Fungal Applications in Bioenergy, Bioremediation, Biomedicine, Biocontrol, and Biomaterials

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 23548

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
Interests: synthetic biology; environmental microbiology; biomass degradation and conversion; lignin valorization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Interests: environment remediation; biomonitoring; environment sustainability; proteomics

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Guest Editor
Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Interests: biological control; fungal plant pathogens

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As one of the most diverse eukaryotic kingdoms on the earth, fungi show unique capacities in biomass degradation, efficient protein synthesis and secretion, and various secondary metabolic activities. Numerous fungi have been widely studied and explored for routine and industrial applications. With the excavation of a new strain of resources and advanced molecular engineering, fungi present unlimited potential in the future bioeconomic era.

This Special Issue will cover some recent advances in fungal applications in bioenergy, bioremediation, biomedicine, biocontrol, and biomaterials. The issue’s scope focuses on, but is not limited to:

  • Fungal degradation of xenobiotics for bioremediation
  • Fungal lignocellulosic degradation and waste conversion
  • Heterologous protein expression and secretion
  • Metabolic engineering for chemical compounds biosynthesis
  • Microbial interactions for biocontrol
  • Novel technologies to develop biomaterials with fungi
  • Explore new fungal strain for advanced application

Prof. Dr. Shangxian Xie
Prof. Dr. Susie Dai
Prof. Dr. Charles M Kenerley
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fungi
  • bioremediation
  • bioenergy
  • biomedicine
  • biomaterials
  • biocontrol

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 2574 KiB  
Article
Indigenous Yeasts for the Biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea on Table Grapes in Chile
by Ximena Sepúlveda, Marisol Vargas, Silvana Vero and Nelson Zapata
J. Fungi 2023, 9(5), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9050557 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
One hundred twenty-five yeast strains isolated from table grapes and apples were evaluated for the control Botrytis cinerea of in vitro and in vivo. Ten strains were selected for their ability to inhibit mycelial growth of B. cinerea in vitro. In the in [...] Read more.
One hundred twenty-five yeast strains isolated from table grapes and apples were evaluated for the control Botrytis cinerea of in vitro and in vivo. Ten strains were selected for their ability to inhibit mycelial growth of B. cinerea in vitro. In the in vivo assays, these yeasts were tested at 20 °C on ‘Thompson Seedless’ berries for 7 days; only three were selected (m11, me99 and ca80) because they significantly reduced the incidence of gray mold. These three yeast strains were then evaluated at different concentrations (1 × 107, 1 × 108 and 1 × 109 cells mL−1) on ‘Thompson Seedless’ grape berries at 20 °C. The strains m11, me99 and ca80 reduced the incidence of B. cinerea to 11.9, 26.1 and 32.1%, respectively, when the berries were submerged in a yeast suspension at a concentration of 1 × 109 cells mL−1 24 h before inoculation with B. cinerea. The most favorable pH for antifungal activity was 4.6 in the three isolates. The three yeast strains secreted the hydrolytic enzymes chitinase and β-1-glucanase, and two strains (me99 and ca80) produced siderophores. The three yeast strains exhibited low oxidative stress tolerance and only strain m11 had the ability to produce biofilms. The strains were identified using 5.8S-ITS rDNA PCR-RFLP and correspond to the Meyerozyma guilliermondii (m11) and Aureobasidium pullulans (me99 and ca80) species. Full article
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16 pages, 4067 KiB  
Article
Genomic Diversity and Phenotypic Variation in Fungal Decomposers Involved in Bioremediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants
by Jiali Yu, Jingru Lai, Brian M. Neal, Bert J. White, Mark T. Banik and Susie Y. Dai
J. Fungi 2023, 9(4), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9040418 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Fungi work as decomposers to break down organic carbon, deposit recalcitrant carbon, and transform other elements such as nitrogen. The decomposition of biomass is a key function of wood-decaying basidiomycetes and ascomycetes, which have the potential for the bioremediation of hazardous chemicals present [...] Read more.
Fungi work as decomposers to break down organic carbon, deposit recalcitrant carbon, and transform other elements such as nitrogen. The decomposition of biomass is a key function of wood-decaying basidiomycetes and ascomycetes, which have the potential for the bioremediation of hazardous chemicals present in the environment. Due to their adaptation to different environments, fungal strains have a diverse set of phenotypic traits. This study evaluated 320 basidiomycetes isolates across 74 species for their rate and efficiency of degrading organic dye. We found that dye-decolorization capacity varies among and within species. Among the top rapid dye-decolorizing fungi isolates, we further performed genome-wide gene family analysis and investigated the genomic mechanism for their most capable dye-degradation capacity. Class II peroxidase and DyP-type peroxidase were enriched in the fast-decomposer genomes. Gene families including lignin decomposition genes, reduction-oxidation genes, hydrophobin, and secreted peptidases were expanded in the fast-decomposer species. This work provides new insights into persistent organic pollutant removal by fungal isolates at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Full article
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20 pages, 3018 KiB  
Article
Copper Ion Mediates Yeast-to-Hypha Transition in Yarrowia lipolytica
by Mengqu Ran, Guowei Zhao, Liangcheng Jiao, Zhaorui Gu, Kaixin Yang, Lishuang Wang, Xinghong Cao, Li Xu, Jinyong Yan, Yunjun Yan, Shangxian Xie and Min Yang
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020249 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Copper is an essential element that maintains yeast physiological function at low concentrations, but is toxic in excess. This study reported that Cu(II) significantly promoted the yeast-to-hypha transition of Yarrowia lipolytica in dose-dependent manner. Strikingly, the intracellular Cu(II) accumulation was drastically reduced upon [...] Read more.
Copper is an essential element that maintains yeast physiological function at low concentrations, but is toxic in excess. This study reported that Cu(II) significantly promoted the yeast-to-hypha transition of Yarrowia lipolytica in dose-dependent manner. Strikingly, the intracellular Cu(II) accumulation was drastically reduced upon hyphae formation. Moreover, we investigated the effect of Cu(II) on the physiological function of Y. lipolytica during the dimorphic transition and found that cellular viability and thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) were both influenced by the Cu(II)-induced yeast-to-hypha transition. Overall, hyphal cells survived better than yeast-form cells with copper ions. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis of the Cu(II)-induced Y. lipolytica before and after hyphae formation revealed a transition state between them. The results showed multiple differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were turned over between the yeast-to-transition and the transition-to-hyphae processes. Furthermore, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identified that multiple KEGG pathways, including signaling, ion transport, carbon and lipid metabolism, ribosomal, and other biological processes, were highly involved in the dimorphic transition. Importantly, overexpression screening of more than thirty DEGs further found four novel genes, which are encoded by YALI1_B07500g, YALI1_C12900g, YALI1_E04033g, and YALI1_F29317g, were essential regulators in Cu-induced dimorphic transition. Overexpression of each of them will turn on the yeast-to-hypha transition without Cu(II) induction. Taken together, these results provide new insight to explore further the regulatory mechanism of dimorphic transition in Y. lipolytica. Full article
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13 pages, 2312 KiB  
Article
Efficient Azo Dye Biodecolorization System Using Lignin-Co-Cultured White-Rot Fungus
by Su Sun, Pengyang Liu and Mati Ullah
J. Fungi 2023, 9(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9010091 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
The extensive use of azo dyes by the global textile industry induces significant environmental and human health hazards, which makes efficient remediation crucial but also challenging. Improving dye removal efficiency will benefit the development of bioremediation techniques for textile effluents. In this study, [...] Read more.
The extensive use of azo dyes by the global textile industry induces significant environmental and human health hazards, which makes efficient remediation crucial but also challenging. Improving dye removal efficiency will benefit the development of bioremediation techniques for textile effluents. In this study, an efficient system for azo dye (Direct Red 5B, DR5B) biodecolorization is reported, which uses the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EN2 and alkali lignin. This study suggests that the decolorization of DR5B could be effectively enhanced (from 40.34% to 95.16%) within 48 h in the presence of alkali lignin. The dye adsorption test further confirmed that the alkali-lignin-enhanced decolorization of DR5B was essentially due to biodegradation rather than physical adsorption, evaluating the role of alkali lignin in the dye biodegradation system. Moreover, the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and DR5B decolorization experiments also indicated that alkali lignin carried an excellent potential for promoting dye decolorization and displayed a significant role in improving the activity of lignin-modifying enzymes. This was mainly because of the laccase–mediator system, which was established by the induced laccase activity and lignin-derived small aromatic compounds. Full article
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13 pages, 1658 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Biological Pretreatment of Wormwood Rod Reies with White Rot Fungi for Preparation of Porous Carbon
by Wen Kong, Shuhui Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Xiao Fu and Wanju Zhang
J. Fungi 2023, 9(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9010043 - 28 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1305
Abstract
In this work, the wormwood rod residues are pretreated with white rot fungi as the precursor to preparing porous carbon following a simple carbonization and activation process (denoted herein as FWRA sample). The FWRA sample possesses abundant hierarchical pores structure with high specific [...] Read more.
In this work, the wormwood rod residues are pretreated with white rot fungi as the precursor to preparing porous carbon following a simple carbonization and activation process (denoted herein as FWRA sample). The FWRA sample possesses abundant hierarchical pores structure with high specific surface area (1165.7 m2 g−1) and large pore volume (1.02 cm3 g−1). As an electrode for supercapacitors, the FWRA sample offers a high specific capacitance of 443.2 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and superb rate ability holding a specific capacitance of 270 F g−1 at 100 A g−1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The corresponding symmetrical capacitor has a superb cyclic stability with a low specific capacitance decay rate of 0.4% after 20,000 cycles at 5 A g−1 in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. Moreover, measurements revealed that when used as adsorbent, the FWRA sample is ideal for removing methyl orange (MO) from water, exhibiting a superior adsorption ability of 260.8 mg g−1. Therefore, this study is expected to provide a simple and environmentally friendly technique for the generation of value-added and functional porous carbon materials from Chinese medicinal herbal residues, thus offering promising candidates for broad application areas. Full article
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16 pages, 3482 KiB  
Article
Fungal-Modified Lignin-Enhanced Physicochemical Properties of Collagen-Based Composite Films
by Alitenai Tunuhe, Pengyang Liu, Mati Ullah, Su Sun, Hua Xie, Fuying Ma, Hongbo Yu, Yaxian Zhou and Shangxian Xie
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121303 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Renewable and biodegradable materials have attracted broad attention as alternatives to existing conventional plastics, which have caused serious environmental problems. Collagen is a potential material for developing versatile film due to its biosafety, renewability, and biodegradability. However, it is still critical to overcome [...] Read more.
Renewable and biodegradable materials have attracted broad attention as alternatives to existing conventional plastics, which have caused serious environmental problems. Collagen is a potential material for developing versatile film due to its biosafety, renewability, and biodegradability. However, it is still critical to overcome the low mechanical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the collagen film for food packaging applications. To address these limitations, we developed a new technology to prepare composite film by using collagen and fungal-modified APL (alkali pretreatment liquor). In this study, five edible and medical fungi, Cunninghamella echinulata FR3, Pleurotus ostreatus BP3, Ganoderma lucidum EN2, Schizophyllum commune DS1 and Xylariaceae sp. XY were used to modify the APL, and that showed that the modified APL significantly improved the mechanical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of APL/Collagen composite films. Particularly, the APL modified by BP3, EN2 and XY showed preferable performance in enhancing the properties of the composite films. The tensile strength of the film was increased by 1.5-fold in the presence of the APL modified by EN2. To further understand the effect of fungal-biomodified APL on the properties of the composite films, a correlation analysis between the components of APL and the properties of composite films was conducted and indicated that the content of aromatic functional groups and lignin had a positive correlation with the enhanced mechanical and antioxidant properties of the composite films. In summary, composite films prepared from collagen and fungal biomodified APL showed elevated mechanical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties, and the herein-reported novel technology prospectively possesses great potential application in the food packaging industry. Full article
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8 pages, 1152 KiB  
Communication
The Loss-of-Function Mutation aldA67 Leads to Enhanced α-L-Rhamnosidase Production by Aspergillus nidulans
by Margarita Orejas and Andrew P. MacCabe
J. Fungi 2022, 8(11), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8111181 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1380
Abstract
In Aspergillus nidulans L-rhamnose is catabolised to pyruvate and L-lactaldehyde, and the latter ultimately to L-lactate, via the non-phosphorylated pathway (LRA) encoded by the genes lraA-D, and aldA that encodes a broad substrate range aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that also functions [...] Read more.
In Aspergillus nidulans L-rhamnose is catabolised to pyruvate and L-lactaldehyde, and the latter ultimately to L-lactate, via the non-phosphorylated pathway (LRA) encoded by the genes lraA-D, and aldA that encodes a broad substrate range aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that also functions in ethanol utilisation. LRA pathway expression requires both the pathway-specific transcriptional activator RhaR (rhaR is expressed constitutively) and the presence of L-rhamnose. The deletion of lraA severely impairs growth when L-rhamnose is the sole source of carbon and in addition it abolishes the induction of genes that respond to L-rhamnose/RhaR, indicating that an intermediate of the LRA pathway is the physiological inducer likely required to activate RhaR. The loss-of-function mutation aldA67 also has a severe negative impact on growth on L-rhamnose but, in contrast to the deletion of lraA, the expression levels of L-rhamnose/RhaR-responsive genes under inducing conditions are substantially up-regulated and the production of α-L-rhamnosidase activity is greatly increased compared to the aldA+ control. These findings are consistent with accumulation of the physiological inducer as a consequence of the loss of ALDH activity. Our observations suggest that aldA loss-of-function mutants could be biotechnologically relevant candidates for the over-production of α-L-rhamnosidase activity or the expression of heterologous genes driven by RhaR-responsive promoters. Full article
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21 pages, 2836 KiB  
Article
Mechanical, Physical, and Chemical Properties of Mycelium-Based Composites Produced from Various Lignocellulosic Residues and Fungal Species
by Worawoot Aiduang, Jaturong Kumla, Sirasit Srinuanpan, Wandee Thamjaree, Saisamorn Lumyong and Nakarin Suwannarach
J. Fungi 2022, 8(11), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8111125 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4193
Abstract
Mycelium-based composites (MBCs) are characterized as biodegradable materials derived from fungal species. These composites can be employed across a range of industrial applications that involve the manufacturing of packaging materials as well as the manufacturing of buildings, furniture, and various other household items. [...] Read more.
Mycelium-based composites (MBCs) are characterized as biodegradable materials derived from fungal species. These composites can be employed across a range of industrial applications that involve the manufacturing of packaging materials as well as the manufacturing of buildings, furniture, and various other household items. However, different fungal species and substrates can directly affect the functional properties of MBCs, which ultimately vary their potential to be used in many applications. In this study, the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of MBCs made from four different fungal species (Ganoderma fornicatum, Ganoderma williamsianum, Lentinus sajor-caju, and Schizophyllum commune) combined with three different types of lignocellulosic residues (sawdust, corn husk, and rice straw) were investigated. The results indicate that differences in both the type of lignocellulosic residues and the fungal species could affect the properties of the obtained MBCs. It was found that the MBCs obtained from sawdust had the highest degree of density. Moreover, MBCs obtained from S. commune with all three types of lignocellulosic residues exhibited the highest shrinkage value. The greatest degree of water absorption was observed in the MBCs obtained from rice straw, followed by those obtained from corn husk and sawdust. Additionally, the thermal degradation ability of the MBCs was observed to be within a range of 200 to 325 °C, which was in accordance with the thermal degradation ability of each type of lignocellulosic residue. The greatest degrees of compressive, flexural, impact, and tensile strength were observed in the MBCs of G. williamsianum and L. sajor-caju. The results indicate that the MBCs made from corn husk, combined with each fungal species, exhibited the highest values of flexural, impact, and tensile strength. Subsequently, an analysis of the chemical properties indicated that the pH value, nitrogen content, and organic matter content of the obtained MBCs were within the following ranges: 4.67–6.12, 1.05–1.37%, and 70.40–86.28%, respectively. The highest degree of electrical conductivity was observed in MBCs obtained from rice straw. Most of the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained MBCs were similar to those of polyimide and polystyrene foam. Therefore, these composites could be used to further develop relevant strategies that may allow manufacturers to effectively replace polyimide and polystyrene foams in the future. Full article
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14 pages, 2376 KiB  
Article
Discovery of Oleaginous Yeast from Mountain Forest Soil in Thailand
by Sirawich Sapsirisuk, Pirapan Polburee, Wanlapa Lorliam and Savitree Limtong
J. Fungi 2022, 8(10), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101100 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
As an interesting alternative microbial platform for the sustainable synthesis of oleochemical building blocks and biofuels, oleaginous yeasts are increasing in both quantity and diversity. In this study, oleaginous yeast species from northern Thailand were discovered to add to the topology. A total [...] Read more.
As an interesting alternative microbial platform for the sustainable synthesis of oleochemical building blocks and biofuels, oleaginous yeasts are increasing in both quantity and diversity. In this study, oleaginous yeast species from northern Thailand were discovered to add to the topology. A total of 127 yeast strains were isolated from 22 forest soil samples collected from mountainous areas. They were identified by an analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA (LSU rRNA) gene sequences to be 13 species. The most frequently isolated species were Lipomyces tetrasporus and Lipomyces starkeyi. Based on the cellular lipid content determination, 78 strains of ten yeast species, and two potential new yeast that which accumulated over 20% of dry biomass, were found to be oleaginous yeast strains. Among the oleaginous species detected, Papiliotrema terrestris and Papiliotrema flavescens have never been reported as oleaginous yeast before. In addition, none of the species in the genera Piskurozyma and Hannaella were found to be oleaginous yeast. L. tetrasporus SWU-NGP 2-5 accumulated the highest lipid content of 74.26% dry biomass, whereas Lipomyces mesembrius SWU-NGP 14-6 revealed the highest lipid quantity at 5.20 ± 0.03 g L−1. The fatty acid profiles of the selected oleaginous yeasts varied depending on the strain and suitability for biodiesel production. Full article
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12 pages, 2975 KiB  
Article
Metabolome and Transcriptome Profiling Reveal Carbon Metabolic Flux Changes in Yarrowia lipolytica Cells to Rapamycin
by Ziyu Liu, Junjie Tian, Zhengang Miao, Wenxing Liang and Guangyuan Wang
J. Fungi 2022, 8(9), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8090939 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast for the production of oleochemicals and biofuels. Nitrogen deficiency is beneficial to lipids biosynthesis in Y. lipolytica. Target of rapamycin (TOR) regulates the utilization of nutrients, which is inhibited in nitrogen starvation or by rapamycin treatment. [...] Read more.
Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast for the production of oleochemicals and biofuels. Nitrogen deficiency is beneficial to lipids biosynthesis in Y. lipolytica. Target of rapamycin (TOR) regulates the utilization of nutrients, which is inhibited in nitrogen starvation or by rapamycin treatment. However, under nitrogen-rich conditions, the lipids biosynthesis in Y. lipolytica after inhibition of TOR by rapamycin is elusive. Combining metabolomics and transcriptomics analysis, we found that rapamycin altered multiple metabolic processes of Y. lipolytica grown in nitrogen-rich medium, especially the metabolisms of amino acids and lipids. A total of 176 differentially accumulated metabolites were identified after rapamycin treatment. Rapamycin increased the levels of tryptophan, isoleucine, proline, serine, glutamine, histidine, lysine, arginine and glutamic acid, and decreased the levels of threonine, tyrosine and aspartic acid. Two fatty acids in lipid droplets, stearic acid (down-regulated) and stearidonic acid (up-regulated), were identified. The expression of 2224 genes changed significantly after rapamycin treatment. Further analysis revealed that rapamycin reduced carbon flux through lipids biosynthesis, accompanied by increased carbon flux through fatty acids degradation and amino acid (especially glutamic acid, glutamine, proline and arginine) biosynthesis. The dataset provided here is valuable for understanding the molecular mechanisms of amino acid and lipids metabolisms in oleaginous yeast. Full article
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17 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Cystathionine Gamma-Lyase Regulate Psilocybin Biosynthesis in Gymnopilus dilepis Mushroom via Amino Acid Metabolism Pathways
by Sen Yao, Chuanzheng Wei, Hui Lin, Peng Zhang, Yuanyuan Liu, Youjin Deng, Qianhui Huang and Baogui Xie
J. Fungi 2022, 8(8), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080870 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2410
Abstract
As a potential medicine for the treatment of depression, psilocybin has gradually attracted attention. To elucidate the molecular mechanism regulating psilocybin synthesis in Gymnopilus dilepis, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to detect the changes in psilocybin content after S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) treatment [...] Read more.
As a potential medicine for the treatment of depression, psilocybin has gradually attracted attention. To elucidate the molecular mechanism regulating psilocybin synthesis in Gymnopilus dilepis, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to detect the changes in psilocybin content after S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) treatment and the changes of psilocybin content in different parts (stipe and pileus), and RNA-Seq was used to explore the mechanism of psilocybin content changes. In this study, the psilocybin content in G. dilepis mycelia treated with SAH was significantly lower than that in the control group, and the content of psilocybin in the stipe was significantly higher than that in the pileus. Transcriptome analysis revealed that differential expression genes (DEGs) were associated with cysteine and methionine metabolism. In particular, the transcription levels of genes encoding Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH) in different treatments and different parts were positively correlated with psilocybin content. In addition, we found that the exogenous addition of CTH activity inhibitor (DL-propargylglycine, PAG) could reduce the content of psilocybin and L-serine, and the content of psilocybin and L-serine returned to normal levels after L-cysteine supplementation, suggesting that psilocybin synthesis may be positively correlated with L-cysteine or CTH, and L-cysteine regulates the synthesis of psilocybin by affecting L-serine and 4-hydroxy-L-tryptophan. In conclusion, this study revealed a new molecular mechanism that affects psilocybin biosynthesis, which can provide a theoretical basis for improving psilocybin synthesis and the possibility for the development of biomedicine. Full article
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