Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 25705

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: geomorphology; coastal geomorphology; sea-level changes; palaeogeography; geoarchaeology; study and modelling of natural hazards
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: geomorphology; coastal geomorphology; sea level changes; palaeogeographic reconstructions; natural hazards; geoarchaeology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Archaeological Research Unit, Department of History and Archaeology, University of Cyprus,1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
Interests: geomorphology; coastal geomorphology; sea level changes; palaeogeographic reconstructions; natural hazards; geoarchaeology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coasts are dynamic and fast-changing environments. They are areas of unique natural importance, providing important natural habitats for flora and fauna and home to more than 40% of the global human population. Because of their rich resources, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. Over millennia, changes in relative sea level, geomorphological processes and extreme events such as storms, hurricanes and tsunamis have shaped and changed the earth’s coastlines. Although coastal areas are naturally dynamic, and climate change is considered responsible for many impacts over the long term, a number of other factors, such as human interventions, sediment supply from fluvial systems, etc., also contribute significantly. Therefore, a systems approach is necessary to understand the adaptation challenge. This Special Issue invites researchers and scientists involved in related studies to come forward with their research and present their findings. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following areas:

  • Coastal erosion and coastal hazards in general;
  • Human impacts on the coastal zone;
  • Sea-level rise impacts;
  • Protection measures on the coastal zone;
  • Coastal-zone monitoring techniques;
  • Innovative adaptation approaches;
  • Communication tools for stakeholders and the general public;
  • Climate change and coastal zone.

Prof. Dr. Niki Evelpidou
Dr. Anna Karkani
Dr. Miltiadis Polidorou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Coastal geomorphology
  • Coastal hazards
  • Coastal erosion
  • Sea level rise
  • Nature based solutions
  • Integrated coastal management
  • Awareness raising

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 3673 KiB  
Article
Shoreline Changes Due to the Construction of Ports: Case Study—Calabria (Italy)
by Giandomenico Foti, Giuseppe Barbaro, Giuseppina Chiara Barillà and Pierluigi Mancuso
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2382; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122382 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 680
Abstract
An important process that began in many Mediterranean countries in the last century, after the end of the Second World War, concerns the displacement of a large part of the population from inland to coastal areas, expanding many existing cities and building new [...] Read more.
An important process that began in many Mediterranean countries in the last century, after the end of the Second World War, concerns the displacement of a large part of the population from inland to coastal areas, expanding many existing cities and building new ones. Following this expansion, some existing ports were expanded, and many new ports were built, mainly for commercial and tourist purposes. This strong anthropogenic pressure has modified not only the landscape but also the coastal dynamics, and significant shoreline erosion processes have often been observed, even at considerable distances from the ports. This paper analyzes shoreline changes due to the construction of ports in Calabria, based on geomorphological factors and wave forcings. Calabria is a region of Southern Italy, on the Mediterranean Sea, that is characterized by geomorphological, climatic, and anthropic peculiarities. In addition, other important effects caused by the construction of ports were also analyzed, such as shoreline advancement updrift, construction of coastal protection structures, siltation, and anthropogenic pressure. The main finding of this analysis is that coastal morphology plays a key role in the extent of shoreline changes due to the construction of ports. In fact, the greatest shoreline retreats were observed downdrifts of ports built in straight coastal areas. Furthermore, this analysis highlights that there is no direct correlation between wave climate and shoreline changes near the examined ports. The analysis described in this paper may be of interest both to the scientific field and to the planning and management of coastal areas. Furthermore, it is based on open-access data and was carried out using free software such as QGIS, so it is easily replicable and applicable in any coastal context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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20 pages, 3635 KiB  
Article
Participatory Approach to Build Up a Municipal Strategy for Coastal Erosion Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change
by Fábio André Matos, Filipe Alves, Carlos Coelho, Márcia Lima and André Vizinho
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111718 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
The Ovar coastline is characterized as one of the coastal areas with the highest vulnerability and risk of erosion in the Portuguese coast. The high-energy coast is further threatened by a permanent sediment deficit of anthropic origin, as well as sea level rise [...] Read more.
The Ovar coastline is characterized as one of the coastal areas with the highest vulnerability and risk of erosion in the Portuguese coast. The high-energy coast is further threatened by a permanent sediment deficit of anthropic origin, as well as sea level rise due to climate change. It is essential to define modern coastal adaptation strategies to minimize the impacts of these issues on the local communities, while considering social, environmental, and economic factors. It is in this territory that the INCCA project’s case study is located, involving stakeholders with technical, scientific, and operational knowledge in the co-management of the coastal stretch. In the scope of the involvement intended for the project’s development, five participatory events were held, involving local authorities, civil protection, public entities, academia, and the general community. These events allowed a multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder analysis of the challenges and possible solutions to mitigate coastal erosion, representing the definition of a shared vision for the coastline’s future in this municipality. This work presents the main results of this participatory process as well as reflections on the importance of active citizenship instruments and stakeholder involvement for integrated coastal management in the 21st century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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22 pages, 25599 KiB  
Article
Coastal Vulnerability Assessment for Future Sea Level Rise and a Comparative Study of Two Pocket Beaches in Seasonal Scale, Ios Island, Cyclades, Greece
by Apostolia Komi, Alexandros Petropoulos, Niki Evelpidou, Serafeim Poulos and Vasilios Kapsimalis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111673 - 06 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
The coastal zone may be considered as the location where the marine and land environments interact dynamically and coexist with human societies. Globally, natural and human systems are being severely threatened by the sea level rise related to climate change. The outcome between [...] Read more.
The coastal zone may be considered as the location where the marine and land environments interact dynamically and coexist with human societies. Globally, natural and human systems are being severely threatened by the sea level rise related to climate change. The outcome between the dynamic relationship of coastal environments and marine processes, and the future sea level rise as predicted by scientific reports, is the vulnerability of coastal areas such as sandy beaches, pocket beaches and low-lying coastal areas. The current research aims to assess the coastal vulnerability of Ios Island, Cyclades, Greece for the next 100 years and to identify areas that are comparatively more vulnerable to future sea level changes. Moreover, the seasonal changes concerning sedimentological and morphological characteristics of two pocket beaches of Ios Island, Mylopotas and Magganari, are also examined. From the application of the Coastal Vulnerability Index, 92.37% of the total length of the coastline of Ios Island is characterized by a very low vulnerability as it consists of rocky shores and cliffs, while sandy and pocket beaches are characterized by a very high vulnerability. From the fieldworks and data processing, the seasonal changes mainly concern the seabed’s topography, the sediments’ texture of the collected sand samples, the foreshore and backshore topography, as well as seasonal shoreline displacement, using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System tool (DSAS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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21 pages, 5669 KiB  
Article
Anthropogenic Pressure on Hydrographic Basin and Coastal Erosion in the Delta of Paraíba do Sul River, Southeast Brazil
by Luca Lämmle, Archimedes Perez Filho, Carlo Donadio, Michele Arienzo, Luciano Ferrara, Cleber de J. Santos and André O. Souza
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1585; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111585 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Coastal erosion affects several beaches worldwide in association with natural and human pressures. In recent decades, the coastland located on the Paraíba do Sul River mouth has been recognized as one of the main areas that suffer from this geomorphological dynamic. Furthermore, the [...] Read more.
Coastal erosion affects several beaches worldwide in association with natural and human pressures. In recent decades, the coastland located on the Paraíba do Sul River mouth has been recognized as one of the main areas that suffer from this geomorphological dynamic. Furthermore, the scientific literature, even if scarce, has pointed out that these dynamics are causing negative socio-environmental responses and making the area less resilient. In the last few decades, hundreds of homes and other urban structures have become debris due to erosion caused by sea ingression, triggered by the coupling of environmental processes and dynamics occurring at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, the present research aimed to analyze how the anthropic changes carried out in the Paraíba do Sul hydrographic basin are related to the intense coastal erosion at the mouth. Variations in fluvial–marine hydrosedimentary dynamics triggered this due to the construction of dams to supply large cities and for agricultural purposes. Water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed in different sectors of the main channel and on the adjacent coast, mapping land use in the basin area and surveying socioeconomic data. The results suggest that human pressures on the hydrographic basin during the last century are directly associated with the imbalance of the environmental system and, consequently, the progression of coastal erosion on the Paraíba do Sul delta shoreline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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13 pages, 2252 KiB  
Article
A K-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm in Python for Visualizing the 3D Stratigraphic Architecture of the Llobregat River Delta in NE Spain
by Manuel Bullejos, David Cabezas, Manuel Martín-Martín and Francisco Javier Alcalá
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070986 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2400
Abstract
The k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm is a non-parametric supervised machine learning classifier; which uses proximity and similarity to make classifications or predictions about the grouping of an individual data point. This ability makes the KNN algorithm ideal for classifying datasets of geological variables [...] Read more.
The k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm is a non-parametric supervised machine learning classifier; which uses proximity and similarity to make classifications or predictions about the grouping of an individual data point. This ability makes the KNN algorithm ideal for classifying datasets of geological variables and parameters prior to 3D visualization. This paper introduces a machine learning KNN algorithm and Python libraries for visualizing the 3D stratigraphic architecture of sedimentary porous media in the Quaternary onshore Llobregat River Delta (LRD) in northeastern Spain. A first HTML model showed a consecutive 5 m-equispaced set of horizontal sections of the granulometry classes created with the KNN algorithm from 0 to 120 m below sea level in the onshore LRD. A second HTML model showed the 3D mapping of the main Quaternary gravel and coarse sand sedimentary bodies (lithosomes) and the basement (Pliocene and older rocks) top surface created with Python libraries. These results reproduce well the complex sedimentary structure of the LRD reported in recent scientific publications and proves the suitability of the KNN algorithm and Python libraries for visualizing the 3D stratigraphic structure of sedimentary porous media, which is a crucial stage in making decisions in different environmental and economic geology disciplines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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29 pages, 5925 KiB  
Article
Utilizing Marine Cultural Heritage for the Preservation of Coastal Systems in East Africa
by Georgia Holly, Arturo Rey da Silva, Jon Henderson, Caesar Bita, Wes Forsythe, Zacarias Alexandre Ombe, Christopher Poonian and Hayley Roberts
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050693 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3751
Abstract
This paper presents the key contributions of marine cultural heritage to the survival of coastal ecosystems and the communities that rely on them in East Africa. Marine cultural heritage (MCH) describes the evidence of past human interactions with coastal and marine space, encompassing [...] Read more.
This paper presents the key contributions of marine cultural heritage to the survival of coastal ecosystems and the communities that rely on them in East Africa. Marine cultural heritage (MCH) describes the evidence of past human interactions with coastal and marine space, encompassing tangible material culture remains and associated intangible cultural expressions within coastal communities. By incorporating the protection of MCH into local and regional environmental frameworks, we gain an essential indicator to monitor change dynamics in natural habitats, the cumulative impacts of climate change, and the development of social adaptation strategies. An essential aspect of this development is the move away from global sustainability strategies towards community-centric management and stewardship. Such processes utilise a combination of traditional knowledge systems and scientific approaches designed to harness targeted economic, ecological, and social sustainable development. To argue for the incorporation of MCH into local and regional environmental frameworks in the area, this paper presents four case studies from the Rising from the Depths Network, a challenge-led research network focusing on harnessing the potential of MCH to bring sustainable development strategies to East Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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18 pages, 9735 KiB  
Article
Thermal-Based Remote Sensing Solution for Identifying Coastal Zones with Potential Groundwater Discharge
by Julián E. Londoño-Londoño, Maria Teresa Condesso de Melo, João N. Nascimento and Ana C. F. Silva
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(3), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10030414 - 12 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2453
Abstract
Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) is an essential process of the hydrological cycle by hydraulically connecting the land and sea. However, the occurrence, importance and effects of SGD remain largely underexplored. Here, we developed and validated a straightforward tool for mapping potential SGD areas [...] Read more.
Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) is an essential process of the hydrological cycle by hydraulically connecting the land and sea. However, the occurrence, importance and effects of SGD remain largely underexplored. Here, we developed and validated a straightforward tool for mapping potential SGD areas in coastal ecosystems of Portugal. Our approach was based on the premise that relatively cooler groundwater discharging to warmer coastal waters manifests in the thermal band of satellite imagery acquired during the summer months. We then used Landsat 8 thermal infrared imagery (TIR) to derive sea surface temperature and standardized temperature anomalies maps. The results confirmed the capacity of TIR remote sensing for identifying SGD areas. The thermal analysis enabled us to acquire a useful visual-spatial correlation between the location of thermal anomalies and potentiometric surfaces of coastal aquifers. This way, over 20 potential SGD areas were identified. Our study makes an important contribute to our current SGD research status by developing a cost-efficient tool which can be used as a first level approach for large areas. Further investigation is needed to quantify the SGD and its potential effect in the receiving ecosystems, especially those located within environmentally protected areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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21 pages, 7082 KiB  
Article
Beachrock Formation Mechanism Using Multiproxy Experimental Data from Natural and Artificial Beachrocks: Insights for a Potential Soft Engineering Method
by Giannis Saitis, Anna Karkani, Eleni Koutsopoulou, Konstantinos Tsanakas, Satoru Kawasaki and Niki Evelpidou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10010087 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3769
Abstract
Beachrocks are a window to the past environmental, geological, sedimentological and morphological conditions that were dominant in the coastal zone during their formation. Furthermore, beachrocks have the ability to reduce coastal erosion impact on sandy beaches. This study focuses on the beachrock formation [...] Read more.
Beachrocks are a window to the past environmental, geological, sedimentological and morphological conditions that were dominant in the coastal zone during their formation. Furthermore, beachrocks have the ability to reduce coastal erosion impact on sandy beaches. This study focuses on the beachrock formation mechanism through the comparison of cement characteristics, mineral chemistry and sedimentology of beachrock occurrences from two different geological and geographical localities: Diolkos, Corinth, Greece and Sumuide, Okinawa, Japan. In addition, in order to investigate a potential soft engineering method to protect coasts from erosion, artificial beachrock samples were created in vitro using sand samples and ureolytic bacteria from both areas under accelerating conditions. For Okinawa artificial beachrock experiments, the bacteria Pararhodobacter sp. was used, and for Diolkos, it was the bacteria Micrococcus yunnainensis sp. For the natural beachrocks, a multi-analytical approach was accomplished with the use of microscopic investigation, a scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. Correlations were made between natural and artificial beachrocks. Results have shown that Diolkos beachrock was formed in the upper part of the intertidal zone, consisting of detrital material originating from the local bedrock, while Sumuide beachrock formed in the low intertidal–upper subtidal zone, consisting of coral sand and foraminifera fragments. For the artificial beachrocks, three samples were created using the microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) method, one from Diolkos (Corinth, Greece) and two from Sumuide (Okinawa, Japan). Diolkos artificial beachrock was better consolidated in comparison to Sumuide. Our investigation has shown that bacterial density was the key factor for the creation of the artificial beachrocks, while the samples’ granulometry played a secondary role in the process. The laboratory artificial beachrocks show encouraging results for a new soft engineering method to encounter beach erosion while keeping an ecofriendly character by saving energy, material resources and gas emissions. Artificial beachrocks can share the same properties of a natural beachrock and can contribute positively to marine biodiversity as a natural rocky habitat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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17 pages, 9815 KiB  
Article
Evidence of Coastal Changes in the West Coast of Naxos Island, Cyclades, Greece
by Niki Evelpidou, Alexandros Petropoulos, Anna Karkani and Giannis Saitis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121427 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
Coastal lagoons and dunes are of great ecological importance, not only for providing habitats for rare flora and fauna, but also for protecting coastal areas from rising sea levels and storms, etc. Even though these features are unique for sustainable development and are [...] Read more.
Coastal lagoons and dunes are of great ecological importance, not only for providing habitats for rare flora and fauna, but also for protecting coastal areas from rising sea levels and storms, etc. Even though these features are unique for sustainable development and are extremely important to the natural environment and economy, they are one of the most vulnerable and threatened ecosystems due to their small size. The western coasts of Naxos (central Aegean Sea) represent an example of such phenomena, with various wetlands bordered by low-lying sand dunes. The aim of our study is to assess the vulnerability and pressures of the western coasts of Naxos Isl. by taking into consideration both natural and anthropogenic factors. We used a variety of approaches for the environmental and geomorphological study of the coastal zone to achieve this goal, including: (a) study of aerial photography from 1960 until today, (b) systematic seasonal aerial monitoring by drone, since 2015, (c) use of DGPS for the mapping of the coastal zone and for obtaining detailed topographic sections, and (d) dune mapping. Our findings reveal the vulnerability of the western coasts of Naxos due to sea level rise, tectonic subsidence, and a variety of anthropogenic pressures, such as uncontrolled parking, vegetation uprooting, sand extractions, and heavy touristic traffic. Therefore, the protection of the sand dunes, their restoration where they have been eroded, the definition of a zone of control, and restriction of human activities must be a key priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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22 pages, 8053 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Remote Sensing Techniques Applicability for Beach Morphology Mapping: A Case Study of Hvar Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia
by Marin Mićunović, Sanja Faivre and Mateo Gašparović
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121407 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2450
Abstract
This study investigates the quality and accuracy of remote sensing data in beach surveys based on three different data sources covering a 10-year period (2011–2021). Orthophotos from State Geodetic Administration Geoportal and satellite imagery from Google Earth were compared with orthophotos generated from [...] Read more.
This study investigates the quality and accuracy of remote sensing data in beach surveys based on three different data sources covering a 10-year period (2011–2021). Orthophotos from State Geodetic Administration Geoportal and satellite imagery from Google Earth were compared with orthophotos generated from UAV using ArcGIS Pro and Drone2Map. The beach area and length of 20 beaches on the island of Hvar were measured using each data source from different years. The average deviation for beach area (−2.3 to 5.6%) and length (−1 to 2.7%) was determined (without outliers). This study confirms that linear feature measurement is more accurate than polygon-based measurement. Hence, smaller beach areas were associated with higher errors. Furthermore, it was observed that morphological complexity of the beach may also affect the measurement accuracy. This work showed that different remote sensing sources could be used for relatively accurate beach surveys, as there is no statistically significant difference between the calculated errors. However, special care should always be addressed to the definition of errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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