Personalized Maternal-Fetal-Neonatal Infections: Overall Management

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 3617

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Pathology Unit, Azienda USL–IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy
Interests: perinatal pathology
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Guest Editor
Department of Obstetrics and Pediatrics, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy
Interests: neonatal intensive care

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Guest Editor
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy
Interests: prenatal diagnosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fetal and neonatal infections due to various microorganisms show signs and symptoms in pregnancy and in the neonatal period.

During pregnancy, infections may affect the mother and the baby, and clinical manifestations may vary. Fetal infections may induce the fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) or may lead to intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). In the former, placental examination is paramount in identifying the fetal inflammatory response (FIR), and even providing the etiologic agent, through targeted microbiological cultures, helping the neonatal management. In the latter, fetal autopsy and placental examination, according to international guidelines, may also detect the infective agent and provide useful information for maternal clinical management. 

Early-onset neonatal sepsis is within the range of FIRS and signs and symptoms may vary, requiring prompt treatments.

The different spectrum of infections during pregnancy and how they can affect the mother, the fetus and the newborn will be addressed in this Special Issue. Placental examination, and in some cases, autopsies, are fundamental in the clinical management of patients.

Dr. Maria P. Bonasoni
Dr. Giancarlo Gargano
Dr. Giuseppina Comitini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • FIRS
  • FIR
  • newborn clinical management
  • placental examination
  • infections in pregnancy
  • neonatal infections

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 444 KiB  
Article
Hemoglobin, Ferritin, and Lactate Dehydrogenase as Predictive Markers for Neonatal Sepsis
by Nicoleta Lungu, Daniela-Eugenia Popescu, Aniko Maria Manea, Ana Maria Cristina Jura, Florina Marinela Doandes, Zoran Laurentiu Popa, Florin Gorun, Cosmin Citu, Denis Gruber, Sebastian Ciurescu and Marioara Boia
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(5), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14050476 - 29 Apr 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: This study evaluates the predictive effectiveness of biomarkers in diagnosing newborn sepsis. (2) Methods: This was a case–control study conducted on neonates hospitalized at the Clinical Hospital “Louis Turcanu”, Timisoara, Romania, from October 2018 to July 2023. Using a vacutainer collection [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study evaluates the predictive effectiveness of biomarkers in diagnosing newborn sepsis. (2) Methods: This was a case–control study conducted on neonates hospitalized at the Clinical Hospital “Louis Turcanu”, Timisoara, Romania, from October 2018 to July 2023. Using a vacutainer collection device, venous blood was collected at admission for complete blood tests, including ferritin, hemoglobin, LDH, and blood culture analysis. Neonates were divided into two groups: sepsis-positive and sepsis-negative. The outcome of interest was a diagnosis of sepsis. (3) Results: Data from 86 neonates, 51 of whom had been confirmed to have sepsis, were analyzed. This study found no significant difference in gestational age, infant weight, fetal growth restriction, or APGAR score between neonates with and without sepsis. However, there was a higher incidence of sepsis among neonates delivered via cesarean section. Neonatal patients with sepsis showed significantly higher levels of neonatal serum ferritin and LDH compared to those without sepsis. Ferritin and LDH biomarkers demonstrated excellent discriminatory capabilities in diagnosing neonatal sepsis. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between elevated ferritin and LDH levels and the likelihood of neonatal sepsis, while anemia did not show a significant association. (4) Conclusions: LDH and ferritin concentrations are found to be predictive biomarkers for neonatal sepsis, indicating a potential role in detecting susceptible neonates and implementing prompt interventions to improve patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Maternal-Fetal-Neonatal Infections: Overall Management)
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Review

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13 pages, 1031 KiB  
Review
Parvovirus B19 Infection and Pregnancy: Review of the Current Knowledge
by Fernanda Parciasepe Dittmer, Clara de Moura Guimarães, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Karina Felippe Monezi Pontes, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Gabriele Tonni and Edward Araujo Júnior
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020139 - 26 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2524
Abstract
Parvovirus B19, a member of the Parvoviridae family, is a human pathogenic virus. It can be transmitted by respiratory secretions, hand-to-mouth contact, blood transfusion, or transplacental transmission. Most patients are asymptomatic or present with mild symptoms such as erythema infectiosum, especially in children. [...] Read more.
Parvovirus B19, a member of the Parvoviridae family, is a human pathogenic virus. It can be transmitted by respiratory secretions, hand-to-mouth contact, blood transfusion, or transplacental transmission. Most patients are asymptomatic or present with mild symptoms such as erythema infectiosum, especially in children. In rare cases, moderate-to-severe symptoms may occur, affecting blood cells and other systems, resulting in anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. Non-immune pregnant women are at risk for fetal infection by parvovirus B19, with greater complications if transmission occurs in the first or second trimester. Infected fetuses may not show any abnormalities in most cases, but in more severe cases, there may be severe fetal anemia, hydrops, and even pregnancy loss. Maternal diagnosis of intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection includes IgG and IgM antibody testing. For fetal diagnosis, PCR is performed through amniocentesis. In addition to diagnosing the infection, it is important to monitor the peak of systolic velocity of the middle cerebral artery (PVS-MCA) Doppler to assess the presence of fetal anemia. There is no vaccine for parvovirus B19, and fetal management focuses on detecting moderate/severe anemia by fetal PVS-MCA Doppler, which, if diagnosed, should be treated with intrauterine transfusion by cordocentesis. Prevention focuses on reducing exposure in high-risk populations, particularly pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Maternal-Fetal-Neonatal Infections: Overall Management)
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