New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 February 2024) | Viewed by 18817

Special Issue Editors

School of Engineering, Design and Built Environment, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
Interests: offshore geomechanics; jack-up spudcan foundation; large deformation finite element analysis; physical/centrifuge modelling; combined loading of foundations; marine renewable energy foundations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce the launch of a Special Issue on “New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments”, with the aim of contributing to the publication of high-quality research on all the main aspects of offshore geotechnical engineering and ocean engineering.

With the boom of the offshore oil and gas sector and renewable energy sector, complex loading conditions, layered soil stratigraphy, greater water depths and new foundations continue to pose new challenges. The growing focus on these sectors in various regions and extreme conditions has raised the need for a deep understanding of geotechnical challenges, as well as innovative solutions to these challenges. 

This Special Issue will focus on the issues with current practice and identify emerging and further geotechnical challenges and corresponding solutions associated with the offshore engineering projects. This includes new research, case studies and advanced technologies, as well as reliability and safety design. Submissions of original and high-quality research on all the relevant branches are strongly encouraged.

Dr. Pan Hu
Prof. Dr. Dong-Sheng Jeng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • offshore foundations
  • foundations for offshore wind turbines
  • risk assessment
  • fluid–structure–soil interactions
  • jack-up spudcan foundations
  • innovative foundation concepts
  • laboratory investigations
  • computational models
  • innovative testing and instrumentation
  • soil characterisation

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 8538 KiB  
Article
Application of ANN in Construction: Comprehensive Study on Identifying Optimal Modifier and Dosage for Stabilizing Marine Clay of Qingdao Coastal Region of China
by Qirui Bo, Junwei Liu, Wenchang Shang, Ankit Garg, Xiaoru Jia and Kaiyue Sun
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(3), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12030465 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 675
Abstract
Nowadays, the use of new compound chemical stabilizers to treat marine clay has gained significant attention. However, the complex non-linear relationship between the influencing factors and the unconfined compressive strength of chemically treated marine clay is not clear. In order to study the [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the use of new compound chemical stabilizers to treat marine clay has gained significant attention. However, the complex non-linear relationship between the influencing factors and the unconfined compressive strength of chemically treated marine clay is not clear. In order to study the influence of various factors (dosage, type of stabilizer, curing age) on the unconfined compressive strength of solidified soil during chemical treatment, experiments were performed to determine the unconfined compressive strength of soft marine clay modified with various types of stabilizers. Further, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was used to establish a prediction model based on the unconfined compressive strength test data and to verify the performance. Sensitivity and optimization analyses were further conducted to explore the relative significance of parameters as well as the optimal dosage amount. Research has found that when the content of aluminate cement is 89.5% and the content of curing agent is 30%, the unconfined compressive strength significantly increases after 28 days of solidification, and the change in quicklime content has the greatest effect on the improvement in the unconfined compressive strength. The influence of modifiers on the unconfined compressive strength is in the order: potassium hydroxide > kingsilica > quick lime > bassanite. The values of each factor were obtained when the unconfined compressive strength was the maximum, which provided support for the optimization of the treatment scheme. The analysis of chemical treatment is no longer limited to the linear relationship according to the test results, which proves the feasibility of non-linear relationship analysis based on the artificial neural network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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25 pages, 7287 KiB  
Article
Influence of Penetration Rate on Full-Flow Penetrometer Resistance in Underconsolidated Clay
by Huanhuan Qiao, Xuening Liu, Ruixian Zhou, Huan He, Peng Peng and Zhen Jiang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(3), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12030427 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 743
Abstract
In the past few years, offshore site investigations have extensively utilized full-flow penetrometers like the Ball and T-bar penetrometers to assess penetration resistance and subsequently analyze the strength characteristics of marine clay. The relationship between penetration rate and the measured resistance to penetration [...] Read more.
In the past few years, offshore site investigations have extensively utilized full-flow penetrometers like the Ball and T-bar penetrometers to assess penetration resistance and subsequently analyze the strength characteristics of marine clay. The relationship between penetration rate and the measured resistance to penetration and shear strength in clays has been extensively documented through full-flow penetration tests. Although previous studies have shown empirical correlations between undrained shear strength and penetration resistance, the resistance factor utilized in these correlations is typically suggested for cohesive soils that are overconsolidated or normally consolidated, rather than underconsolidated soils. The effects of penetration rate undrained penetration resistances in underconsolidated marine clay are investigated in this study by considering the outcomes of variable rate penetration testing and twitch penetration testing using full-flow penetrometers in laboratory model tests. The discussion focuses on penetration resistances depending on the normalized velocity of the full-flow penetrometers (Ball and T-bar). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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22 pages, 9231 KiB  
Article
Installation Disturbance of Helical Anchor in Dense Sand and the Effect on Uplift Capacity Based on Discrete Element Method
by Rong Chen, Hu Liu, Dongxue Hao, Zhaoguo Liu and Chi Yuan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(3), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12030422 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 830
Abstract
Helical anchors have been extensively employed as foundation systems for carrying tension loads due to their installation efficiency and large uplift capacity. However, the installation influences of helical anchors are still not well understood, especially for multi-helical anchors. The matrix discrete element method [...] Read more.
Helical anchors have been extensively employed as foundation systems for carrying tension loads due to their installation efficiency and large uplift capacity. However, the installation influences of helical anchors are still not well understood, especially for multi-helical anchors. The matrix discrete element method was used to model the process of helical anchor penetration and pull-out in dense sand to investigate the effects of the anchor geometry and advancement ratio (AR, the relative vertical movement per rotation) on soil disturbance, the particle flow mechanism, and the uplift capacity. For shallow helical anchors, the overall disturbance zone is the shape of an inverted cone after installation, while for deep helical anchors, it is funnel-shaped. The advancement ratio has significant effects on the soil particle movement and uplift capacity of helical anchors. The soil particle flow mechanism around helical plates has been identified for single-helix anchors at various advancement ratios, and for double-helix anchors, the influence of the top plate on particle movement during installation was investigated. The uplift capacities of both single- and double-helix anchors increase with the decrease in the AR (AR = 0.5~1), and the influence decreases with the anchor embedment ratio. The efficiency of double-helix anchors induced by installation is close to 1 at pitch-matched installation (AR = 1), indicating that the impact of the top plate during installation is minimal in this case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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17 pages, 3043 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Prediction of Maximum Settlement in Pipe Piles under Seismic Loads
by Sajjad E. Rasheed, Duaa Al-Jeznawi, Musab Aied Qissab Al-Janabi and Luís Filipe Almeida Bernardo
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020274 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 758
Abstract
The structural stability of pipe pile foundations under seismic loading stands as a critical concern, demanding an accurate assessment of the maximum settlement. Traditionally, this task has been addressed through complex numerical modeling, accounting for the complicated interaction between soil and pile structures. [...] Read more.
The structural stability of pipe pile foundations under seismic loading stands as a critical concern, demanding an accurate assessment of the maximum settlement. Traditionally, this task has been addressed through complex numerical modeling, accounting for the complicated interaction between soil and pile structures. Although significant progress has been made in machine learning, there remains a critical demand for data-driven models that can predict these parameters without depending on numerical simulations. This study aims to bridge the disparity between conventional analytical approaches and modern data-driven methodologies, with the objective of improving the precision and efficiency of settlement predictions. The results carry substantial implications for the marine engineering field, providing valuable perspectives to optimize the design and performance of pipe pile foundations in marine environments. This approach notably reduces the dependence on numerical simulations, enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of the prediction process. Thus, this study integrates Random Forest (RF) models to estimate the maximum pile settlement under seismic loading conditions, significantly supporting the reliability of the previously proposed methodology. The models presented in this research are established using seven key input variables, including the corrected SPT test blow count (N1)60, pile length (L), soil Young’s modulus (E), soil relative density (Dr), friction angle (ϕ), soil unit weight (γ), and peak ground acceleration (PGA). The findings of this study confirm the high precision and generalizability of the developed data-driven RF approach for seismic settlement prediction compared to traditional simulation methods, establishing it as an efficient and viable alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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17 pages, 5397 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Soil Heaving and Penetration Resistance of Bucket Foundation with Inner Bucket and Cruciform Skirts
by Zhong Xiao, Teng Ma, Hongwei Wang, Feng Bian, Haifeng Jin, Tengjiao Yu, Wei Zhang, Pan Hu and Jinhui Li
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11050996 - 7 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Since concrete is cheaper and more resistant to corrosion than steel, the wide-shallow concrete bucket foundation is being used extensively in ocean engineering. By adding the inner bucket and cruciform skirts, both the bearing capacity and rigidity of the wide-shallow concrete bucket foundation [...] Read more.
Since concrete is cheaper and more resistant to corrosion than steel, the wide-shallow concrete bucket foundation is being used extensively in ocean engineering. By adding the inner bucket and cruciform skirts, both the bearing capacity and rigidity of the wide-shallow concrete bucket foundation increase significantly. When compared to the hollow steel bucket foundation, the inclusion of thicker skirts, as well as the addition of inner bucket and cruciform skirts, would cause changes to the soil flow mechanism, resulting in soil heave within each compartment and changes in soil strength evolution and penetration resistance during installation in clay. In order to study the influence of the addition of the inner bucket and cruciform skirts on the soil heaving inside each compartment, soil softening and penetration resistance, three-dimensional large deformation finite element (LDFE) models for the bucket foundation with and without inner bucket, and cruciform skirts considering soil remolding were established using the Coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) approach. It was found that the inner bucket significantly changes the soil flow and softening of the soil during penetration of the bucket foundation. According to the theoretical analysis and numerical results, the diameter of the optimal inner bucket is equal to 5/8 of the outer diameter. The adhesion coefficient observed in this study falls within the range of 0.5 to 0.8, which is higher than the theoretical value of 0.25 that assumes the soil is fully remolded. The reason for this discrepancy is that the soil is only partially remolded during the actual installation of the bucket foundation. The neglect of the softening of the soil or considering the soil as completely softened will result in significant variation in the predicted penetration resistance; hence, partial softening of the soil should be taken into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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17 pages, 6070 KiB  
Article
Borehole Instability in Decomposed Granite Seabed for Rock-Socketed Monopiles during “Drive-Drill-Drive” Construction Process: A Case Study
by Bo Sun, Qi Zhang, Wenxuan Zhu, Jian Leng and Guanlin Ye
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11050990 - 6 May 2023
Viewed by 2165
Abstract
Monopiles are commonly used in the construction of offshore wind turbines. However, implementing drive-drill-drive construction techniques in decomposed granite seabed may lead to borehole instability during the window period between drilling and pile driving, resulting in significant project losses. This study provides a [...] Read more.
Monopiles are commonly used in the construction of offshore wind turbines. However, implementing drive-drill-drive construction techniques in decomposed granite seabed may lead to borehole instability during the window period between drilling and pile driving, resulting in significant project losses. This study provides a comprehensive understanding and approach to address the causes of borehole instability in rock-socketed monopiles in decomposed granite seabed. Using the Pinghai Bay offshore wind farm project in Fujian, China as an example, the details of drive-drill-drive and reverse-circulation drilling techniques employed in monopile construction were introduced. An improved sampling method was utilized to obtain decomposed granite samples, and a series of in situ and laboratory tests were conducted to analyze the physical and mechanical properties of marine-decomposed granite. By examining three cases of monopile construction, the factors contributing to borehole instability during rock-socketed monopile construction in decomposed granite seabed were identified, and corresponding recommendations were proposed. The results indicated that construction technology and unfavorable geological characteristics of decomposed granite are the primary causes of borehole instability. Collapses occurred mainly in highly and moderately decomposed granite layers. Employing smaller boreholes can reduce the likelihood and impact of borehole instability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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14 pages, 2691 KiB  
Article
Development and Influence of Pore Pressure around a Bucket Foundation in Silty Soil
by Xue-Liang Zhao, Xin Wang, Peng-Cheng Ding, Shu-Huan Sui and Wen-Ni Deng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 2020; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10122020 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Silty soil is common in the seabed of eastern coastal areas of China. The behaviors of the silty soil and a bucket foundation installed within it need more study. In this work, model tests of a bucket foundation in silty soil were performed. [...] Read more.
Silty soil is common in the seabed of eastern coastal areas of China. The behaviors of the silty soil and a bucket foundation installed within it need more study. In this work, model tests of a bucket foundation in silty soil were performed. The development of the excess pore water pressures in the different positions around the bucket was measured. Different loading conditions, with a change in the horizontal cyclic load amplitude ratio, horizontal cyclic frequency, and vertical load ratio, were considered. The effects of the pore water pressure on the shear strength of the soil around the bucket and the horizontal bearing capacity of the bucket foundation were investigated. The results show that the normalized pore water pressures close to the bucket wall at depths between 0.1 L and 0.3 L exhibit distinct change under the cyclic load. Consistent with the distribution of the pore water pressure, the degradation of the undrained shear strength is more obvious with a greater load amplitude ratio, a greater load frequency, and a smaller vertical load. The degradation rate of the static horizontal ultimate bearing capacity is in a range of 1.57% to 14.90%, under different loading conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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21 pages, 3814 KiB  
Article
Lateral Bearing Capacity of a Hybrid Monopile: Combined Effects of Wing Configuration and Local Scour
by Biao Li, Yifa Wang, Wengang Qi, Shunyi Wang and Fuping Gao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121799 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Pile foundations for offshore wind turbines are subjected to large lateral loads. By mounting wings on the perimeter of regular monopiles, winged monopiles have shown better performance in resisting deformation under horizontal loading. However, the hazardous effect of local scour on the lateral [...] Read more.
Pile foundations for offshore wind turbines are subjected to large lateral loads. By mounting wings on the perimeter of regular monopiles, winged monopiles have shown better performance in resisting deformation under horizontal loading. However, the hazardous effect of local scour on the lateral bearing capacity of winged monopiles installed in the sandy seabed has not been systematically evaluated. In this study, a modified Mohr–Coulomb model considering the pre-peak hardening and post-peak softening behavior of dense sand is adopted to simulate laterally loaded winged monopiles in the locally scoured sandy seabed, using three-dimensional finite element analyses. The effect of local scour depth on the lateral capacity of winged monopiles is examined and explained by soil failure mechanisms. The enhancement of lateral capacity with wings attached to the monopile is demonstrated to be more effective than extending pile embedment length. The effects of the relative density of sand and the wing load orientation are also discussed. Finally, the wing efficiency is evaluated to determine the optimal configuration of winged monopiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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22 pages, 10883 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on Behavior of Single-Helix Anchor in Sand Subjected to Uplift Cyclic Loading
by Dongxue Hao, Jianyi Che, Rong Chen, Xin Zhang, Chi Yuan and Xichao Chen
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101338 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Helical anchors have been widely used in geotechnical engineering due to their large uplift resistance. However, the current knowledge of the cyclic performance of helical anchors is still insufficient. Consequently, a series of small-scale model tests are carried out in sand to investigate [...] Read more.
Helical anchors have been widely used in geotechnical engineering due to their large uplift resistance. However, the current knowledge of the cyclic performance of helical anchors is still insufficient. Consequently, a series of small-scale model tests are carried out in sand to investigate the influences of embedment ratio, sand compactness and the cyclic parameters on the monotonic, cyclic and post-cyclic performance of single-helix anchors. The tests results indicate that the single-helix anchors with optimal embedment ratio still exhibit a relatively high uplift capacity after suffering cyclic load. The cyclic frequency has the greatest influence on the accumulated displacement, and the influence of amplitude is relatively greater than that of the mean cyclic load. The anchors in dense sand exhibit better performance to resist pullout than those in medium–dense sand under the same cyclic parameter ratios. Moreover, the correlation of post-cyclic uplift capacity and displacement after cyclic loading as well as the possible influence of the upward displacement on the sand flow above the helix are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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13 pages, 2340 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Penetration Process of Torpedo Anchors into Sand Foundation
by Gang Li, Jinli Zhang, Jinglin Niu, Jia Liu and Yiran Yang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(8), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10081097 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Torpedo anchors are a new type of anchoring system in deepwater that is much more economical than conventional anchoring methods. The dynamic penetration process is vitally important to the installation of torpedo anchors. Based on the spherical cavity expansion theory, the dynamic response [...] Read more.
Torpedo anchors are a new type of anchoring system in deepwater that is much more economical than conventional anchoring methods. The dynamic penetration process is vitally important to the installation of torpedo anchors. Based on the spherical cavity expansion theory, the dynamic response characteristics of pressure-locked soils are analyzed using the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. The equations for the penetration of torpedo anchors with bullet-shaped heads are established considering rod friction. Subsequently, the analytical solutions for velocity, acceleration, and final penetration depth and the approximate analytical solution for penetration depth vs. time are obtained. The established penetration equation is solved using MATLAB software to obtain a semi-analytical solution, and the model tests on the penetration of a torpedo anchor with different initial velocities into saturated sand with different densities were conducted. A comparison of the test results shows that the analytical solution and the semi-analytical solution can well predict the model test results, indicating that the established analytical method can be used to analyze the penetration process of torpedo anchors. The research results can provide a guideline to the installation of torpedo anchors into the seabed in actual engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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13 pages, 2188 KiB  
Article
Analytical Penetration Solutions of Large-Diameter Open-Ended Piles Subjected to Hammering Loads
by Wei Qin, Xue Li, Guoliang Dai and Pan Hu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070885 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
This paper proposes the penetration displacement solutions of large-diameter open-ended steel pipe piles (LOSPs) with the diameter exceeding 2 m subjected to hammering load. The ultimate forcing equilibrium relationships between LOSP and soil are analyzed, and the calculated formula for self-sinking depth is [...] Read more.
This paper proposes the penetration displacement solutions of large-diameter open-ended steel pipe piles (LOSPs) with the diameter exceeding 2 m subjected to hammering load. The ultimate forcing equilibrium relationships between LOSP and soil are analyzed, and the calculated formula for self-sinking depth is derived. Next, a partial differential equation of pile hammering by single blow in soft soil is developed based on wave equation incorporating the kinematic method. A dynamic coefficient of frictional resistance (DCFR) is implemented in the process of derivation, and then the displacement Fourier analytical expression of LOSP under hammering load is presented. The parameters sensitivity of the analytical solution is investigated, and the displacement curve is compared with the numerical result. The new method presented in this paper could be used to assess the penetration development of driven piles under impact loading to predict the punching through or hammer refusal during penetration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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12 pages, 5044 KiB  
Article
Model Test of the Pullout Bearing Capacity of End-Bearing Torpedo Anchors
by Gang Li, Jinli Zhang and Jia Liu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(6), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10060728 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Torpedo anchors (TAs) are regarded as one of the most efficient mooring solutions for taut mooring systems, and end-bearing TAs are a new type of TA that primarily relies on end-bearing plates at the tail to generate a pile-end resistance to improve their [...] Read more.
Torpedo anchors (TAs) are regarded as one of the most efficient mooring solutions for taut mooring systems, and end-bearing TAs are a new type of TA that primarily relies on end-bearing plates at the tail to generate a pile-end resistance to improve their pulloutbearing capacity (P). Therefore, the estimation of the pullout capacity of the end-bearing TA is vital for the design of offshore floating facilities. In this study, pullout model tests were conducted to investigate the P of conventional and end-bearing TAs and examine the effects of factors such as the embedment depth (h), the relative density (Dr), the pullout angle (α), and the area (A) of the bearing plates on P. The test results show that, under oblique pullout loading, the P on the conventional TA increased slowly as displacement increased, while there was a peak on the load–displacement curve of each end-bearing TA with a relatively large A. The end-bearing TAs considerably outperformed the conventional TAs in terms of the P. In addition, increasing h, Dr, and A significantly increased the P of the end-bearing TAs. However, increasing h and Dr slightly decreased the ability of the bearing plates to increase the P of the end-bearing TAs. These research results can provide a guideline for TA installation in deep-sea engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Offshore Geotechnical Engineering Developments)
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