the study was to compare the data clusters obtained from the unsupervised machine-learning analysis with previously conducted qualitative analysis. (2) Methods: A k-means algorithm was performed over the immersive-session verbatims of 18 patients suffering from treatment-resistant schizophrenia who followed AT to cluster interactions of the avatar and the patient. Data were pre-processed using vectorization and data reduction. (3): Results: Three clusters of interactions were identified for the avatar’s interactions whereas four clusters were identified for the patient’s interactions. (4) Conclusion: This study was the first attempt to conduct unsupervised machine learning on AT and provided a quantitative insight into the inner interactions that take place during immersive sessions. The use of unsupervised machine learning could yield a better understanding of the type of interactions that take place in AT and their clinical implications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 844 KiB  
Article
Mediation Effects of Social Cognition on the Relationship between Neurocognition and Social Functioning in Major Depressive Disorder and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
by Takashi Uchino, Ryo Okubo, Youji Takubo, Akiko Aoki, Izumi Wada, Naoki Hashimoto, Satoru Ikezawa and Takahiro Nemoto
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040683 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Background: In schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), social cognition mediates the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Although people with major depressive disorder (MDD) also exhibit cognitive impairments, which are often prolonged, little is known about the role of social cognition in MDD. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: In schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), social cognition mediates the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Although people with major depressive disorder (MDD) also exhibit cognitive impairments, which are often prolonged, little is known about the role of social cognition in MDD. Methods: Using data obtained through an internet survey, 210 patients with SSD or MDD were selected using propensity score matching based on their demographics and illness duration. Social cognition, neurocognition, and social functioning were evaluated using the Self-Assessment of Social Cognition Impairments, Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, and Social Functioning Scale, respectively. The mediation effects of social cognition on the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning were examined in each group. Invariances of the mediation model across the two groups were then analyzed. Results: The SSD and MDD groups had mean ages of 44.49 and 45.35 years, contained 42.0% and 42.8% women, and had mean illness durations of 10.76 and 10.45 years, respectively. In both groups, social cognition had significant mediation effects. Configural, measurement, and structural invariances across the groups were established. Conclusion: The role of social cognition in patients with MDD was similar to that in SSD. Social cognition could be a common endophenotype for various psychiatric disorders. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

35 pages, 1839 KiB  
Review
Neuroinflammation and Schizophrenia: New Therapeutic Strategies through Psychobiotics, Nanotechnology, and Artificial Intelligence (AI)
by Freiser Eceomo Cruz Mosquera, Maria Camila Guevara-Montoya, Valentina Serna-Ramirez and Yamil Liscano
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(4), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14040391 - 6 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
The prevalence of schizophrenia, affecting approximately 1% of the global population, underscores the urgency for innovative therapeutic strategies. Recent insights into the role of neuroinflammation, the gut–brain axis, and the microbiota in schizophrenia pathogenesis have paved the way for the exploration of psychobiotics [...] Read more.
The prevalence of schizophrenia, affecting approximately 1% of the global population, underscores the urgency for innovative therapeutic strategies. Recent insights into the role of neuroinflammation, the gut–brain axis, and the microbiota in schizophrenia pathogenesis have paved the way for the exploration of psychobiotics as a novel treatment avenue. These interventions, targeting the gut microbiome, offer a promising approach to ameliorating psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, advancements in artificial intelligence and nanotechnology are set to revolutionize psychobiotic development and application, promising to enhance their production, precision, and effectiveness. This interdisciplinary approach heralds a new era in schizophrenia management, potentially transforming patient outcomes and offering a beacon of hope for those afflicted by this complex disorder. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop