Fungal Infections of Implantation (Subcutaneous Mycoses)

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X). This special issue belongs to the section "Fungal Pathogenesis and Disease Control".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2023) | Viewed by 14716

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Public Health, Hospital de Clinicas, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil
2. Serviço de Infectologia, Hospital de Clinicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Rua General Carneiro, 260, Curitiba, Paraná 80060-900, Brazil
Interests: endemic mycoses; mycoses of implantation; paracoccidioidomycosis; cryptococcois; inherited immunodeficiencies and mycoses
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Guest Editor
1. Instituto D'Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, IDOR, Rede D'Or, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil
2. Hospital Universitário Presidente Dutra, Ebserh, UFMA, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil
Interests: chromoblastomycosis; phaeohyphomycosis; mycetoma; mycoses of implantation; Fungal Infections of Implantation (Subcutaneous Mycoses)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Implantation or inoculation mycoses are a heterogeneous group of fungal diseases with subacute to chronic manifestations starting at the site of the inoculation of pathogenic fungi that gain entrance into the body, through several types of transepithelial traumas. They are also known as “subcutaneous mycoses,” but this term seems to be imprecise as some of the implantation mycoses may also involve sites beyond the skin and the subcutaneous tissues (e.g., muscle, fascia, cartilage, bone). In the immunocompromised host, some implantation mycoses may spread from a cutaneous port of entry to internal organs and disseminate.

Implantation mycoses are distributed worldwide, causing endemic mycoses in tropical and subtropical zones like sporotrichosis, eumycetoma, chromoblastomycosis, lobomycosis, and entomophthoromycosis, as well asglobal fungal infections like fungal keratitis, phaeohyphomycosis, mucormycosis, scedosporiosis, fusariosis, etc.

Implantation fungal infections may be the cause of significant mobility and mortality rates in immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts worldwide. Several implantation mycoses are also of veterinary interest, affecting different animals around the world, from cats to fish.

This Special Issue of Journal of Fungi  will publish peer-reviewed manuscripts related to implantation mycoses of human and veterinary relevance.

Dr. Flavio Queiroz-Telles
Dr. Daniel Wagner Santos
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1551 KiB  
Article
Invasive Rhinosinusitis Caused by Alternaria infectoria in a Patient with Autosomal Recessive CARD9 Deficiency and a Review of the Literature
by Olivier Paccoud, Nicolas Vignier, Mohammed Boui, Mélanie Migaud, Pierre Vironneau, Romain Kania, Frédéric Méchaï, Sophie Brun, Alexandre Alanio, Arnault Tauziède-Espariat, Homa Adle-Biassette, Elise Ouedraogo, Jacinta Bustamante, Olivier Bouchaud, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel and Fanny Lanternier
J. Fungi 2022, 8(5), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050446 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
Phaeohyphomycoses comprise a heterogeneous group of fungal infections caused by dematiaceous fungi and have primarily been reported in patients with underlying acquired immunodeficiencies, such as hematological malignancies or solid-organ transplants. Over the past decade, a growing number of patients with phaeohyphomycosis but otherwise [...] Read more.
Phaeohyphomycoses comprise a heterogeneous group of fungal infections caused by dematiaceous fungi and have primarily been reported in patients with underlying acquired immunodeficiencies, such as hematological malignancies or solid-organ transplants. Over the past decade, a growing number of patients with phaeohyphomycosis but otherwise healthy were reported with autosomal recessive (AR) CARD9 deficiency. We report a 28-year-old woman who presented with invasive rhinosinusitis caused by Alternaria infectoria. Following a candidate gene sequencing approach, we identified a biallelic loss-of-function mutation of CARD9, thereby further broadening the spectrum of invasive fungal diseases found in patients with inherited CARD9 deficiency. In addition, we reviewed 17 other cases of phaeohyphomycosis associated with AR CARD9 deficiency. Physicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion for inborn errors of immunity, namely CARD9 deficiency, when caring for previously healthy patients with phaeohyphomycosis, regardless of age at first presentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections of Implantation (Subcutaneous Mycoses))
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16 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Fungal Infections of Implantation: More Than Five Years of Cases of Subcutaneous Fungal Infections Seen at the UK Mycology Reference Laboratory
by Andrew M. Borman, Mark Fraser, Zoe Patterson, Christopher J. Linton, Michael Palmer and Elizabeth M. Johnson
J. Fungi 2022, 8(4), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040343 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2752
Abstract
Subcutaneous fungal infections, which typically result from traumatic introduction (implantation) of fungal elements into the skin or underlying tissues, can present as a range of different clinical entities including phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, subcutaneous nodules or masses, and genuine eumycetoma. Here, we mined our laboratory [...] Read more.
Subcutaneous fungal infections, which typically result from traumatic introduction (implantation) of fungal elements into the skin or underlying tissues, can present as a range of different clinical entities including phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, subcutaneous nodules or masses, and genuine eumycetoma. Here, we mined our laboratory information management system for such infections in humans and domestic animals for the period 2016–2022, including (i) fungal isolates referred for identification and/or susceptibility testing; (ii) infections diagnosed at our laboratory using panfungal PCR approaches on infected tissue; and (iii) organisms cultured in our laboratory from biopsies. In total, 106 cases were retrieved, involving 39 fungal species comprising 26 distinct genera. Subcutaneous infections with Alternaria species were the most frequent (36 cases), which possibly reflects the ubiquitous nature of this common plant pathogen. A substantial proportion of Alternaria spp. isolates exhibited reduced in vitro susceptibility to voriconazole. Notably, a significant number of subcutaneous infections were diagnosed in renal and other solid organ transplant recipients post transplantation, suggesting that humans may harbour “inert” subcutaneous fungal elements from historical minor injuries that present as clinical infections upon later immunosuppression. The current study underscores the diversity of fungi that can cause subcutaneous infections. While most organisms catalogued here were responsible for occasional infections, several genera (Alternaria, Exophiala, Phaeoacremonuim, Scedosporium) were more frequently recovered in our searches, suggesting that they possess virulence factors that facilitate subcutaneous infections and/or inhabit natural niches that make them more likely to be traumatically inoculated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections of Implantation (Subcutaneous Mycoses))
9 pages, 3526 KiB  
Article
Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Sporotrichosis in a Reference Center of Uruguay
by Elisa Cabeza, Annie Arrillaga, Lucía Dalcín, Mauricio Carbia, Zaida Arteta and Patricia Perera
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030322 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
Background: Sporotrichosis is a fungal implantation disease of subacute/ chronic course caused by species of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix spp. This infection usually develops after traumatic inoculation of contaminated soil, plants or organic material contaminated by Sporothrix spp. conidia into skin or mucosa. [...] Read more.
Background: Sporotrichosis is a fungal implantation disease of subacute/ chronic course caused by species of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix spp. This infection usually develops after traumatic inoculation of contaminated soil, plants or organic material contaminated by Sporothrix spp. conidia into skin or mucosa. The objective of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of sporotrichosis in Uruguay by providing a report of a series of cases diagnosed in a reference center. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed in the last 38 years. Results: In the period analyzed, 157 cases of sporotrichosis were diagnosed, 152 of those corresponded to male patients. The most frequent clinical presentation was nodular lymphatic in 120 patients. In relation to epidemiological antecedents, 128 patients had been scratched by armadillos during hunting. Conclusions: Sporotrichosis in Uruguay is a sporadic disease with a clear seasonal pattern related to particular social practices, such as hunting armadillos. Related to this practice, the affectation is greater in males and in young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections of Implantation (Subcutaneous Mycoses))
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Review

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14 pages, 853 KiB  
Review
Molecular Diagnosis of Two Major Implantation Mycoses: Chromoblastomycosis and Sporotrichosis
by Danièle Maubon, Cécile Garnaud, Lala Soavina Ramarozatovo, Rapelanoro Rabenja Fahafahantsoa, Muriel Cornet and Tahinamandranto Rasamoelina
J. Fungi 2022, 8(4), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040382 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
Chromoblastomycosis and sporotrichosis are the two main implantation mycoses that are now recognized as fungal neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Their laboratory diagnosis mainly relies on direct microscopy, histopathology, and identification of the fungus by culture. However, to be appropriately used, these techniques require [...] Read more.
Chromoblastomycosis and sporotrichosis are the two main implantation mycoses that are now recognized as fungal neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Their laboratory diagnosis mainly relies on direct microscopy, histopathology, and identification of the fungus by culture. However, to be appropriately used, these techniques require mycological expertise that is not widely available and may be absent in peripheral health care facilities in endemic areas. In addition, they lack sensitivity and specificity, and the culture for isolation and identification can have a long time-to-results period. Molecular methods, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), have been developed in well-equipped reference laboratories. They greatly improve the rapidity and accuracy of diagnosis; in particular, for species identification. Recently, PCR and sequencing have paved the way for more user-friendly point-of-care tests, such as those based on LAMP or RCA technologies, which can be used in basic healthcare settings and even in field consultations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections of Implantation (Subcutaneous Mycoses))
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Other

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11 pages, 1289 KiB  
Case Report
The First Case of Fusarium falciforme Eumycetoma in Sudan and an Extensive Literature Review about Treatment Worldwide
by Emmanuel Edwar Siddig, Ayman Ahmed, Hala Fathi Eltigani, Sahar Mubarak Bakhiet, Wendy W. J. van de Sande and Ahmed Hassan Fahal
J. Fungi 2023, 9(7), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9070730 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Eumycetoma is an infectious disease caused by various fungal pathogens. The disease is characterised by black and pale-yellowish grain discharge. In this communication, we report a case of eumycetoma with a pale grain foot-eumycetoma caused by Fusarium falciforme. The patient presented at the [...] Read more.
Eumycetoma is an infectious disease caused by various fungal pathogens. The disease is characterised by black and pale-yellowish grain discharge. In this communication, we report a case of eumycetoma with a pale grain foot-eumycetoma caused by Fusarium falciforme. The patient presented at the outpatient clinic of the Mycetoma Research Centre in Sudan. The causative agent was initially misidentified as Aspergillus nidulans based on its seemingly similar histopathological appearance. However, sequencing the internally transcribed spacer region of the extracted grain confirmed infection with Fusarium falciforme. Although the patient received Itraconazole and underwent surgical excision, the disease was recurrent. To our knowledge, this is the first report on Fusarium falciforme causing eumycetoma in Sudan, indicating the expansion of the geographical distribution of this pathogen. This calls for raising the awareness of healthcare providers and improving the diagnostic and surveillance systems in at-risk areas to improve the case management and reduce the threat of further spread. Considering the potential impacts of F. falciforme infection including threatening the global health, food security, and ecosystem balance, as well as loss of biodiversity and negative socioeconomic changes in endemic countries, we recommend the implementation of an integrated transdisciplinary One Health strategy for the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases including F. falciforme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections of Implantation (Subcutaneous Mycoses))
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7 pages, 2072 KiB  
Case Report
An Atypical Etiology of Fungal Keratitis Caused by Roussoella neopustulans
by Morgana F. Voidaleski, Flavio Queiroz-Telles, Hugo T. Itikawa, Guilherme G. Müller, Bruna J. F. S. Lima, Lucas E. Trevisoli, Regielly C. R. Cognialli, Roberta C. L. Crispim and Vania A. Vicente
J. Fungi 2022, 8(5), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050507 - 15 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Fungal keratitis is caused by a wide spectrum of fungal genera, including molds and yeasts. We report a 42-year-old patient with mycotic keratitis after a direct trauma by a wood fragment. The fungal isolate was identified as Roussoella neopustulans by molecular methods. The [...] Read more.
Fungal keratitis is caused by a wide spectrum of fungal genera, including molds and yeasts. We report a 42-year-old patient with mycotic keratitis after a direct trauma by a wood fragment. The fungal isolate was identified as Roussoella neopustulans by molecular methods. The treatment with topic natamycin showed progressive improvement of the visual manifestations, and following three months of therapy, the patient regained sight. We report the first case of keratitis associated with R. neopustulans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections of Implantation (Subcutaneous Mycoses))
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