Design, Analysis and Maintenance of Green Innovative Marine Structures

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2023) | Viewed by 22879

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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: ship structures; wave loads; strength and vibration analysis; fatigue analysis; structural reliability analysis
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Centre for Marine Technology and Ocean Engineering (CENTEC), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: marine structural design & analysis; fatigue and fracture mechanics; structural degradation; ultimate limit dtate analysis; structural reliability; risk-based maintenance; offshore wind farm
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are proposing a new Special Issue (SI) that covers diverse research topics related to the structural design, analyses, and maintenance of marine structures. Our aim is to open new discussions on and perspectives of the integral framework of green marine structural design in the era of climate change. All types of floating and fixed marine structures are covered by this SI, including conventional and autonomous ships, manned and unmanned submarines, offshore structures, and renewable energy devices. However, this SI also focuses on the structural behaviour and requirements for designing safe, efficient and environmentally friendly marine structures. Studies on the general design and operational issues related to marine structures are also invited. Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies, as well as a review of state-of-the-art advances and case studies related to the marine structures (loading, fatigue, ultimate strength, collision and grounding, corrosion, ice, retrofitting, structural safety, etc.) and new topics related to the innovative green design of marine structures as a response to the climate change, are most welcome. All submissions will be subject to a rapid reviewing process, which will be provided to ensure that the highest quality papers are included in this SI.

Prof. Dr. Joško Parunov
Prof. Dr. Yordan Garbatov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine structures
  • ships
  • submarines
  • offshore structures
  • renewable energy devices
  • structural analysis
  • structural design
  • maintenance

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 184 KiB  
Editorial
Design, Analysis and Maintenance of Green, Innovative Marine Structures
by Joško Parunov and Yordan Garbatov
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(8), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11081535 - 1 Aug 2023
Viewed by 853
Abstract
This Special Issue includes eleven research studies on structural design, analysis and maintenance of green, innovative marine structures [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

20 pages, 12943 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Ultimate Strength and Failure Mode of Stiffened Panels
by Qi Zhang, Hongqi Yang, Shuang Wu, Wenbo Cheng, Yuanhua Liang and Yi Huang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(6), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061214 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Different buckling failure modes of stiffened panels will result in differences in ultimate strengths. In this study, the benchmark model of the bottom of bulk carrier with appropriate initial imperfections, boundary conditions and mesh size are selected for a series of non-linear FE [...] Read more.
Different buckling failure modes of stiffened panels will result in differences in ultimate strengths. In this study, the benchmark model of the bottom of bulk carrier with appropriate initial imperfections, boundary conditions and mesh size are selected for a series of non-linear FE analyses. A failure mode discrimination method considering the change rule of ultimate strength and the stress and strain distribution of stiffened plates in ultimate limit state is proposed, and then the boundary function of the failure modes composed of four key parameters, λ, β, hw/tw, λe, is established. Based on this boundary function, the rapid identification of failure modes and the classification of ultimate strength under different failure modes can be realized. Furthermore, the ultimate strength formulas of stiffened panels for different failure modes are obtained by data analysis from many nonlinear finite element analyses. Full article
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16 pages, 9930 KiB  
Article
Hydrodynamic Tests of Innovative Tourist Submarine
by Joško Parunov, Marta Pedišić-Buča, Inno Gatin and Ivan Ćatipović
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(6), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061199 - 9 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
This paper deals with the resistance, towing, seakeeping, and open water propeller tests of an innovative tourist submarine model. Tests were performed in a 276 m long towing tank. As the submarine model is a complex structure composed of various parts attached to [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the resistance, towing, seakeeping, and open water propeller tests of an innovative tourist submarine model. Tests were performed in a 276 m long towing tank. As the submarine model is a complex structure composed of various parts attached to the pressure hull, the largest possible model, in the scale of 1:5.0, was produced, considering the towing tank depth and the capabilities of the measurement equipment. Resistance tests were performed in deep water and on the surface in calm water. The tested speed range in both cases was up to 5.5 knots. To ensure the avoidance of free surface effects, resistance tests in deep water were performed for different draughts and then extrapolated to infinite water depth. Smaller effective powers were found for the surface condition. The results are compared to an independently performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using OpenFOAM. A fair agreement between the experimentally and numerically predicted effective power is found, while the reasons for the differences found are explained. The free submarine model was towed with a rope performed for the speed range 1.7 kn–3.5 kn, and the towing force in the rope was measured. Seakeeping tests in irregular beam waves at zero speed were performed to check the flooding risk on open hatches. Open water tests of the main thrusters for propelling the submarine were conducted, indicating that both power demand and propeller thrust are slightly larger compared to the initial estimates. Full article
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18 pages, 9140 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Structural Capacity of Perforated Stiffened Plates
by S. Saad-Eldeen and Yordan Garbatov
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040842 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
This study presents experimental and numerical analyses of compressive collapse tests of initially corroded steel-stiffened plates with multiple circular openings, which may be used as tank wash plates. The ultimate load-carrying capacity and the relevant collapse modes are identified. The load-axial/lateral displacement relationships [...] Read more.
This study presents experimental and numerical analyses of compressive collapse tests of initially corroded steel-stiffened plates with multiple circular openings, which may be used as tank wash plates. The ultimate load-carrying capacity and the relevant collapse modes are identified. The load-axial/lateral displacement relationships and local strain for each opening degree are analysed with developed regression equations for the ultimate capacity of stiffened plates as a function of different degrees of openings and the resting volume and residual cross-sectional area. A series of finite element analyses are performed. The experimental and numerical results are compared and show the complexity of predicting the ultimate capacity and the collapse mode as the degree of openings increases. The experimental results are compared for aged steel plates, and high-tensile stiffened plates considering the same degrees of openings, showing good agreement. Full article
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15 pages, 2472 KiB  
Article
Epoxy Resin Biocomposites Reinforced with Flax and Hemp Fibers for Marine Applications
by Tatjana Haramina, Neven Hadžić and Zdenka Keran
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(2), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11020382 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2179
Abstract
A broader application of biocomposites still faces many challenges regarding structural integrity, environmental resistance, and biodegradability. These issues are particularly important when their marine applications are considered. Therefore, this paper seeks to address the hygroscopicity, mechanical properties, and biofouling resistance of biocomposites made [...] Read more.
A broader application of biocomposites still faces many challenges regarding structural integrity, environmental resistance, and biodegradability. These issues are particularly important when their marine applications are considered. Therefore, this paper seeks to address the hygroscopicity, mechanical properties, and biofouling resistance of biocomposites made of epoxy resin with 28 m% bio-based carbon content reinforced with flax and hemp fibers. A series of experiments are performed to acquire water absorption rates, saturation limits, mass increase, tensile and flexural properties, interlaminar shear strength, impact resistance, and mass gain due to biofouling. All tests of mechanical properties are conducted before and after immersion in seawater. The acquired saturation limits of flax/epoxy and hemp/epoxy biocomposites amount to 7.5% and 9.8%, respectively. The water uptake causes the tensile and flexural properties to decrease by 26–74%, while interlaminar and impact strength increase for flax/epoxy and decrease for hemp/epoxy biocomposites. In addition, it is observed that in almost all cases, flax/epoxy has superior properties compared with hemp/epoxy biocomposites. It is expected that this research will motivate naval architects and classification societies to consider biocomposites as prospective hull materials that provide both structural integrity and environmental sustainability. Full article
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24 pages, 12326 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Simulations of Novel Submersible Design Based on the ASME Design-by-Analysis Approach
by Maro Ćorak, Zdenko Šperanda, Juvel Čokić, Marin Palaversa and Joško Parunov
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(2), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11020275 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
Tourist submersibles are a new class of underwater vehicles where new materials and innovative structural concepts are used. Because of the lack of experience with these innovative vessels, prescribed rules of classification societies are not directly applicable in their structural design. Thus, a [...] Read more.
Tourist submersibles are a new class of underwater vehicles where new materials and innovative structural concepts are used. Because of the lack of experience with these innovative vessels, prescribed rules of classification societies are not directly applicable in their structural design. Thus, a novel design-by-analysis approach, as given in the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code of ASME, is employed for dimensioning structural components. Design-by-analysis stands for a consistent set of loads, boundary conditions, modelling principles, failure modes, and safety factors if the finite element analysis is performed instead of using rule formulas. The approach has been used until now in the structural design and optimization of unconventional pressure vessels, while in this paper it is for the first time employed in structural design of the underwater vehicle. This study can serve as guidance for future applications of design-by-analysis in the development of the innovative structures exposed predominantly to the pressure loading. Full article
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23 pages, 7624 KiB  
Article
Multi-Scale Analysis for Assessing the Impact of Material Composition and Weave on the Ultimate Strength of GFRP Stiffened Panels
by Bin Liu, Xiaoduan Zhang and Yordan Garbatov
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010108 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
A micro-meso-macro analysis framework based on the multi-scale method was employed to analyse the mechanical behaviour of marine GFRP stiffened panels. The study aims to establish a procedure for assessing the impact of material composition and weave on the ultimate strength of GFRP [...] Read more.
A micro-meso-macro analysis framework based on the multi-scale method was employed to analyse the mechanical behaviour of marine GFRP stiffened panels. The study aims to establish a procedure for assessing the impact of material composition and weave on the ultimate strength of GFRP stiffened panels. The ultimate strength assessment was an essential step in the design process, and the investigation of construction materials has a great benefit to the lightweight design of marine composite structures. The micro- and meso-scale RVE models of components used in GFRP materials are established, and their failure criteria and stiffness degradation models are created using the user-defined material subroutine VUMAT in ABAQUS. The equivalent material properties at the micro-scale (meso-scale) obtained by a homogenisation method are used to define the meso-scale (macro-scale) mechanical properties in the finite element analyses. The multi-scale method assesses the macro-mechanics of composites, and it is shown that the ultimate strength of GFRP stiffened panels is mainly determined by the failure of CSM fibre bundles and WR yarns. Parametric study of the meso-mechanics of composite materials can provide an analysis tool to obtain the optimal macro ultimate strength of the composite stiffened panel. Full article
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19 pages, 3963 KiB  
Article
An Analytical Symplectic Method for Buckling of Ring-Stiffened Graphene Platelet-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells Subjected to Hydrostatic Pressure
by Zhanzhong Sun, Gangyi Hu, Xueyang Nie and Jiabin Sun
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121834 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
In this paper, a novel analytical approach for the buckling of ring-stiffened porous graphene platelet-reinforced composite cylindrical shells under hydrostatic pressure is proposed under the framework of symplectic mechanics. Three types of graphene platelet-reinforced patterns and porosity distributions are considered, and the effective [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel analytical approach for the buckling of ring-stiffened porous graphene platelet-reinforced composite cylindrical shells under hydrostatic pressure is proposed under the framework of symplectic mechanics. Three types of graphene platelet-reinforced patterns and porosity distributions are considered, and the effective material properties of porous graphene platelet-reinforced composite are determined with a modified Halpin–Tsai model. In the symplectic approach, the governing equations in the conventional Lagrangian system are transformed into a set of Hamiltonian canonical equations, and therefore, the buckling analysis is reduced into an eigenproblem in a symplectic space. Consequently, the accurate critical pressures and corresponding analytical buckling mode shapes are obtained simultaneously without any trial function. The numerical results are compared with the existing results, and good agreements are observed. A comprehensive parametric study of the geometrical parameters, boundary conditions, material properties, and ring-stiffener parameters on the buckling behavior of such shells is also presented. Full article
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13 pages, 5356 KiB  
Article
Design of a Display Structure for an Anti-Collision System of Offshore Drilling Units Based on the Digital Twin Concept
by Ki-Youn Kwon, Namkug Ku and Jaeyong Lee
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121825 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
The drill floor of an offshore drilling facility is equipped with a collision avoidance system to prevent collisions between moving equipment. In this paper, we present the visualization of the collision avoidance system using the digital twin concept. By classifying the core technologies [...] Read more.
The drill floor of an offshore drilling facility is equipped with a collision avoidance system to prevent collisions between moving equipment. In this paper, we present the visualization of the collision avoidance system using the digital twin concept. By classifying the core technologies of the digital twin, the elements necessary for the visualization of the collision avoidance system are derived, and the information for visualization is organized. We conduct 3D visualization of equipment and design IO devices necessary for the visualization. The movement of the floater is considered, and a database is built to efficiently search for the information required for the retrieval of stored 3D information. A collision detection situation is generated by operating the equipment using the input device required for simulation. Collision information is displayed as designed, and it is confirmed that the switching of the display between the present and past time is operating normally. The entire system functions normally as designed, including the input/output with other databases and equipment operation. Implementing a digital twin for an offshore platform is a time-consuming and costly process. It is expected that the improved anti-collision system can be expanded for the digital twin of an entire offshore platform. Full article
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14 pages, 10589 KiB  
Article
CFD Study on the Influence of Exostructure Elements on the Resistance of a Submarine
by Inno Gatin, Juvel Čokić, Darjan Romić and Joško Parunov
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101542 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
Submersible vessels designed to operate at low speeds are often designed with an intricate exostructure, as well as other elements that are located outside of the main pressure hull. Exostructure elements are often of cylindrical or rectangular shape, positioned perpendicularly to the flow [...] Read more.
Submersible vessels designed to operate at low speeds are often designed with an intricate exostructure, as well as other elements that are located outside of the main pressure hull. Exostructure elements are often of cylindrical or rectangular shape, positioned perpendicularly to the flow direction. For this reason, their resistance coefficient is relatively large compared to the pressure hull or appendages of a classical submarine. In some cases, the exostructure can significantly increase the wetted surface of the vessel and dominate its resistance. This paper presents a study on how different exostructure elements impact the overall resistance of a submarine relative to the resistance of the cylindrical, smooth, pressure hull. Additionally, the effect of depth is also considered. The study is conducted using the RANS-based CFD method. The subject of the study is a 25 m long tourist submarine designed for depths up to 40 m and a speed of up to 3 knots. Full article
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16 pages, 3468 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Corrosion Depth of Double Bottom Longitudinal Girder on Aging Bulk Carriers
by Špiro Ivošević, Nataša Kovač, Nikola Momčilović and Goran Vukelić
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101425 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
The longitudinal girder (LG) between fuel oil tanks (FOT) and water ballast tanks in the double bottoms of ships represent critical structural parts whose watertight nature could be harmed by corrosion, thus, causing the pollution of water ballast tanks and adjacent areas. The [...] Read more.
The longitudinal girder (LG) between fuel oil tanks (FOT) and water ballast tanks in the double bottoms of ships represent critical structural parts whose watertight nature could be harmed by corrosion, thus, causing the pollution of water ballast tanks and adjacent areas. The new common structural rules (CSR) define the minimum thickness values of structural elements and corrosion margins. The assessment of the deviations from the prescribed values during ship operation could optimize the prescribed criteria. Assuming that corrosive processes begin after four years of operation, the paper analyzes a linear model that describes the percentage of plate wear as a function of the built-in thickness of LG of FOT. The research included 20 ships and provided the database for 1918 corrosion depth values. The gauging records included the average values of the original thickness of steel plates grouped in three intervals (11–13 mm, 13–15 mm, 15–18 mm). Based on the difference between the built-in and subsequently measured values, the paper analyzes the percentage of thickness reduction due to corrosion, concerning the original plate thickness. The findings of the research should facilitate the optimization of corrosion margins and prevent potential structural collapse and pollution. Full article
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18 pages, 3743 KiB  
Article
Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Ship Structural Design
by Tiago Pereira and Yordan Garbatov
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(8), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10081046 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
This study develops a procedure for performing multi-attribute decision-making ship structural design of a multi-purpose ship. The already designed ship is further structurally designed to comply with the requirements of the Classification Societies. The ship hull and structural components are verified against yielding, [...] Read more.
This study develops a procedure for performing multi-attribute decision-making ship structural design of a multi-purpose ship. The already designed ship is further structurally designed to comply with the requirements of the Classification Societies. The ship hull and structural components are verified against yielding, buckling, and ultimate strength. Based on the ultimate limit state (ULS), the first order reliability method (FORM) is employed to analyse the structural risk in reducing the probability of failure. The costs associated with materials, manufacturing, and labour are estimated. The structural risk analysis is performed, accounting for different hazard issues related to loss of ship, loss of cargo, loss of human life, and accidental spill of fuel and oil. The risk-based analysis is used to identify an optimum level of ship structural safety, i.e., the optimum reliability index, controlling the risk associated with the ship hull design. The study uses a multiple attribute decision-making ship design approach, simultaneously considering several objectives for different scenarios employing the Technique of Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The identified ship design solution is associated with the minimum expected total cost leading to lower construction and operational costs and risk with maximum cargo capacity and energy efficiency. The developed procedure is flexible enough to accommodate different design criteria and possible hazards during the ship’s service life. Full article
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