State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Personalized Critical Care".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2024 | Viewed by 10179

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Scienze dell’Emergenza, Anestesiologiche e della Rianimazione, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy
Interests: hemodynamic monitoring; machine learning in anesthesia; regional anesthesia; obstetric anesthesia; lung ultrasound; mechanical ventilation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The core of perioperative medicine is an integrated, planned, and personalized approach to patient care before, during, and after any surgical procedure involving general and regional anesthesia. The goal of modern anesthesia is to improve the patient experience and outcomes, lower the occurrence of postoperative issues, decrease the number of days spent in the hospital, and minimize readmissions after surgery, working in synergy with the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS).

The aim of this Special Issue is to invite original research articles, notable clinical findings, and review articles that present and discuss the advancement of research and innovative approaches involving anesthesia and perioperative care, covering different aspects of translational research and personalized treatments.

We especially encourage the submission of interdisciplinary works and multi-country collaborative research. We welcome submissions of original research papers using different study designs and critical and relevant reviews, including systematic reviews.

Dr. Luciano Frassanito
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • personalized medicines
  • enhanced recovery after surgery
  • personalized hemodynamic monitoring
  • mechanical ventilation
  • ultrasonography
  • preoperative care
  • obstetrical anesthesia

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 483 KiB  
Article
Preoperative Glycosylated Haemoglobin Screening to Identify Older Adult Patients with Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus—A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Robert van Wilpe, Mark L. van Zuylen, Jeroen Hermanides, J. Hans DeVries, Benedikt Preckel and Abraham H. Hulst
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020219 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 969
Abstract
More than 25% of older adults in Europe have diabetes mellitus. It is estimated that 45% of patients with diabetes are currently undiagnosed, which is a known risk factor for perioperative morbidity. We investigated whether routine HbA1c screening in older adult patients undergoing [...] Read more.
More than 25% of older adults in Europe have diabetes mellitus. It is estimated that 45% of patients with diabetes are currently undiagnosed, which is a known risk factor for perioperative morbidity. We investigated whether routine HbA1c screening in older adult patients undergoing surgery would identify patients with undiagnosed diabetes. We included patients aged ≥65 years without a diagnosis of diabetes who visited the preoperative assessment clinic at the Amsterdam University Medical Center and underwent HbA1c screening within three months before surgery. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were excluded. We assessed the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes (defined as HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol·mol−1) and prediabetes (HbA1c 39–47 mmol·mol−1). Using a multivariate regression model, we analysed the ability of HbA1c to predict days alive and at home within 30 days after surgery. From January to December 2019, we screened 2015 patients ≥65 years at our clinic. Of these, 697 patients without a diagnosis of diabetes underwent HbA1c screening. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes was 3.7% (95%CI 2.5–5.4%) and 42.9% (95%CI 39.2–46.7%), respectively. Preoperative HbA1c was not associated with days alive and at home within 30 days after surgery. In conclusion, we identified a small number of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and a high prevalence of prediabetes based on preoperative HbA1c screening in a cohort of older adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. The relevance of prediabetes in the perioperative setting is unclear. Screening for HbA1c in older adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery does not appear to help predict postoperative outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine)
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11 pages, 429 KiB  
Article
Personalized Predictive Hemodynamic Management for Gynecologic Oncologic Surgery: Feasibility of Cost–Benefit Derivatives of Digital Medical Devices
by Luciano Frassanito, Rossella Di Bidino, Francesco Vassalli, Kristian Michnacs, Pietro Paolo Giuri, Bruno Antonio Zanfini, Stefano Catarci, Nicoletta Filetici, Chiara Sonnino, Americo Cicchetti, Giovanni Arcuri and Gaetano Draisci
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14010058 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Background: Intraoperative hypotension is associated with increased perioperative complications, hospital length of stay (LOS) and healthcare expenditure in gynecologic surgery. We tested the hypothesis that the adoption of a machine learning-based warning algorithm (hypotension prediction index—HPI) might yield an economic advantage, with a [...] Read more.
Background: Intraoperative hypotension is associated with increased perioperative complications, hospital length of stay (LOS) and healthcare expenditure in gynecologic surgery. We tested the hypothesis that the adoption of a machine learning-based warning algorithm (hypotension prediction index—HPI) might yield an economic advantage, with a reduction in adverse outcomes that outweighs the costs for its implementation as a medical device. Methods: A retrospective-matched cohort cost–benefit Italian study in gynecologic surgery was conducted. Sixty-six female patients treated with standard goal-directed therapy (GDT) were matched in a 2:1 ratio with thirty-three patients treated with HPI based on ASA status, diagnosis, procedure, surgical duration and age. Results: The most relevant contributor to medical costs was operating room occupation (46%), followed by hospital stay (30%) and medical devices (15%). Patients in the HPI group had EURO 300 greater outlay for medical devices without major differences in total costs (GDT 5425 (3505, 8127), HPI 5227 (4201, 7023) p = 0.697). A pre-specified subgroup analysis of 50% of patients undergoing laparotomic surgery showed similar medical device costs and total costs, with a non-significant saving of EUR 1000 in the HPI group (GDT 8005 (5961, 9679), HPI 7023 (5227, 11,438), p = 0.945). The hospital LOS and intensive care unit stay were similar in the cohorts and subgroups. Conclusions: Implementation of HPI is associated with a scenario of cost neutrality, with possible economic advantage in high-risk settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine)
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12 pages, 1097 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Duration of Restrictive Fluid Therapy on Acute Kidney Injury in Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy
by Serap Aktas Yildirim, Zeynep Tugce Sarikaya, Lerzan Dogan, Bulent Gucyetmez, Levent Turkeri and Fevzi Toraman
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(12), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13121666 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Background: In robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), restrictive fluid therapy (RFT) is often utilized until the vesicourethral anastomosis (console period) is completed. RFT can cause acute kidney injury (AKI). Thus, RFT prolongation in surgeries that utilize the Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum may increase the [...] Read more.
Background: In robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), restrictive fluid therapy (RFT) is often utilized until the vesicourethral anastomosis (console period) is completed. RFT can cause acute kidney injury (AKI). Thus, RFT prolongation in surgeries that utilize the Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum may increase the risk of postoperative AKI. We aimed to evaluate the effect of RFT duration on postoperative AKI. Methods: Forty-four patients who underwent RALP were included in this prospective observational study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the RFT duration (Group I, RFT duration ≤ 3 h, and Group II, RFT duration >3 h). AKI was diagnosed and staged according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria (KDIGO) using patients’ serum creatinine levels after the first 24 h postoperatively. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored using the pressure recording analytical method. Results: The AKI incidence was significantly higher in Group II than in Group I (45.5% vs. 9.1%; p = 0.016). In both groups, all patients who developed AKI were KDIGO stage 1 and all recovered on the second postoperative day. At the end of the console period, the heart rate and arterial elastance were significantly higher, whereas the stroke volume index was significantly lower in Group II than in Group I (p = 0.041, p = 0.016, and p < 0.001, respectively). Although the amounts of fluid administered before and after the anastomosis were similar between the groups, the total amount of fluid administered was significantly different (p < 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between RFT duration and the total amount of fluid administered (r2 = 0.43, p < 0.001). RFT duration of >3 h, total fluid administration of ≤3.3 mL/kg/h, and stroke volume index (SVI) at the end of the console period of ≤32 mL/m2 increased the risk of AKI by 12.0 times (1.7–85.2) (p = 0.013). Conclusion: RFT prolongation in RALP may increase the risk of developing AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine)
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12 pages, 916 KiB  
Article
Clinical Characteristics of Spinal versus General Anaesthesia in Older Patients Undergoing Hip Fracture Repair Surgery in Jordan: A Multicentre Study
by Lou’i Al-Husinat, Sarah Al Sharie, Mohammad Araydah, Zaid Al Modanat, Mohammed I. A. Ismail, Hadeel B. Heilat, Mohd Said Dawod, Khaled Ahmad Sawaftah, Silvia De Rosa and Denise Battaglini
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(11), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13111611 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Background: The primary aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of older patients who underwent hip fracture repair surgery. The secondary aims were to assess the predictors of the choice of spinal or general anaesthesia and to explore [...] Read more.
Background: The primary aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of older patients who underwent hip fracture repair surgery. The secondary aims were to assess the predictors of the choice of spinal or general anaesthesia and to explore the risk factors for all-cause mortality. Methods: This three-tertiary centres study was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Jordan. Clinical data include previous fracture history; medication details; comorbidities; surgical approach; and postoperative pain management. Results: Overall, 1084 patients who underwent hip fracture repair were included in this study. The mean age of patients was 78 years, and 55.2% were women. Twenty-four were treated with bisphosphonates before the fracture, whereas 30 were in steroid therapy. Overall, 61.8% of patients underwent spinal anaesthesia, whereas 38.2% underwent general anaesthesia. Spinal anaesthesia group had a lower prevalence of cardiovascular accidents (16.3% vs. 22.3%, p = 0.014) and Alzheimer’s (3.4% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.049) than the general anaesthesia group. In the spinal anaesthesia group, postoperative opioid administration (p = 0.025) and postoperative blood transfusion (p = 0.011) occurred more frequently than general anaesthesia group. In hospital, 30-day and all-cause mortality were comparable between both groups. Diabetes mellitus (HR = 2.6; 95%CI = 1.5–4.4; p = 0.001); cemented hip hemiarthroplasty (HR = 2.4; 95%CI = 1.1–5.1; p = 0.025); deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (HR = 5.0; 95%CI = 1.2–12.9; p = 0.001); and readmission within 1 month from surgery (HR = 3.6; 95%CI = 2.0–6.3; p < 0.001) were all significant predictors of mortality. Conclusions: This study provides insights into the outcomes and factors associated with different anaesthesia types in hip fracture repair surgery. The anaesthesia type does not affect all-cause mortality in patients undergoing hip fracture repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine)
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12 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
Impact of Ultrasound–Assisted Method on Success Rate of Spinal Anesthesia Performed by Novice Trainees: A Retrospective Comparative Study
by Antonio Coviello, Carmine Iacovazzo, Ilaria Piccione, Concetta Posillipo, Maria Silvia Barone, Marilena Ianniello, Andrea Uriel de Siena, Dario Cirillo and Maria Vargas
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(10), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13101515 - 21 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
In current practice, single-shot spinal anesthesia has traditionally been performed using the conventional surface-anatomic-Landmark-Guided technique. This “blind” technique has significant critical issues such as a high risk of complications due to the numerous attempts at spinal needle placement and the negative impact on [...] Read more.
In current practice, single-shot spinal anesthesia has traditionally been performed using the conventional surface-anatomic-Landmark-Guided technique. This “blind” technique has significant critical issues such as a high risk of complications due to the numerous attempts at spinal needle placement and the negative impact on the learning curve of the trainees. Ultrasound-Assisted spinal anesthesia could reduce these critical issues and allow trainees to perform the procedure more easily and with fewer complications for the patient. We performed a before-and-after monocentric retrospective comparative study at the University of Naples “Federico II” (Naples, Italy). Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients aged 18 years or older; ASA physical status between I and IV; and elective orthopedic surgery under single-shot spinal anesthesia performed by supervised trainees between January 2022 and December 2022. In the selected cohort, 88 patients were included in group A (Landmark-Guided spinal anesthesia) and 91 in group B (Ultrasound-Assisted spinal anesthesia). The number of attempts by trainees (p-value < 0.005), procedure performing time (<0.001), and patient discomfort (<0.001) were significantly lower in group B than in group A. Ultrasound-Assisted single-shot spinal anesthesia performed by novice trainees reduces the number of attempts, complication rate, periprocedural pain, and patient discomfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine)
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Review

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17 pages, 1496 KiB  
Review
Remimazolam for Procedural Sedation in Older Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis
by Myeongjong Lee, Cheol Lee, Guen Joo Choi and Hyun Kang
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(3), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14030276 - 29 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
This systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of remimazolam compared to other sedatives for procedural sedation in older patients. We registered the protocol of this systematic review and meta-analysis with TSA in the [...] Read more.
This systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of remimazolam compared to other sedatives for procedural sedation in older patients. We registered the protocol of this systematic review and meta-analysis with TSA in the PROSPERO network (CRD42023441209). Two investigators performed a systematic, comprehensive, and independent search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing remimazolam with other sedatives in older patients undergoing procedural sedation. Conventional meta-analysis and TSA were also performed. Seven RCTs (1502 patients) were included. Pooled results demonstrated that remimazolam was associated with a low incidence of hypoxemia, hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression, and injection pain. Remimazolam also required a long time to cause loss of consciousness. There were no differences in rates of sedation success, dizziness/headache, postoperative nausea and vomiting, or recovery time. Older patients receiving procedural sedation with remimazolam had a lower risk of hypoxemia, hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression, and injection pain than those receiving other sedatives, suggesting that remimazolam may be more suitable for procedural sedation in older patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine)
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18 pages, 321 KiB  
Review
State of the Art in Pediatric Anesthesia: A Narrative Review about the Use of Preoperative Time
by Fabio Sbaraglia, Christian Cuomo, Filomena Della Sala, Rossano Festa, Rossella Garra, Federica Maiellare, Daniela Maria Micci, Domenico Posa, Cecilia Maria Pizzo, Angela Pusateri, Michelangelo Mario Spano, Monica Lucente and Marco Rossi
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020182 - 6 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
This review delves into the challenge of pediatric anesthesia, underscoring the necessity for tailored perioperative approaches due to children’s distinctive anatomical and physiological characteristics. Because of the vulnerability of pediatric patients to critical incidents during anesthesia, provider skills are of primary importance. Yet, [...] Read more.
This review delves into the challenge of pediatric anesthesia, underscoring the necessity for tailored perioperative approaches due to children’s distinctive anatomical and physiological characteristics. Because of the vulnerability of pediatric patients to critical incidents during anesthesia, provider skills are of primary importance. Yet, almost equal importance must be granted to the adoption of a careful preanesthetic mindset toward patients and their families that recognizes the interwoven relationship between children and parents. In this paper, the preoperative evaluation process is thoroughly examined, from the first interaction with the child to the operating day. This evaluation process includes a detailed exploration of the medical history of the patient, physical examination, optimization of preoperative therapy, and adherence to updated fasting management guidelines. This process extends to considering pharmacological or drug-free premedication, focusing on the importance of preanesthesia re-evaluation. Structural resources play a critical role in pediatric anesthesia; components of this role include emphasizing the creation of child-friendly environments and ensuring appropriate support facilities. The results of this paper support the need for standardized protocols and guidelines and encourage the centralization of practices to enhance clinical efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine)
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Other

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10 pages, 391 KiB  
Brief Report
Performance of a Machine Learning Algorithm to Predict Hypotension in Spontaneously Breathing Non-Ventilated Post-Anesthesia and ICU Patients
by Johan T. M. Tol, Lotte E. Terwindt, Santino R. Rellum, Marije Wijnberge, Björn J. P. van der Ster, Eline Kho, Markus W. Hollmann, Alexander P. J. Vlaar, Denise P. Veelo and Jimmy Schenk
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020210 - 15 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Background: Hypotension is common in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and intensive care unit (ICU), and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. The Hypotension Prediction Index (HPI) algorithm has been shown to accurately predict hypotension in mechanically ventilated patients in the OR [...] Read more.
Background: Hypotension is common in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and intensive care unit (ICU), and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. The Hypotension Prediction Index (HPI) algorithm has been shown to accurately predict hypotension in mechanically ventilated patients in the OR and ICU and to reduce intraoperative hypotension (IOH). Since positive pressure ventilation significantly affects patient hemodynamics, we performed this validation study to examine the performance of the HPI algorithm in a non-ventilated PACU and ICU population. Materials & Methods: The performance of the HPI algorithm was assessed using prospectively collected blood pressure (BP) and HPI data from a PACU and a mixed ICU population. Recordings with sufficient time (≥3 h) spent without mechanical ventilation were selected using data from the electronic medical record. All HPI values were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and time-to-event, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed. Results: BP and HPI data from 282 patients were eligible for analysis, of which 242 (86%) were ICU patients. The mean age (standard deviation) was 63 (13.5) years, and 186 (66%) of the patients were male. Overall, the HPI predicted hypotension accurately, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.94. The most used HPI threshold cutoff in research and clinical use, 85, showed a sensitivity of 1.00, specificity of 0.79, median time-to-event of 160 s [60–380], PPV of 0.85, and NPV of 1.00. Conclusion: The absence of positive pressure ventilation and the influence thereof on patient hemodynamics does not negatively affect the performance of the HPI algorithm in predicting hypotension in the PACU and ICU. Future research should evaluate the feasibility and influence on hypotension and outcomes following HPI implementation in non-ventilated patients at risk of hypotension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine)
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