Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 20403

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, China
Interests: postharvest disease; citrus; antifungal mechanism; essential oil; plant-microbe interactions
School of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, China
Interests: penicillium digitatum; citrus disease; pepper fruit disease; green control; plant essential oil; sodium dehydroacetate; antifungal mechanism; transcriptional regulation; plant-microbe interactions
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruit and vegetable rot caused by pathogens is an important factor causing economic losses to farmers. Fruits and vegetables are susceptible to pathogens at multiple stages before and after harvest, resulting in severe postharvest product decay and huge economic losses. The host range and pathogenicity of pathogens isolated in different regions vary greatly, which is the result of pathogens adapting to the local environment. Therefore, isolation and identification of region-specific strains are crucial for the development of strain-specific antifungal agents. Presently, the main control practice for postharvest disease is using synthetic chemical fungicides. However, problems associated with the use of these chemicals (health, environmental, and emergence of resistant strains) have increasingly become prominent.

For this reason, we encourage manuscripts on the isolation of fruit and vegetable pathogens that have not yet been reported, the development of new control measures for fruit and vegetable diseases, and antifungal mechanisms of agents, to be submitted to a Special Issue of the Journal of Fungi on “Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi”.

Prof. Dr. Nengguo Tao
Dr. Xiaoli Tan
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • fruit and vegetable
  • pathogen
  • postharvest disease
  • antifungal agents
  • isolation and identification

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 5143 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Isolation, Identification, and Biological Characterization Analysis of and Novel Control Strategies for Diaporthe passiflorae in Postharvest Passion Fruit
by Huiling Wang, Hongbin Chen, Yu Lin, Meiling Li, Qingqing Liu, Yuzhao Lin, Xuanjing Jiang and Yihui Chen
J. Fungi 2023, 9(10), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9101034 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Postharvest diseases seriously restrict developments in the passion fruit industry. In this study, we aimed to identify the postharvest pathogen affecting passion fruit, investigate its pathogenicity, and explore relevant control methods. The pathogen was isolated from rotting passion fruit and identified using morphological [...] Read more.
Postharvest diseases seriously restrict developments in the passion fruit industry. In this study, we aimed to identify the postharvest pathogen affecting passion fruit, investigate its pathogenicity, and explore relevant control methods. The pathogen was isolated from rotting passion fruit and identified using morphological characteristics, ITS sequences, and phylogenetic tree analyses. Additionally, preliminary studies were conducted to assess the biological characteristics of the pathogen and evaluate the efficacy of various treatments for disease control. The fungus on the passion fruit called B4 was identified as Diaporthe passiflorae. Optimal conditions for mycelial growth were observed at 25–30 °C and pH 5–6, with starch as the carbon source and peptone as the nitrogen source. Infection by D. passiflorae accelerated fruit decay, reduced the value of the peel, and increased the peel cell membrane permeability when compared to the control. Notably, treatments with appropriate concentrations of ɛ-poly-l-lysine, salicylic acid, and melatonin showed inhibitory effects on the pathogen’s growth in vitro and may thus be potential postharvest treatments for controlling brown rot caused by D. passiflorae in passion fruit. The results provide a scientific basis for the development of strategies to control postharvest decay and extend the storage period of passion fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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14 pages, 7757 KiB  
Article
Inhibitory Mechanisms of trans-2-Hexenal on the Growth of Geotrichum citri-aurantii
by Qiuli Ouyang, Shiwei Shi, Yangmei Liu, Yanqin Yang, Yonghua Zhang, Xingxing Yuan, Nengguo Tao and Lu Li
J. Fungi 2023, 9(9), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9090930 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
Geotrichum citri-aurantii (G. citri-aurantii) is one of the most important postharvest pathogens leading to a postharvest loss of citrus by causing sour rot. In this study, the antifungal activity of trans-2-hexenal, a natural component of essential [...] Read more.
Geotrichum citri-aurantii (G. citri-aurantii) is one of the most important postharvest pathogens leading to a postharvest loss of citrus by causing sour rot. In this study, the antifungal activity of trans-2-hexenal, a natural component of essential oil, against G. citri-aurantii was evaluated. Trans-2-hexenal treatment inhibited the mycelia growth of G. citri-aurantii with a minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of trans-2-hexenal at 0.50 and 1.00 μL/mL, respectively. Moreover, trans-2-hexenal efficiently reduced the incidence of sour rot of Satsuma fruit inoculated with G. citri-aurantii. Ultrastructural observations and Fourier transform infrared (FT−IR) results showed that trans-2-hexenal treatment affected the cell wall and cell membrane instructions of G. citri-aurantii. The content of β-1,3-glucan was significantly decreased after trans-2-hexenal treatment, but the cell wall permeability was not changed. The decrease in lipid and ergosterol contents might be responsible for this antifungal activity. Several important genes, FKS1, ERG1, ERG7, and ERG11, showed decreasing expression levels after trans-2-hexenal treatment. Molecule-docking results also indicated that trans-2-hexenal could join with the protein of FKS1, ERG1, ERG7, and ERG11 to impact enzyme activities. These results demonstrated that trans-2-hexenal is a promising fungicide for controlling sour rot of harvested citrus fruit by damaging the membrane integrity of G. citri-aurantii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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14 pages, 3859 KiB  
Article
Ena Proteins Respond to PacC-Mediated pH Signaling Pathway and Play a Crucial Role in Patulin Biosynthesis
by Ruiling Zhuo, Yong Chen, Mengyang Xing, Zhanquan Zhang, Shiping Tian and Boqiang Li
J. Fungi 2023, 9(8), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9080806 - 30 Jul 2023
Viewed by 913
Abstract
Penicillium expansum is a main producer of patulin that causes severe postharvest decay and food safety issues in the fruit industry. Development, pathogenicity, and patulin production of P. expansum are strongly influenced by the PacC-pH signaling pathway. Global transcription factor PacC regulates various [...] Read more.
Penicillium expansum is a main producer of patulin that causes severe postharvest decay and food safety issues in the fruit industry. Development, pathogenicity, and patulin production of P. expansum are strongly influenced by the PacC-pH signaling pathway. Global transcription factor PacC regulates various fungal biological processes through a complicated molecular network. In the present study, three Ena family genes (PeEnas), PeEnaA, PeEnaB, and PeEnaC, as important downstream targets of PePacC, were identified in P. expansum. Deletion of PeEnaA, PeEnaB, and PeEnaC showed little effect on mycelial growth under alkaline or high salinity conditions, but double and triple deletion of these genes impaired the virulence of P. expansum on apple fruit. Notably, patulin biosynthesis of P. expansum was distinctly inhibited in the deletion mutants of PeEnas. PeEnas regulated expressions of the patulin gene cluster, AP1, CreA, Sge1, and Hog1 at the transcriptional level and played roles in maintaining membrane potential. Overexpression of PeEnaC in ΔPePacC restored the patulin production defect of ΔPePacC. Our results indicated that, as downstream targets of PePacC, the PeEna family proteins play a crucial role in patulin biosynthesis in P. expansum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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12 pages, 3288 KiB  
Article
Erg4 Is Involved in Ergosterol Biosynthesis, Conidiation and Stress Response in Penicillium expansum
by Zhanhong Han, Yuanyuan Zong, Xuemei Zhang, Di Gong, Bin Wang, Dov Prusky, Edward Sionov, Huali Xue and Yang Bi
J. Fungi 2023, 9(5), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9050568 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
erg4 is a key gene for ergosterol biosynthesis in filamentous fungi, but its function in Penicillium expansum remains unknown. Our results showed that P. expansum contains three erg4 genes, including erg4A, erg4B and erg4C. The expression levels of the three genes [...] Read more.
erg4 is a key gene for ergosterol biosynthesis in filamentous fungi, but its function in Penicillium expansum remains unknown. Our results showed that P. expansum contains three erg4 genes, including erg4A, erg4B and erg4C. The expression levels of the three genes showed differences in the wild-type (WT) strain, and the expression level of erg4B was the highest, followed by erg4C. Deletion of erg4A, erg4B or erg4C in the WT strain revealed functional redundancy between them. Compared to the WT strain, erg4A, erg4B or erg4C knockout mutants reduced ergosterol levels, with erg4B deletion having the greatest effect. Furthermore, deletion of the three genes reduced sporulation of the strain, and Δerg4B and Δerg4C mutants showed defective spore morphology. In addition, Δerg4B and Δerg4C mutants were found to be more sensitive to cell wall integrity and oxidative stress. However, deletion of erg4A, erg4B or erg4C had no significant effect on colony diameter, spore germination rate, conidiophore structure of P. expansum or pathogenicity to apple fruit. Taken together, erg4A, erg4B and erg4C have redundant functions and are all involved in ergosterol synthesis and sporulation in P. expansum. In addition, erg4B and erg4C contribute to spore morphogenesis, cell wall integrity and response to oxidative stress in P. expansum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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16 pages, 5192 KiB  
Article
Adding Metal Ions to the Bacillus mojavensis D50 Promotes Biofilm Formation and Improves Ability of Biocontrol
by Lining Zheng, Xuehu Gu, Liangpeng Sun, Meiqi Dong, Ao Gao, Zhe Han, Hongyu Pan and Hao Zhang
J. Fungi 2023, 9(5), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9050526 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Bacillus mojavensis D50, a biocontrol strain, is used to prevent and treat the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Bacillus mojavensis D50’s biofilms can affect its colonization; thus, the effects of different metal ions and culture conditions on biofilm formation were determined in [...] Read more.
Bacillus mojavensis D50, a biocontrol strain, is used to prevent and treat the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Bacillus mojavensis D50’s biofilms can affect its colonization; thus, the effects of different metal ions and culture conditions on biofilm formation were determined in this study. The results of medium optimization showed that Ca2+ had the best ability to promote biofilm formation. The optimal medium composition for the formation of biofilms contained tryptone (10 g/L), CaCl2 (5.14 g/L), and yeast extract (5.0 g/L), and the optimal fermentation conditions included pH 7, a temperature of 31.4 °C, and a culture time of 51.8 h. We found that the antifungal activity and abilities to form biofilms and colonize roots were improved after optimization. In addition, the levels of expression of the genes luxS, SinR, FlhA, and tasA were up-regulated by 37.56-, 2.87-, 12.46-, and 6.22-fold, respectively. The soil enzymatic activities which related biocontrol-related enzymes were the highest when the soil was treated by strain D50 after optimization. In vivo biocontrol assays indicated that the biocontrol effect of strain D50 after optimization was improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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16 pages, 3725 KiB  
Article
β-Glucan Enhances the Biocontrol Efficacy of Marine Yeast Scheffersomyeces spartinae W9 against Botrytis cinerea in Strawberries
by Xueyan Chen, Yingying Wei, Xiurong Zou, Zichang Zhao, Shu Jiang, Yi Chen, Feng Xu and Xingfeng Shao
J. Fungi 2023, 9(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9040474 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
The marine yeast Scheffersomyeces spartinae W9 is a promising biocontrol agent for gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea in strawberries. Improving the biocontrol efficacy of S. spartinae W9 is necessary for its commercial application. In this study, different concentrations of β-glucan were added [...] Read more.
The marine yeast Scheffersomyeces spartinae W9 is a promising biocontrol agent for gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea in strawberries. Improving the biocontrol efficacy of S. spartinae W9 is necessary for its commercial application. In this study, different concentrations of β-glucan were added to the culture medium to evaluate its effect on the biocontrol efficacy of S. spartinae W9. The results showed that 0.1% β-glucan could increase the biocontrol effect of S. spartinae W9 against B. cinerea in strawberries and in vitro. We found that adding 0.1% β-glucan to the culture medium promoted the growth of S. spartinae W9 in wounds of strawberries, enhanced biofilm formation ability, and secreted more β-1,3-glucanase. In addition, 0.1% β-glucan increased the survival rate of S. spartinae W9 under oxidative, thermal, osmotic, and plasma membrane stressors. Transcriptome analysis revealed 188 differential expressed genes in S. spartinae W9 cultured with or without 0.1% β-glucan, including 120 upregulated and 68 downregulated genes. The upregulated genes were associated with stress response, cell wall formation, energy production, growth, and reproduction. Thus, culturing with 0.1% β-glucan is an effective way to improve the biocontrol ability of S. spartinae W9 against gray mold in strawberries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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20 pages, 8244 KiB  
Article
Biocontrol of Diseases Caused by Phytophthora capsici and P. parasitica in Pepper Plants
by Mila Santos, Fernando Diánez, Brenda Sánchez-Montesinos, Victoria Huertas, Alejandro Moreno-Gavira, Belén Esteban García, José A. Garrido-Cárdenas and Francisco J. Gea
J. Fungi 2023, 9(3), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9030360 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2299
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum, T. longibrachiatum, Paecilomyces variotii, and T. saturnisporum as biological control agents (BCAs) against diseases caused by P. capsici and P. parasitica in pepper. For [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum, T. longibrachiatum, Paecilomyces variotii, and T. saturnisporum as biological control agents (BCAs) against diseases caused by P. capsici and P. parasitica in pepper. For this purpose, their antagonistic activities were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We analysed the expression patterns of five defence related genes, CaBGLU, CaRGA1, CaBPR1, CaPTI1, and CaSAR8.2, in leaves. All BCAs showed a high in vitro antagonistic activity, significantly reducing the mycelial growth of P. capsici and P. parasitica. The treatments with T. aggressivum f. europaeum, T. longibrachiatum, and P. variotii substantially reduced the severity of the disease caused by P. capsici by 54, 76, and 70%, respectively, and of the disease caused by P. parasitica by 66, 55, and 64%, respectively. T. saturnisporum had the lowest values of disease reduction. Reinoculation with the four BCAs increased the control of both plant pathogens. Markedly different expression patterns were observed in the genes CaBGLU, CaRGA1, and CaSAR8.2. Based on the results, all four BCAs under study could be used as a biological alternative to chemicals for the control of P. capsici and P. parasitica in pepper with a high success rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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13 pages, 3253 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Activity of Perillaldehyde on Fusarium solani and Its Control Effect on Postharvest Decay of Sweet Potatoes
by Chao Pan, Kunlong Yang, Famous Erhunmwunsee, Bo Wang, Dongjing Yang, Guoquan Lu, Man Liu, Yongxin Li and Jun Tian
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020257 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Root rot caused by Fusarium solani is one of the major postharvest diseases limiting sweet potato production. Here, antifungal activity and the action mode of perillaldehyde (PAE) against F. solani were investigated. A PAE concentration of 0.15 mL/L in air (mL/L air) markedly [...] Read more.
Root rot caused by Fusarium solani is one of the major postharvest diseases limiting sweet potato production. Here, antifungal activity and the action mode of perillaldehyde (PAE) against F. solani were investigated. A PAE concentration of 0.15 mL/L in air (mL/L air) markedly inhibited the mycelial growth, spore reproduction and spore viability of F. solani. A PAE vapor of 0.25 mL/L in air could control the F. solani development in sweet potatoes during storage for 9 days at 28 °C. Moreover, the results of a flow cytometer demonstrated that PAE drove an increase in cell membrane permeability, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in F. solani spores. Subsequently, a fluorescence microscopy assay demonstrated that PAE caused serious damage to the cell nuclei in F. solani by inducing chromatin condensation. Further, the spread plate method showed that the spore survival rate was negatively correlated with the level of ROS and nuclear damage, of which the results indicated that PAE-driven ROS accumulation plays a critical role in contributing to cell death in F. solani. In all, the results revealed a specific antifungal mechanism of PAE against F. solani, and suggest that PAE could be a useful fumigant for controlling the postharvest diseases of sweet potatoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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13 pages, 6995 KiB  
Article
Ferric Chloride Controls Citrus Anthracnose by Inducing the Autophagy Activity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
by Yuqing Wang, Xiaoxiao Wu, Yongqing Lu, Huimin Fu, Shuqi Liu, Juan Zhao and Chaoan Long
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020230 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes citrus anthracnose, which seriously endangers the pre-harvest production and post-harvest storage of citrus due to its devastating effects on fruit quality, shelf life, and profits. However, although some chemical agents have been proven to effectively control this plant disease, little [...] Read more.
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes citrus anthracnose, which seriously endangers the pre-harvest production and post-harvest storage of citrus due to its devastating effects on fruit quality, shelf life, and profits. However, although some chemical agents have been proven to effectively control this plant disease, little to no efforts have been made to identify effective and safe anti-anthracnose alternatives. Therefore, this study assessed and verified the inhibitory effect of ferric chloride (FeCl3) against C. gloeosporioides. Our findings demonstrated that FeCl3 could effectively inhibit C. gloeosporioides spore germination. After FeCl3 treatment, the germination rate of the spores in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) groups decreased by 84.04% and 89.0%, respectively. Additionally, FeCl3 could effectively inhibit the pathogenicity of C. gloeosporioides in vivo. Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses demonstrated the occurrence of wrinkled and atrophic mycelia. Moreover, FeCl3 induced autophagosome formation in the test pathogen, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining. Additionally, a positive correlation was identified between the FeCl3 concentration and the damage rate of the fungal sporophyte cell membrane, as the staining rates of the control (untreated), 1/2 MIC, and MIC FeCl3 treatment groups were 1.87%, 6.52%, and 18.15%, respectively. Furthermore, the ROS content in sporophyte cells increased by 3.6%, 29.27%, and 52.33% in the control, 1/2 MIC, and MIC FeCl3 groups, respectively. Therefore, FeCl3 could reduce the virulence and pathogenicity of C. gloeosporioides. Finally, FeCl3-handled citrus fruit exhibited similar physiological qualities to water-handled fruit. The results show that FeCl3 may prove to be a good substitute for the treatment of citrus anthracnose in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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0 pages, 6798 KiB  
Article
Isolation of Main Pathogens Causing Postharvest Disease in Fresh Codonopsis pilosula during Different Storage Stages and Ozone Control against Disease and Mycotoxin Accumulation
by Bingyu Lv, Xi Yang, Huali Xue, Mina Nan, Yuan Zhang, Zhiguang Liu, Yang Bi and Suqin Shang
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020146 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2090
Abstract
Codonopsis pilosula is an important Chinese herbal medicine. However, fresh C. pilosula is prone to decay during storage due to microorganism infections, seriously affecting the medicinal value and even causing mycotoxin accumulation. Therefore, it is necessary to study the pathogens present and develop [...] Read more.
Codonopsis pilosula is an important Chinese herbal medicine. However, fresh C. pilosula is prone to decay during storage due to microorganism infections, seriously affecting the medicinal value and even causing mycotoxin accumulation. Therefore, it is necessary to study the pathogens present and develop efficient control strategies to mitigate their detrimental effects on the herbs during storage. In this study, fresh C. pilosula was collected from Min County in Gansu Province, China. The natural disease symptoms were observed during different storage stages, and the pathogens causing C. pilosula postharvest decay were isolated from the infected fresh C. pilosula. Morphological and molecular identification were performed, and pathogenicity was tested using Koch’s postulates. In addition, the control of ozone was examined against the isolates and mycotoxin accumulation. The results indicated that the naturally occurring symptom increased progressively with the extension of storage time. The mucor rot caused by Mucor was first observed on day 7, followed by root rot caused by Fusarium on day 14. Blue mold disease caused by Penicillum expansum was detected as the most serious postharvest disease on day 28. Pink rot disease caused by Trichothecium roseum was observed on day 56. Moreover, ozone treatment significantly decreased the development of postharvest disease and inhibited the accumulations of patulin, deoxynivalenol, 15-Acetyl-deoxynivalenol, and HT-2 toxin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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17 pages, 5427 KiB  
Article
Cell-Free Supernatant of Bacillus subtilis Reduces Kiwifruit Rot Caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea through Inducing Oxidative Stress in the Pathogen
by Yezhen Fan, Kui Liu, Ruoxi Lu, Jieyu Gao, Wu Song, Hongyan Zhu, Xiaofeng Tang, Yongsheng Liu and Min Miao
J. Fungi 2023, 9(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9010127 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Biological control of postharvest diseases has been proven to be an effective alternative to chemical control. As an environmentally friendly biocontrol agent, Bacillus subtilis has been widely applied. This study explores its application in kiwifruit soft rot and reveals the corresponding mechanisms. Treatment [...] Read more.
Biological control of postharvest diseases has been proven to be an effective alternative to chemical control. As an environmentally friendly biocontrol agent, Bacillus subtilis has been widely applied. This study explores its application in kiwifruit soft rot and reveals the corresponding mechanisms. Treatment with cell-free supernatant (CFS) of Bacillus subtilis BS-1 significantly inhibits the mycelial growth of the pathogen Botryosphaeria dothidea and attenuates the pathogenicity on kiwifruit in a concentration-dependent manner. In particular, mycelial growth diameter was only 21% of the control after 3 days of treatment with 5% CFS. CFS caused swelling and breakage of the hyphae of B. dothidea observed by scanning electron microscopy, resulting in the leakage of nucleic acid and soluble protein and the loss of ergosterol content. Further analysis demonstrated that CFS significantly induces the expression of Nox genes associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by 1.9–2.7-fold, leading to a considerable accumulation of ROS in cells and causing mycelial cell death. Our findings demonstrate that the biocontrol effect of B. subtilis BS-1 CFS on B. dothidea is realized by inducing oxidative damage to the mycelia cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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14 pages, 4035 KiB  
Article
Phenylalanine Promotes Biofilm Formation of Meyerozyma caribbica to Improve Biocontrol Efficacy against Jujube Black Spot Rot
by Qian Deng, Xingmeng Lei, Hongyan Zhang, Lili Deng, Lanhua Yi and Kaifang Zeng
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121313 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
During storage and transportation after harvest, the jujube fruit is susceptible to black spot rot, which is caused by Alternaria alternata. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the yeast Meyerozyma caribbica in controlling A. alternata in postharvest jujube fruits, [...] Read more.
During storage and transportation after harvest, the jujube fruit is susceptible to black spot rot, which is caused by Alternaria alternata. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the yeast Meyerozyma caribbica in controlling A. alternata in postharvest jujube fruits, and to explore the biofilm formation mechanism. The results showed that M. caribbica treatment significantly reduced the A. alternata decay in jujube fruits. M. caribbica could rapidly colonize jujube fruit wounds, adhering tightly to hyphae of A. alternata, and accompanied by the production of extracellular secretions. In in vitro experiments, we identified that M. caribbica adhered to polystyrene plates, indicating a strong biofilm-forming ability. Furthermore, we demonstrated that M. caribbica can secrete phenylethanol, a quorum sensing molecule which can affect biofilm development. Phenylalanine (a precursor substance for phenylethanol synthesis) enhanced the secretion of phenylethanol and promoted the formation of M. caribbica biofilms. Meanwhile, phenylalanine enhanced the biological control performance of M. caribbica against jujube black spot rot. Our study provided new insights that enhance the biological control performance of antagonistic yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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15 pages, 3370 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Analysis of Apple Response to Penicillium expansum Infection Based on Label-Free and Parallel Reaction Monitoring Techniques
by Meng Xu, Kaili Wang, Jun Li, Zhuqing Tan, Esa Abiso Godana and Hongyin Zhang
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121273 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Blue mold, caused by Penicillium expansum, is the most destructive fungal disease of apples and causes great losses during the post-harvest storage of the fruit. Although some apple cultivars are resistant to P. expansum, there has been little information on the molecular [...] Read more.
Blue mold, caused by Penicillium expansum, is the most destructive fungal disease of apples and causes great losses during the post-harvest storage of the fruit. Although some apple cultivars are resistant to P. expansum, there has been little information on the molecular mechanism of resistance. In this study, differential proteomic analysis was performed on apple samples infected and uninfected with P. expansum. Parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) technology was used to target and verify the expression of candidate proteins. The label-free technique identified 343 differentially expressed proteins, which were mainly associated with defense responses, metal ion binding, stress responses, and oxidative phosphorylation. The differential expression of enzymes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and scavenging, the activation of defense-related metabolic pathways, and the further production of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) during P. expansum infection in apples, and direct resistance to pathogen invasion were determined. This study reveals the mechanisms of apple response at the proteomic level with 9 h of P. expansum infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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