The Path to Personalized Pain Management

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2023) | Viewed by 34842

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Division of Personalized Pain Therapy Research & Education, Center for Advanced Spine Care of Southern Arizona, 4787 E Camp Lowell Drive, Tucson, AZ 85712, USA
2. Department of Orthopaedics, Fundación Universitaria Sanitas, Bogotá 111321, Colombia
3. Department of Orthopedics, Hospital Universitário Gaffre e Guinle, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590, RJ, Brazil
Interests: spinal surgery; spinal disorders; thoracic and lumbar spine
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Guest Editor
Desert Institute for Spine Care, Phoenix, AZ, USA
Interests: orthopedics; spine; surgery; pain

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Guest Editor
Department of Orthopedics, First Medical Center, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
Interests: orthopaedic; spine minimally invasive; pain

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Guest Editor
R. Ken Coit College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Interests: clinical outcomes; effectiveness research; drug-centric; treatment regimens; patient treatment center; pharmacovigilance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The special issue is initiated by SICCMI (https://siccmi.org).

The Path to Personalized Pain Management is evolving, but is still tied to identifying pain generators using medical science reports in the medical literature, which is based on historical concepts and techniques.

There are different philosophies and techniques that also differ in different regions of the world, continents, and countries with variations of political ideology and history.

Current concepts have become increasingly global, but are still tied to the treatment of pain in personalized pain care. This can lead to the inclusion of naturopathic and mental health, but a subsequent reversion to minimally invasive surgical care as the ultimate “cure”.

The intervertebral disc is the initial primary surgical source of pain in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, which can be readily confirmed with diagnostic and therapeutic injections. Soft tissue trauma will usually heal with time, but surgical pain care can speed up recovery. Successful surgical clinical outcomes can be personalized and achieved with the endoscopic visualization of pain generators on par with open or microsurgical decompression, but with less surgical morbidity.       

New technology is evolving, expanding, ongoing, and changing established clinical surgical criteria, validated by meta-analysis and peer-reviewed publications, with eventual global acceptance.

Endoscopic video visualization with patient verbal intraoperative feedback is the most powerful and convincing evidence for validation of a surgical technique that can also help patient selection.

The future of personalized pain management is to focus on personal pain care and patient selection based on individual patient needs.

Dr. Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
Dr. Anthony T Yeung
Dr. Xifeng Zhang
Dr. Ivo Abraham
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • pain generator
  • lumbar
  • cervical
  • thoracic
  • spinal
  • pain management
  • interventional pain care
  • surgery
  • interventional pain surgery
  • mental health
  • addiction

Published Papers (20 papers)

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11 pages, 9473 KiB  
Communication
Minimally Invasive Postero-Inferior Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: Surgical Technique and Procedural Details
by Usman Latif, Paul J. Hubbell III, Goran Tubic, Luis A. Guerrero, Ioannis M. Skaribas and Jon E. Block
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(7), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13071136 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
(1) Background: Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion is the preferred surgical intervention to treat chronically severe pain associated with SIJ degeneration and dysfunction. (2) Methods: This paper details the ten-step surgical procedure associated with the postero-inferior approach using the PsiF™ DNA Sacroiliac [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion is the preferred surgical intervention to treat chronically severe pain associated with SIJ degeneration and dysfunction. (2) Methods: This paper details the ten-step surgical procedure associated with the postero-inferior approach using the PsiF™ DNA Sacroiliac Joint Fusion System. (3) Results: The posterior surgical approach with an inferior operative trajectory (postero-inferior) utilizes easily identifiable landmarks to provide the safest, most direct access to the articular joint space for transfixing device placement. Implanting the device through the subchondral bone provides maximum fixation and stabilization of the joint by utilizing an optimal amount of cortical bone–implant interface. Approaching the joint from the inferior trajectory also places the implant perpendicular to the S1 endplate at a “pivot point” near the sacral axis of rotation, which addresses the most significant motion of the joint. (4) Conclusions: Further observational data from real-world clinical use are encouraged to further validate this procedure as the surgical preference for minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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13 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Microendoscopic Surgery for Degenerative Disorders of the Cervical and Lumbar Spine: The Influence of the Tubular Workspace on Instrument Angulation, Clinical Outcome, Complications, and Reoperation Rates
by Joachim M. Oertel and Benedikt W. Burkhardt
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(6), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13060912 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Background: Long-term clinical outcomes with microendoscopic spine surgery (MESS) are poorly investigated. The effect of instrument angulation on clinical outcomes has yet to be assessed. Methods: A total of 229 consecutive patients operated on via two MESS systems were analyzed. Instrument angulation for [...] Read more.
Background: Long-term clinical outcomes with microendoscopic spine surgery (MESS) are poorly investigated. The effect of instrument angulation on clinical outcomes has yet to be assessed. Methods: A total of 229 consecutive patients operated on via two MESS systems were analyzed. Instrument angulation for both MESS systems, which differ from each other regarding the working space for instruments, was assessed using a computer model. Patients’ charts and endoscopic video recordings were reviewed to determine clinical outcomes, complications, and revision surgery rates. At a minimum follow-up of two years, clinical outcomes were assessed employing the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: A total of 52 posterior cervical foraminotomies (PCF) and 177 lumbar decompression procedures were performed. The mean follow-up was six years (range 2–9 years). At the final follow-up, 69% of cervical and 76% of lumbar patients had no radicular pain. The mean NDI was 10%, and the mean ODI was 12%. PCF resulted in excellent clinical outcomes in 80% of cases and 87% of lumbar procedures. Recurrent disc herniations occurred in 7.7% of patients. The surgical time and repeated procedure rate were significantly lower for the MESS system with increased working space, whereas the clinical outcome and rate of complication were similar. Conclusions: MESS achieves high success rates for treating degenerative spinal disorders in the long term. Increased instrument angulation improves access to the compressive pathology and lowers the surgical time and repeated procedure rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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11 pages, 528 KiB  
Article
Hidden Blood Loss and Its Possible Risk Factors in Full Endoscopic Lumbar Interbody Fusion
by Zhilin Ge, Wenhua Zhao, Zhihua Wu, Jiahui He, Guangye Zhu, Zefeng Song, Jianchao Cui, Xiaobing Jiang and Weibo Yu
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040674 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Background: Full endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (Endo-LIF) is a representative recent emerging minimally invasive operation. The hidden blood loss (HBL) in an Endo-LIF procedure and its possible risk factors are still unclear. Methods: The blood loss (TBL) was calculated by Gross formula. Sex, [...] Read more.
Background: Full endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (Endo-LIF) is a representative recent emerging minimally invasive operation. The hidden blood loss (HBL) in an Endo-LIF procedure and its possible risk factors are still unclear. Methods: The blood loss (TBL) was calculated by Gross formula. Sex, age, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, ASA classification, fusion levels, surgical approach type, surgery time, preoperative RBC, HGB, Hct, PT, INR, APTT, Fg, postoperative mean arterial pressure, postoperative heart rate, Intraoperative blood loss (IBL), patient blood volume were included to investigate the possible risk factors by correlation analysis and multiple linear regression between variables and HBL. Results:Ninety-six patients (23 males, 73 females) who underwent Endo-LIF were retrospective analyzed in this study. The HBL was 240.11 (65.51, 460.31) mL (median [interquartile range]). Fusion levels (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.003), hypertension (p = 0.000), IBL (p = 0.012), PT (p = 0.016), preoperative HBG (p = 0.037) were the possible risk factors. Conclusion: Fusion levels, younger age, hypertension, prolonged PT, preoperative HBG are possible risk factors of HBL in an Endo-LIF procedure. More attention should be paid especially in multi-level minimally invasive surgery. The increase of fusion levels will lead to a considerable HBL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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13 pages, 2094 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dexmedetomidine on Immunomodulation and Pain Control in Videolaparoscopic Cholecystectomies: A Randomized, Two-Arm, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial
by Gustavo Nascimento Silva, Virna Guedes Brandão, Marcelo Vaz Perez, Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski and Rossano Kepler Alvim Fiorelli
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040622 - 01 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Aim: Digital and robotic technology applications in laparoscopic surgery have revolutionized routine cholecystectomy. Insufflation of the peritoneal space is vital for its safety but comes at the cost of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intraabdominal organ compromise before the return of physiologic functions. Dexmedetomidine in general anesthesia [...] Read more.
Aim: Digital and robotic technology applications in laparoscopic surgery have revolutionized routine cholecystectomy. Insufflation of the peritoneal space is vital for its safety but comes at the cost of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intraabdominal organ compromise before the return of physiologic functions. Dexmedetomidine in general anesthesia promotes controlling the response to trauma by altering the neuroinflammatory reflex. This strategy may improve clinical outcomes in the postoperative period by reducing postoperative narcotic use and lowering the risk of subsequent addiction. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate dexmedetomidine’s therapeutic and immunomodulatory potential on perioperative organ function. Methods: Fifty-two patients were randomized 1:1: group A—sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine (dexmedetomidine infusion [1 µg/kg loading, 0.2–0.5 µg/kg/h maintenance dose]), and group B—sevoflurane with saline 0.9% infusion as a placebo control. Three blood samples were collected: preoperatively (T0 h), 4–6 h after surgery (T4–6 h), and 24 h postoperatively (T24 h). The primary outcome was the level analysis of inflammatory and endocrine mediators. Secondary outcome measures were the time to return to normal preoperative hemodynamic parameters, spontaneous ventilation, and postoperative narcotic requirements to control surgical pain. Results: A reduction of Interleukin 6 was found at 4–6 h after surgery in group A with a mean of 54.76 (27.15–82.37; CI 95%) vs. 97.43 (53.63–141.22); p = 0.0425) in group B patients. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were lower in group A patients, who also had a statistically significantly lower opioid consumption in the first postoperative hour when compared to group B patients (p < 0.0001). We noticed a similar return to spontaneous ventilation pattern in both groups. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine decreased interleukin-6 4–6 h after surgery, likely by providing a sympatholytic effect. It provides good perioperative analgesia without respiratory depression. Implementing dexmedetomidine during laparoscopic cholecystectomy has a good safety profile and may lower healthcare expenditure due to faster postoperative recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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12 pages, 2111 KiB  
Article
Determination of Work Related to Endoscopic Decompression of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
by Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski and Morgan P. Lorio
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040614 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Background: Effective 1 January 2017, single-level endoscopic lumbar discectomy received a Category I Current Procedural Terminology (CPT®) code 62380. However, no work relative value units (wRVUs) are currently assigned to the procedure. A physician’s payment needs to be updated to [...] Read more.
Background: Effective 1 January 2017, single-level endoscopic lumbar discectomy received a Category I Current Procedural Terminology (CPT®) code 62380. However, no work relative value units (wRVUs) are currently assigned to the procedure. A physician’s payment needs to be updated to commensurate with the work involved in the modern version of the lumbar endoscopic decompression procedure with and without the use of any implants to stabilize the spine. In the United States, the American Medical Association (AMA) and its Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) proposes to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) what wRVUs to assign for any endoscopic lumbar surgery codes. Methods: The authors conducted an independent survey between May and June 2022 which reached 210 spine surgeons using the TypeForm survey platform. The survey link was sent to them via email and social media. Surgeons were asked to assess the endoscopic procedure’s technical and physical effort, risk, and overall intensity without focusing just on the time required to perform the surgery. Respondents were asked to compare the work involved in modern comprehensive endoscopic spine care with other commonly performed lumbar surgeries. For this purpose, respondents were provided with the verbatim descriptions of 12 other existing comparator CPT® codes and associated wRVUs of common spine surgeries, as well as a typical patient vignette describing an endoscopic lumbar decompression surgery scenario. Respondents were then asked to select the comparator CPT® code most reflective of the technical and physical effort, risk, intensity, and time spent on patient care during the pre-operative, peri- and intra-operative, and post-operative periods of a lumbar endoscopic surgery. Results: Of the 30 spine surgeons who completed the survey, 85.8%, 46.6%, and 14.3% valued the appropriate wRVU for the lumbar endoscopic decompression to be over 13, over 15, and over 20, respectively. Most surgeons (78.5%; <50th percentile) did not think they were adequately compensated. Regarding facility reimbursement, 77.3% of surgeons reported that their healthcare facility struggled to cover the cost with the received compensation. The majority (46.5%) said their facility received less than USD 2000, while another 10.7% reported less than USD 1500 and 17.9% reported less than USD 1000. The professional fee received by surgeons was <USD 1000 for 21.4%, <USD 2000 for 17.9%, and <USD 1500 for 10.7%, resulting in a fee less than USD 2000 for 50% of responding surgeons. Most responding surgeons (92.6%) recommended an endoscopic instrumentation carveout to pay for the added cost of the innovation. Discussion and Conclusions: The survey results indicate that most surgeons associate CPT® 62380 with the complexity and intensity of a laminectomy and interbody fusion preparation, considering the work in the epidural space using the contemporary outside-in and interlaminar technique and the work inside the interspace using the inside-out technique. Modern endoscopic spine surgery goes beyond the scope of a simple soft-tissue discectomy. The current iterations of the procedure must be considered to avoid undervaluing its complexity and intensity. Additional undervalued payment scenarios could be created if technological advances continue to replace traditional lumbar spinal fusion protocols with less burdensome, yet no less complex, endoscopic surgeries that necessitate a high surgeon effort in terms of time required to perform the operation and its intensity. These undervalued payment scenarios of physician practices, as well as the facility and malpractice expenses, should be further discussed to arrive at updated CPT® codes reflective of modern comprehensive endoscopic spine care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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13 pages, 653 KiB  
Article
Would Cutibacterium acnes Be the Villain for the Chronicity of Low Back Pain in Degenerative Disc Disease? Preliminary Results of an Analytical Cohort
by Vinícius Magno da Rocha, Carla Ormundo Gonçalves Ximenes Lima, Gustavo Baptista Candido, Keila Mara Cassiano, Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski, Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira and Rossano Kepler Alvim Fiorelli
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040598 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated Cutibacterium acnes colonization in intervertebral discs (IVDs) in patients with lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) and low back pain (LBP), but the meaning of these findings remains unclear. Being aware of this knowledge gap, we are [...] Read more.
In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated Cutibacterium acnes colonization in intervertebral discs (IVDs) in patients with lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) and low back pain (LBP), but the meaning of these findings remains unclear. Being aware of this knowledge gap, we are currently conducting a prospective analytical cohort study with LBP and LDD patients undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy and posterior fusion. The IVDs samples collected during the surgeries are subjected to a stringent analytical protocol using microbiological, phenotypic, genotypic, and multiomic techniques. Additionally, pain-related scores and quality-of-life indexes are monitored during patient follow-up. Our preliminary results for 265 samples (53 discs from 23 patients) revealed a C. acnes prevalence of 34.8%, among which the phylotypes IB and II were the most commonly isolated. The incidence of neuropathic pain was significantly higher in the colonized patients, especially between the third and sixth postoperative months, which strongly suggests that the pathogen plays an important role in the chronicity of LBP. The future results of our protocol will help us to understand how C. acnes contributes to transforming inflammatory/nociceptive pain into neuropathic pain and, hopefully, will help us to find a biomarker capable of predicting the risk of chronic LBP in this scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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14 pages, 732 KiB  
Article
Effect of Quadratus Lumborum Block on Pain and Stress Response after Video Laparoscopic Surgeries: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Virna Guedes Alves Brandão, Gustavo Nascimento Silva, Marcelo Vaz Perez, Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski and Rossano Kepler Alvim Fiorelli
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040586 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Background: There are many surgical and anesthetic factors that affect pain and the endocrine–metabolic response to trauma. The ability of anesthetic agents and neuronal blockade to modify the response to surgical trauma has been widely studied in the last few years. Objective: To [...] Read more.
Background: There are many surgical and anesthetic factors that affect pain and the endocrine–metabolic response to trauma. The ability of anesthetic agents and neuronal blockade to modify the response to surgical trauma has been widely studied in the last few years. Objective: To evaluate if the anterior quadratus lumborum block contributes to improved surgical recovery, using as parameters analgesia, pulmonary function and neuroendocrine response to trauma. Methods: We carried out a prospective, randomized, controlled, and blinded study, in which 51 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomly selected and assigned to 2 groups. The control group received balanced general anesthesia and venous analgesia, and the intervention group was treated under general, venous analgesia and anterior quadratus lumborum block. The parameters evaluated were: demographic data, postoperative pain, respiratory muscle pressure and inflammatory response to surgical stress with the plasma dosage of IL-6 (Interleukin 6), CRP (C-Reactive protein) and cortisol. Results: Anterior quadratus lumborum block induced the slowing of IL-6 cytokine production and a decrease in cortisol release. This effect was accompanied by the significant reduction of postoperative pain scores. Conclusion: Anterior quadratus lumborum block is an important strategy for analgesia in abdominal laparoscopic surgery and contributes to reducing the inflammatory response to surgical trauma with an early return of preoperative baseline physiological functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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12 pages, 2799 KiB  
Article
Clinical Characteristics of Minimal Lumbar Disc Herniation and Efficacy of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy via Transforaminal Approach: A Retrospective Study
by Feifei Chen, Guihe Yang, Jinjin Wang, Zhongpeng Ge, Heran Wang, Yifei Guo, Heng Yang, Xingzhi Jing, Xiaoyang Liu and Xingang Cui
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030552 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Objective: To define the characteristics of Mini LDH, develop new diagnostic references and examine the clinical efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy via a transforaminal approach (TF-PELD) for it. Methods: A total of 72 patients who underwent TF-PELD with Mini LDH from September [...] Read more.
Objective: To define the characteristics of Mini LDH, develop new diagnostic references and examine the clinical efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy via a transforaminal approach (TF-PELD) for it. Methods: A total of 72 patients who underwent TF-PELD with Mini LDH from September 2019 to October 2022 were enrolled in this retrospective study. The patients’ basic information, symptoms, number of outpatient visits, duration of conservative treatment, physical examination findings and so on were obtained from the medical records. Clinical effects of TF-PELD for Mini LDH were assessed by means of the following: the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for low back pain (LBP) and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for functional status assessment and Modified Mac Nab criteria for patient satisfaction. Results: Mini LDH have specific clinical characteristics and imaging features. All included patients achieved obvious pain relief after TF-PELD surgery. Pain scores were repeated at postoperative day 1 and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months later. Results were statistically analyzed. The average VAS-Back, VAS-Leg and ODI scores were all significantly reduced at the first postoperative day and gradually decreased with the follow-up time continuing. In total, 66 out of 72 patients received an excellent or good recovery and no poor result was reported according to the Modified Mac Nab criteria. Conclusions: Mini LDH is a type of LDH with special characteristics and in need of correct diagnosis and active treatment in clinical work. TF-PELD was also found to be an effective procedure for the treatment of Mini LDH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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9 pages, 1691 KiB  
Article
Bibliometric Analysis of Research Relating to Perineal Pain Reported over the Period 1981 to 2021
by Huang Ding, Qin Chen, Huiming Zhan, Yifan Jia, Juan Ren and Jishi Ye
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030542 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Background: Perineal pain is a painful neuropathic condition, which does not have a standard diagnostic or treatment approach. As such, we sought to evaluate the global scientific output of research into perineal pain and explore trends from 1981 to 2021 using bibliometric methods. [...] Read more.
Background: Perineal pain is a painful neuropathic condition, which does not have a standard diagnostic or treatment approach. As such, we sought to evaluate the global scientific output of research into perineal pain and explore trends from 1981 to 2021 using bibliometric methods. Methods: Articles on perineal pain were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) database. We analyzed the content and quality of publications from within the specified timeframe. We also utilized VOSviewer to mine and cluster data from retrieved articles. Results: A total of 1917 articles were collected. The number of related papers published increased year by year. Articles were most frequently published by authors in the United States and France. Although the US remains at the center of this field, publications from China have become more frequent in recent years. We also found that French academic institutions dominate the field of perineal pain, and Jean-Jacques Labat from Nantes Universite is the most published author in the field. “Episiotomy”, “pain”, “management”, “prostatectomy”, “pelvic pain”, and “complication” were frequently cited as keywords. Conclusion: The increasing number of publications each year indicates that perineal pain has gained more attention as an important research topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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12 pages, 1321 KiB  
Article
Extraforaminal Full-Endoscopic Approach for the Treatment of Lateral Compressive Diseases of the Lumbar Spine
by João Paulo Machado Bergamaschi, Kelsen de Oliveira Teixeira, Thiago Queiroz Soares, Fernando Flores de Araújo, Gustavo Vitelli Depieri, Ariel Falbel Lugão, Rangel Roberto de Assis, Ricardo Squiapati Graciano, Luiz Henrique Dias Sandon, Esthael Cristina Querido Avelar Bergamaschi, Herton Rodrigo Tavares Costa and Helton Luiz Aparecido Defino
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030453 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Background: The authors conducted a 2-year retrospective follow-up to investigate the efficiency of an extraforaminal full-endoscopic approach with foraminoplasty used to treat lateral compressive diseases of the lumbar spine in 247 patients. Methods: The visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and [...] Read more.
Background: The authors conducted a 2-year retrospective follow-up to investigate the efficiency of an extraforaminal full-endoscopic approach with foraminoplasty used to treat lateral compressive diseases of the lumbar spine in 247 patients. Methods: The visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and MacNab scale were used to analyze the results collected during the preoperative and postoperative periods. Results: The most common diagnosis was disk herniation with lateral recess stenosis, and the most common surgical level among patients was between L4 and L5 on the left side. Pain decreased over time, as determined during sessions held to evaluate pain in the lumbar, gluteal, led, and foot regions. The ODI demonstrated significant enhancement over the evaluation period and the MacNab scale classified the surgery as good or excellent. The most common complication was dysesthesia. Conclusions: An extraforaminal full-endoscopic approach with foraminoplasty can be recommended in cases of lateral herniation or stenosis for patients with symptoms of radiculopathy, and for those who have not responded to conventional rehabilitation treatment or chronic pain management. Few complications arose as a result of this approach, and most of them were treated clinically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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12 pages, 1568 KiB  
Article
Clinical Consequences of Incidental Durotomy during Full-Endoscopic Lumbar Decompression Surgery in Relation to Intraoperative Epidural Pressure Measurements
by Roth A. A. Vargas, Marco Moscatelli, Marcos Vaz de Lima, Jorge Felipe Ramírez León, Morgan P. Lorio, Rossano Kepler Alvim Fiorelli, Albert E. Telfeian, John Fiallos, Ernest Braxton, Michael Song and Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030381 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
Background: Seizures, neurological deficits, bradycardia, and, in the worst cases, cardiac arrest may occur following incidental durotomy during routine lumbar endoscopy. Therefore, we set out to measure the intraoperative epidural pressure during lumbar endoscopic decompression surgery. Methods: We conducted a retrospective [...] Read more.
Background: Seizures, neurological deficits, bradycardia, and, in the worst cases, cardiac arrest may occur following incidental durotomy during routine lumbar endoscopy. Therefore, we set out to measure the intraoperative epidural pressure during lumbar endoscopic decompression surgery. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study to obtain intraoperative epidural measurements with an epidural catheter-pressure transducer assembly through the spinal endoscope on 15 patients who underwent lumbar endoscopic decompression of symptomatic lumbar herniated discs and spinal stenosis. The endoscopic interlaminar technique was employed. Results: There were six (40.0%) female and nine (60.0%) male patients aged 49.0667 ± 11.31034, ranging from 36 to 72 years, with an average follow-up of 35.15 ± 12.48 months. Three of the fifteen patients had seizures with durotomy and one of these three had intracranial air on their postoperative brain CT. Another patient developed spinal headaches and diplopia on postoperative day one when her deteriorating neurological function was investigated with a brain computed tomography (CT) scan, showing an intraventricular hemorrhage consistent with a Fisher Grade IV subarachnoid hemorrhage. A CT angiogram did not show any abnormalities. Pressure recordings in the epidural space in nine patients ranged from 20 to 29 mm Hg with a mean of 24.33 mm Hg. Conclusion: Most incidental durotomies encountered during lumbar interlaminar endoscopy can be managed without formal repair and supportive care measures. The intradural spread of irrigation fluid and intraoperatively used drugs and air entrapment through an unrecognized durotomy should be suspected if patients deteriorate in the recovery room. Ascending paralysis may cause nausea, vomiting, upper and lower motor neuron symptoms, cranial nerve palsies, hypotension, bradycardia, and respiratory and cardiac arrest. The recovery team should be prepared to manage these complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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10 pages, 923 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion Combined with Posterior Decompression (OLIF-PD) and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF) in the Treatment of Adjacent Segmental Disease(ASD)
by Bin Zhang, Yuan Hu, Qingquan Kong, Pin Feng, Junlin Liu and Junsong Ma
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020368 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Background: An unintended consequence following lumbar fusion is the development of adjacent segment disease (ASD). Oblique lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterior decompression (OLIF-PD) is another feasible option for ASD, and there is no literature report on this combined surgical strategy. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background: An unintended consequence following lumbar fusion is the development of adjacent segment disease (ASD). Oblique lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterior decompression (OLIF-PD) is another feasible option for ASD, and there is no literature report on this combined surgical strategy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 18 ASD patients requiring direct decompression in our hospital between September 2017 and January 2022. Among them, eight patients underwent OLIF-PD revision and ten underwent PLIF revision. There were no significant differences in the baseline data between the two groups. The clinical outcomes and complications were compared between the two groups. Results: The operation time, operative blood loss and postoperative hospital stay in the OLIF-PD group were significantly lower than those in the PLIF group. The VAS of low back pain in the OLIF-PD group was significantly better than that in the PLIF group during the postoperative follow-up. The ODI at the last follow-up in the OLIF-PD group and the PLIF group were significantly relieved compared with those before operation. The excellent and good rate of the modified MacNab standard at the last follow-up was 87.5% in the OLIF-PD group and 70% in the PLIF group. There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of complications between the two groups. Conclusion: For ASD requiring direct decompression after posterior lumbar fusion, compared with traditional PLIF revision surgery, OLIF-PD has a similar clinical effect, but has a reduced operation time, blood loss, hospital stay and complications. OLIF-PD may be an alternative revision strategy for ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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16 pages, 25708 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Magna Radicular Artery Entry Foramen and Adamkiewicz System: Patient Selection for Open versus Full-Endoscopic Thoracic Spinal Decompression Surgery
by Roth Antonio Vargas, Eduardo Miquelino De Olinveira, Marco Moscatelli, Jorge Felipe Ramírez León, Morgan P. Lorio, Rossano Kepler Fiorelli, Albert E. Telfeian, Ernest Braxton, Michael Song and Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020356 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1779
Abstract
Background: Casually cauterizing the radicular magna during routine thoracic discectomy may have dire consequences. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study on patients scheduled for decompression of symptomatic thoracic herniated discs and spinal stenosis who underwent a preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) [...] Read more.
Background: Casually cauterizing the radicular magna during routine thoracic discectomy may have dire consequences. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study on patients scheduled for decompression of symptomatic thoracic herniated discs and spinal stenosis who underwent a preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) to assess the surgical risks by anatomically defining the foraminal entry level of the magna radicularis artery into the thoracic spinal cord and its relationship to the surgical level. Results: Fifteen patients aged 58.53 ± 19.57, ranging from 31 to 89 years, with an average follow-up of 30.13 ± 13.42 months, were enrolled in this observational cohort study. The mean preoperative VAS for axial back pain was VAS of 8.53 ± 2.06 and reduced to a postoperative VAS of 1.60 ± 0.92 (p < 0.0001) at the final follow-up. The Adamkiewicz was most frequently found at T10/11 (15.4%), T11/12 (23.1%), and T9/10 (30.8%). There were eight patients where the painful pathology was found far from the AKA foraminal entry-level (type 1), three patients with near location (type 2), and another four patients needing decompression at the foraminal (type 3) entry-level. In five of the fifteen patients, the magna radicularis entered the spinal canal on the ventral surface of the exiting nerve root through the neuroforamen at the surgical level requiring a change of surgical strategy to prevent injury to this important contributor to the spinal cord’s blood supply. Conclusions: The authors recommend stratifying patients according to the proximity of the magna radicularis artery to the compressive pathology with CTA to assess the surgical risk with targeted thoracic discectomy methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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Jump to: Research

7 pages, 814 KiB  
Case Report
Full Endoscopic Treatment for a Fibrosis Complication after Psoas Abscess
by Álvaro Dowling Montalva, Rui Nei de Araujo Santana Junior and Marcelo Molina
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(7), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13071166 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 795
Abstract
Background: Psoas abscess is a challenging disease that may sometimes lead to a devastating prognosis. Early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory for better results in their treatments and to avoid complications. Purpose: There is no article regarding a fibrosis treatment of the psoas [...] Read more.
Background: Psoas abscess is a challenging disease that may sometimes lead to a devastating prognosis. Early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory for better results in their treatments and to avoid complications. Purpose: There is no article regarding a fibrosis treatment of the psoas muscle with a psoas abscess that is treated with full endoscopic debridement (FED). Study design: a case report and literature review. Result: we successfully treated this case, who suffered from psoas fibrosis with a clinical and MRI diagnosis, with full endoscopic debridement. Conclusions: FED is a viable alternative to open debridement for this rare complication of a psoas muscle abscess. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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12 pages, 940 KiB  
Perspective
Randomized Clinical Trials and Observational Tribulations: Providing Clinical Evidence for Personalized Surgical Pain Management Care Models
by Ivo Abraham, Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski, John C. Elfar, Zong-Ming Li, Rossano Kepler Alvim Fiorelli, Mauricio G. Pereira, Morgan P. Lorio, Benedikt W. Burkhardt, Joachim M. Oertel, Peter A. Winkler, Huilin Yang, Jorge Felipe Ramírez León, Albert E. Telfeian, Álvaro Dowling, Roth A. A. Vargas, Ricardo Ramina, Marjan Asefi, Paulo Sérgio Teixeira de Carvalho, Helton Defino, Jaime Moyano, Nicola Montemurro, Anthony Yeung, Pietro Novellino and on behalf of Teams/Organizations/Institutionsadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(7), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13071044 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Proving clinical superiority of personalized care models in interventional and surgical pain management is challenging. The apparent difficulties may arise from the inability to standardize complex surgical procedures that often involve multiple steps. Ensuring the surgery is performed the same way every time [...] Read more.
Proving clinical superiority of personalized care models in interventional and surgical pain management is challenging. The apparent difficulties may arise from the inability to standardize complex surgical procedures that often involve multiple steps. Ensuring the surgery is performed the same way every time is nearly impossible. Confounding factors, such as the variability of the patient population and selection bias regarding comorbidities and anatomical variations are also difficult to control for. Small sample sizes in study groups comparing iterations of a surgical protocol may amplify bias. It is essentially impossible to conceal the surgical treatment from the surgeon and the operating team. Restrictive inclusion and exclusion criteria may distort the study population to no longer reflect patients seen in daily practice. Hindsight bias is introduced by the inability to effectively blind patient group allocation, which affects clinical result interpretation, particularly if the outcome is already known to the investigators when the outcome analysis is performed (often a long time after the intervention). Randomization is equally problematic, as many patients want to avoid being randomly assigned to a study group, particularly if they perceive their surgeon to be unsure of which treatment will likely render the best clinical outcome for them. Ethical concerns may also exist if the study involves additional and unnecessary risks. Lastly, surgical trials are costly, especially if the tested interventions are complex and require long-term follow-up to assess their benefit. Traditional clinical testing of personalized surgical pain management treatments may be more challenging because individualized solutions tailored to each patient’s pain generator can vary extensively. However, high-grade evidence is needed to prompt a protocol change and break with traditional image-based criteria for treatment. In this article, the authors review issues in surgical trials and offer practical solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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11 pages, 1258 KiB  
Opinion
Defining the Patient with Lumbar Discogenic Pain: Real-World Implications for Diagnosis and Effective Clinical Management
by Morgan P. Lorio, Douglas P. Beall, Aaron K. Calodney, Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski, Jon E. Block and Nagy Mekhail
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(5), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13050821 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3988
Abstract
There is an enormous body of literature that has identified the intervertebral disc as a potent pain generator. However, with regard to lumbar degenerative disc disease, the specific diagnostic criteria lack clarity and fail to capture the primary components which include axial midline [...] Read more.
There is an enormous body of literature that has identified the intervertebral disc as a potent pain generator. However, with regard to lumbar degenerative disc disease, the specific diagnostic criteria lack clarity and fail to capture the primary components which include axial midline low back pain with or without non-radicular/non-sciatic referred leg pain in a sclerotomal distribution. In fact, there is no specific ICD-10-CM diagnostic code to classify and define discogenic pain as a unique source of pain distinct from other recognized sources of chronic low back pain including facetogenic, neurocompressive including herniation and/or stenosis, sacroiliac, vertebrogenic, and psychogenic. All of these other sources have well-defined ICD-10-CM codes. Corresponding codes for discogenic pain remain absent from the diagnostic coding vernacular. The International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery (ISASS) has proposed a modernization of ICD-10-CM codes to specifically define pain associated with lumbar and lumbosacral degenerative disc disease. The proposed codes would also allow the pain to be characterized by location: lumbar region only, leg only, or both. Successful implementation of these codes would benefit both physicians and payers in distinguishing, tracking, and improving algorithms and treatments for discogenic pain associated with intervertebral disc degeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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18 pages, 1395 KiB  
Perspective
Personalized Interventional Surgery of the Lumbar Spine: A Perspective on Minimally Invasive and Neuroendoscopic Decompression for Spinal Stenosis
by Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski, Anthony Yeung, Morgan P. Lorio, Huilin Yang, Jorge Felipe Ramírez León, José Antonio Soriano Sánchez, Rossano Kepler Alvim Fiorelli, Kang Taek Lim, Jaime Moyano, Álvaro Dowling, Juan Marcelo Sea Aramayo, Jeong-Yoon Park, Hyeun-Sung Kim, Jiancheng Zeng, Bin Meng, Fernando Alvarado Gómez, Carolina Ramirez, Paulo Sérgio Teixeira De Carvalho, Manuel Rodriguez Garcia, Alfonso Garcia, Eulalio Elizalde Martínez, Iliana Margarita Gómez Silva, José Edgardo Valerio Pascua, Luis Miguel Duchén Rodríguez, Robert Meves, Cristiano M. Menezes, Luis Eduardo Carelli, Alexandre Fogaça Cristante, Rodrigo Amaral, Geraldo de Sa Carneiro, Helton Defino, Vicky Yamamoto, Babak Kateb and on behalf of Teams/Organizations/Institutionsadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(5), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13050710 - 23 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2538
Abstract
Pain generator-based lumbar spinal decompression surgery is the backbone of modern spine care. In contrast to traditional image-based medical necessity criteria for spinal surgery, assessing the severity of neural element encroachment, instability, and deformity, staged management of common painful degenerative lumbar spine conditions [...] Read more.
Pain generator-based lumbar spinal decompression surgery is the backbone of modern spine care. In contrast to traditional image-based medical necessity criteria for spinal surgery, assessing the severity of neural element encroachment, instability, and deformity, staged management of common painful degenerative lumbar spine conditions is likely to be more durable and cost-effective. Targeting validated pain generators can be accomplished with simplified decompression procedures associated with lower perioperative complications and long-term revision rates. In this perspective article, the authors summarize the current concepts of successful management of spinal stenosis patients with modern transforaminal endoscopic and translaminar minimally invasive spinal surgery techniques. They represent the consensus statements of 14 international surgeon societies, who have worked in collaborative teams in an open peer-review model based on a systematic review of the existing literature and grading the strength of its clinical evidence. The authors found that personalized clinical care protocols for lumbar spinal stenosis rooted in validated pain generators can successfully treat most patients with sciatica-type back and leg pain including those who fail to meet traditional image-based medical necessity criteria for surgery since nearly half of the surgically treated pain generators are not shown on the preoperative MRI scan. Common pain generators in the lumbar spine include (a) an inflamed disc, (b) an inflamed nerve, (c) a hypervascular scar, (d) a hypertrophied superior articular process (SAP) and ligamentum flavum, (e) a tender capsule, (f) an impacting facet margin, (g) a superior foraminal facet osteophyte and cyst, (h) a superior foraminal ligament impingement, (i) a hidden shoulder osteophyte. The position of the key opinion authors of the perspective article is that further clinical research will continue to validate pain generator-based treatment protocols for lumbar spinal stenosis. The endoscopic technology platform enables spine surgeons to directly visualize pain generators, forming the basis for more simplified targeted surgical pain management therapies. Limitations of this care model are dictated by appropriate patient selection and mastering the learning curve of modern MIS procedures. Decompensated deformity and instability will likely continue to be treated with open corrective surgery. Vertically integrated outpatient spine care programs are the most suitable setting for executing such pain generator-focused programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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8 pages, 714 KiB  
Brief Report
Comparison of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the Ambulatory Surgery Center and Traditional Hospital Settings, Part 2: Assessment of Surgical Safety in Medicare Beneficiaries
by Scott M. Schlesinger, Dominic Maggio, Morgan P. Lorio, Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski and Jon E. Block
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030566 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
(1) Background: The clinical benefits and procedural efficiencies of performing minimally invasive fusion procedures, such as transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), in the ambulatory surgery center (ASC) are becoming increasingly well established. Currently, Medicare does not provide reimbursement for its beneficiaries eligible for [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The clinical benefits and procedural efficiencies of performing minimally invasive fusion procedures, such as transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), in the ambulatory surgery center (ASC) are becoming increasingly well established. Currently, Medicare does not provide reimbursement for its beneficiaries eligible for TLIF in the ASC due to a lack of evidence regarding procedural safety. However, the initiation of the Hospital Without Walls program allowed for traditional hospital procedures to be relocated to other facilities such as ASCs, providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the utility of TLIF in the ASC in Medicare-age patients. (2) Methods: This single-center, retrospective study compared baseline characteristics, intraoperative variables, and 30-day postoperative safety outcomes between 48 Medicare-age patients undergoing TLIF in the ASC and 48 patients having the same procedure as hospital in-patients. All patients had a one-level TLIF using the VariLift®-LX expandable lumbar interbody fusion device. (3) Results: There were similar patient characteristics, procedural efficiency, and occurrence of clinical 30-day safety events between the two study groups. However, there was a marked and statistically significant difference in the median length of stay favoring TLIF patients treated in the ASC (23.9 h vs. 1.6 h, p = 0.001). All ASC-treated patients were discharged on the day of surgery. Postoperative visits to address adverse events were rare in either group. (4) Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that minimally invasive TLIF can be performed safely and efficiently in the ASC in Medicare-age patients. With same-day discharge, fusion procedures performed in the ASC offer a similar safety and more attractive cost–benefit profile for older patients than the same surgery undertaken in the traditional hospital setting. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services should strongly consider extending the appropriate reimbursement codes (CPT ® 22630, 22633) for minimally invasive TLIF and PLIF to the ASC Covered Procedure List so that Medicare-age patients can realize the clinical benefits of surgeries performed in this setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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8 pages, 698 KiB  
Brief Report
Comparison of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the Ambulatory Surgery Center and Traditional Hospital Settings, Part 1: Multi-Center Assessment of Surgical Safety
by Scott M. Schlesinger, Benjamin R. Gelber, Mark B. Gerber, Morgan P. Lorio and Jon E. Block
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020311 - 10 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1406
Abstract
(1) Background: The technological advances achieved with minimally-invasive surgery have enabled procedures to be undertaken in outpatient settings, and there has been growing acceptance of performing minimally-invasive transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF) in the ambulatory surgery center (ASC). The purposeof this study was to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The technological advances achieved with minimally-invasive surgery have enabled procedures to be undertaken in outpatient settings, and there has been growing acceptance of performing minimally-invasive transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF) in the ambulatory surgery center (ASC). The purposeof this study was to determine the comparative 30 day safety profile for patients treated with TLIF in the ASC versus the hospital setting. (2) Methods: This multi-center study retrospectively collected baseline characteristics, perioperative variables, and 30 day postoperative safety outcomes for patients having a TLIF using the VariLift®-LX expandable lumbar interbody fusion device. Outcomes were compared between patients undergoing TLIF in the ASC (n = 53) versus in the hospital (n = 114). (3) Results: Patients treated in-hospital were significantly older, frailer and more likely to have had previous spinal surgery than ASC patients. Preoperative back and leg pain scores were similar between study groups (median, 7). ASC patients had almost exclusively one-level procedures (98%) vs. 20% of hospital procedures involving two-levels (p = 0.004). Most procedures (>90%) employed a stand-alone device. The median length of stay for hospital patients was five times greater than for ASC patients (1.4 days vs. 0.3 days, p = 0.001). Emergency department visits, re-admissions and reoperations were rare whether the patients were managed in the traditional hospital setting or the ASC. (4) Conclusions: There were equivalent 30 day postoperative safety profiles for patients undergoing a minimally-invasive TLIF irrespective of surgical setting. For appropriately selected surgical candidates, the ASC offers a viable and attractive option for their TLIF procedure with the advantage of same-day discharge and at-home recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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8 pages, 3870 KiB  
Case Report
Postoperative Intracranial Hemorrhage after an Endoscopic L5-S1 Laminectomy and Discectomy: A Case Report and Literature Review
by Yizhou Xie, Xi Mei, Shanyu Liu, Brian Fiani, Xiaohong Fan and Yang Yu
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020196 - 22 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1616
Abstract
Background: Postoperative intracranial hemorrhage (PIH) is a fairly rare but catastrophic perioperative complication following lumbar spine surgery. This is a case report of a 54-year-old male patient who experienced PIH 2 h after an endoscopic L5-S1 laminectomy and discectomy. Case Presentation: A 54-year-old [...] Read more.
Background: Postoperative intracranial hemorrhage (PIH) is a fairly rare but catastrophic perioperative complication following lumbar spine surgery. This is a case report of a 54-year-old male patient who experienced PIH 2 h after an endoscopic L5-S1 laminectomy and discectomy. Case Presentation: A 54-year-old male patient presented with right L5-S1 radiculopathy that corresponded with the picture revealed in medical imaging and the signs seen upon physical examination. Subsequently, he underwent endoscopic L5-S1 laminectomy and discectomy. The patient presented with idiopathic unconsciousness and limb twitching 2 h after surgery. An emergency cranial CT scan was obtained which demonstrated intracranial hemorrhage. Following an emergency consultation with the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, the patient underwent an emergency interventional thrombectomy as per their orders. The surgery was performed successfully. However, the patient’s situation did not improve and he died on the second postoperative day. Conclusion: PIH after spinal endoscopic surgery is a rare but horrible complication. Several factors could lead to PIH. However, in this patient, the cause of PIH might be attributed to the long operation time combined with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Great attention should be attached to the issue of PIH development in spinal endoscopic procedures due to constant irrigation. This study aims to highlight the issue of PIH following endoscopic spinal surgery by presenting a case report of a patient who died despite successful surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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