Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2023) | Viewed by 16762

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Greece
Interests: coastal engineering; coastal hydraulics, sediment transport, and morphodynamics; coastal structures; numerical modeling of coastal processes

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Interests: nearshore physical oceanography; coastal dynamics and engineering; morphodynamics of the coastal environment; numerical modeling of coastal processes

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: coastal engineering; coastal protection methods; numerical modeling of coastal processes; coastal sediment transport and morphodynamics; wave-coastal structures interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece
Interests: groundwater flow and transport of pollutants; combination of optimization methods and simulation models for the optimal design of groundwater management plans; seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: offshore foundations; risk and reliability analysis; scour phenomena; sea climate modeling and extreme events theory applied to civil and ocean engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue entitled “Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate” originates from the corresponding sessions at the 7th IAHR Europe Congress (https://www.iahreuropecongress.org/). Topics include hydrodynamics, transport and morphodynamic processes, coastal structures, coastal vulnerability in a changing climate, coastal and swash zone morphodynamics, coastal aquifers under climate change, hybrid solutions for coastal and offshore applications in the context of climate change, etc. Contributions may include theoretical analysis, numerical modeling, experimental methods, and field measurements.

Prof. Dr. Athanassios A. Dimas
Prof. Dr. Nicholas Dodd
Prof. Dr. Theophanis V. Karambas
Prof. Dr. George Karatzas
Dr. Tiago Fazeres Ferradosa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • estuarine, coastal, and offshore processes
  • coastal protection
  • hybrid solutions
  • aquifers
  • climate change

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

12 pages, 2655 KiB  
Article
Simulating Erosive and Accretive Conditions in the Swash: Applications of a Nonlinear Wave and Morphology Evolution Model
by Achilleas G. Samaras and Theophanis V. Karambas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12010140 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 794
Abstract
This work presents a new model for surf and swash zone morphology evolution induced by nonlinear waves. Wave transformation in the surf and swash zones is computed by a nonlinear wave model based on the higher order Boussinesq equations for breaking and non-breaking [...] Read more.
This work presents a new model for surf and swash zone morphology evolution induced by nonlinear waves. Wave transformation in the surf and swash zones is computed by a nonlinear wave model based on the higher order Boussinesq equations for breaking and non-breaking waves. Regarding sediment transport, the model builds on previous research by the authors and incorporates the latest update of a well-founded sediment transport formula. The wave and morphology evolution model is validated against two sets of experiments on beach profile change and is afterwards used to test the performance of a widely-adopted erosion/accretion criterion. The innovation of this work is the validation of a new Boussinesq-type morphology model under both erosive and accretive conditions at the foreshore (accretion is rarely examined in similar studies), which the model reproduces very well without modification of the empirical coefficients of the sediment transport formula used; furthermore, the model confirms the empirical erosion/accretion criterion even for conditions beyond the ones it was developed for and without imposing any model constraints. The presented set of applications highlights model capabilities in simulating swash morphodynamics, as well as its suitability for coastal erosion mitigation and beach restoration design Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 18975 KiB  
Article
Combined Coastal Sea Level Estimation Considering Astronomical Tide and Storm Surge Effects: Model Development and Its Application in Thermaikos Gulf, Greece
by Nestoras Papadopoulos and Vassilis Gikas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(11), 2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11112033 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Tide gauge recordings furnish the longest and almost the most continuous data source of sea level monitoring. Traditionally, they are collected using tide gauge instrumentation fixed at seaport locations to provide a time series of sea level estimates relative to a local geodetic [...] Read more.
Tide gauge recordings furnish the longest and almost the most continuous data source of sea level monitoring. Traditionally, they are collected using tide gauge instrumentation fixed at seaport locations to provide a time series of sea level estimates relative to a local geodetic benchmark. Sea level tidal observables are distinguished in the astronomical tide component originating from the attraction of the Earth–Moon–Sun gravitational system, and the storm surges ought to have meteorological effects due to wind and atmospheric air pressure variation. This study provides a comprehensive methodological approach and software to compute sea level considering astronomical tides enhanced by storm surge effects. The model is realized and assessed using a long-standing set of 21 consecutive years of tidal and meteorological measurements originating from Thermaikos Gulf, Greece. Analyses show model verification and conclusions about the tidal behavior of the test area, suggesting a satisfactory agreement (86% Willmott Skill factor, 9 cm standard deviation) between predicted and observed sea level estimates, accounting for amplitude and the time shift of skew surges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4855 KiB  
Article
Development of a Complex Vulnerability Index for Fishing Shelters—The Case of Cyprus
by Vasiliki I. Chalastani, Andreas Pantelidis, Elissavet Feloni, Andreas Papadimitriou, Christina N. Tsaimou, Olympia Nisiforou and Vasiliki K. Tsoukala
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(10), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11101880 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1535
Abstract
Small fishing harbours substantially contribute to coastal economies as they support not only fishing but also tourism activities. They are located at the land–sea interface and are considered vulnerable infrastructure affected by the increased human activities but also by the impacts of climate [...] Read more.
Small fishing harbours substantially contribute to coastal economies as they support not only fishing but also tourism activities. They are located at the land–sea interface and are considered vulnerable infrastructure affected by the increased human activities but also by the impacts of climate change, including rising sea levels and extreme weather events. In this paper, the 16 existing fishing shelters of Cyprus are used as a case study to develop a complex vulnerability index for assessing the shelters’ vulnerability. The index incorporates physical, environmental, technical and socioeconomic variables, which are quantified and scored to denote the current state of vulnerability. The results are validated through on-site visits, questionnaires answered by local fishermen and targeted interviews with representatives of the port authorities. Furthermore, climate change projections are taken into account for the physical variables to evaluate the impact of climate change on vulnerability changes. The study highlights the complex interactions between a variety of factors characterising the fishing shelters and driving vulnerability. The proposed index can assist decisionmakers with prioritising interventions, allocating funding and designing adaptation pathways that reduce the shelters’ vulnerability while increasing their resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 16922 KiB  
Article
An Index-Based Method to Assess the Resilience of Urban Areas to Coastal Flooding: The Case of Attica, Greece
by Charalampos Nikolaos Roukounis, Vasiliki K. Tsoukala and Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(9), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11091776 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1254
Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the resilience of coastal urban areas and their exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding, using the proposed Coastal Resilience Index (CResI). The CResI is an innovative combination of diverse characteristics. It includes 19 parameters [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to assess the resilience of coastal urban areas and their exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding, using the proposed Coastal Resilience Index (CResI). The CResI is an innovative combination of diverse characteristics. It includes 19 parameters and is implemented using GIS techniques. The parameters included in the CResI are classified into six category factors (geomorphology, flooding, wave exposition, land use, socioeconomic, and infrastructure/functional). The Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to assign weights and rank the parameters. The framework is tested in the southwest waterfront of the Athens Metropolitan Area in Greece. The study identified that around 25% of the coastal area could be at risk of coastal flooding in the upcoming years, including areas in both the metropolitan and suburban environments. As a result, the need for adaptation measures cannot be overlooked. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 28825 KiB  
Article
Impact of Spatial Segmentation on the Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability—Insights and Practical Recommendations
by Christina N. Tsaimou, Andreas Papadimitriou, Vasiliki Ι. Chalastani, Panagiotis Sartampakos, Michalis Chondros and Vasiliki K. Tsoukala
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(9), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11091675 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Coastal areas are dynamic multidimensional systems challenged by the complex interactions between natural, environmental, and human-induced pressures, as well as the ever-changing climate. A comprehensive evaluation of their spatial and temporal features enables the development of effective practices required to apply integrated coastal [...] Read more.
Coastal areas are dynamic multidimensional systems challenged by the complex interactions between natural, environmental, and human-induced pressures, as well as the ever-changing climate. A comprehensive evaluation of their spatial and temporal features enables the development of effective practices required to apply integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) policies. ICZM seeks to address the vulnerability of coastal areas in an attempt to mitigate their weaknesses and increase their resilience. Hence, coastal vulnerability assessment is a prerequisite to proceed with optimal adaptation or upgrading actions. Currently, assessments are performed by considering different approaches related to dividing coastal areas into segments to observe the spatial variations of vulnerability. The present research seeks to investigate the impact of the spatial segmentation of coastal areas on the assessment of their vulnerability. To achieve this, a case study of the coastal zone of the Municipality of Thebes, located in the Northeastern Corinthian Gulf, Greece, is examined. Five segmentation approaches are applied in terms of a physical-based vulnerability assessment for two different time horizons, (a) the present and (b) the future, by incorporating the climate change impacts. This study allows for optimizing practices to estimate vulnerability parameters and obtain reliable results for practical applications while reducing time-consuming analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 49866 KiB  
Article
Projected Sea Bottom Temperature Variability in the East China Shelf Seas by 2100
by Shen Qiao, Cuicui Zhang, Hao Wei and Yifan Lan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(6), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061192 - 08 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Existing research has proven the increase in sea surface temperature (SST) due to global warming. However, the sea bottom temperature (SBT) may exhibit different characteristics in various regional seas. The East China Shelf Seas (ECSSs), which are important shelf seas in the Western [...] Read more.
Existing research has proven the increase in sea surface temperature (SST) due to global warming. However, the sea bottom temperature (SBT) may exhibit different characteristics in various regional seas. The East China Shelf Seas (ECSSs), which are important shelf seas in the Western Pacific, hold ecological significance when analyzing their SBT variations in a warming future. This article investigates both the interannual and interdecadal SBT variations from 2006 to 2100, utilizing the projection results from phase 5 of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) sponsored by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). We conducted an analysis of the interdecadal variation by comparing the SBTs from the 2030s, 2060s, and 2090s to the SBT observed in the 2010s. Our findings reveal a significant increase in SBT in the ECSSs. By 2100, the region is projected to experience enhanced warming of 1.18 °C. The springtime warming intensity of the Bohai Sea, reaching 1.92 °C, can be twice the rate of global ocean warming. The outer shelf of the ECSSs also exhibits significant increases in SBT. Through an analysis of the correlation between SBT and ocean currents, we investigate the potential mechanisms behind these observations. This paper provides insights into future SBT variations from both an interannual and interdecadal perspective, explaining the causes and the projected increase in environmental stresses on the benthic ecosystem over the next eighty years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

32 pages, 49797 KiB  
Article
Computing Vegetation Indices from the Satellite Images Using GRASS GIS Scripts for Monitoring Mangrove Forests in the Coastal Landscapes of Niger Delta, Nigeria
by Polina Lemenkova and Olivier Debeir
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040871 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
This paper addresses the issue of the satellite image processing using GRASS GIS in the mangrove forests of the Niger River Delta, southern Nigeria. The estuary of the Niger River Delta in the Gulf of Guinea is an essential hotspot of biodiversity on [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the issue of the satellite image processing using GRASS GIS in the mangrove forests of the Niger River Delta, southern Nigeria. The estuary of the Niger River Delta in the Gulf of Guinea is an essential hotspot of biodiversity on the western coast of Africa. At the same time, climate issues and anthropogenic factors affect vulnerable coastal ecosystems and result in the rapid decline of mangrove habitats. This motivates monitoring of the vegetation patterns using advanced cartographic methods and data analysis. As a response to this need, this study aimed to calculate and map several vegetation indices (VI) using scripts as advanced programming methods integrated in geospatial studies. The data include four Landsat 8-9 OLI/TIRS images covering the western segment of the Niger River Delta in the Bight of Benin for 2013, 2015, 2021, and 2022. The techniques included the ’i.vi’, ’i.landsat.toar’ and other modules of the GRASS GIS. Based on the GRASS GIS ’i.vi’ module, ten VI were computed and mapped for the western segment of the Niger River Delta estuary: Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI), Green Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (GARI), Green Vegetation Index (GVI), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Second Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2), Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI), and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). The results showed variations in the vegetation patterns in mangrove habitats situated in the Niger River Delta over the last decade as well as the increase in urban areas (Onitsha, Sapele, Warri and Benin City) and settlements in the Delta State due to urbanization. The advanced techniques of the GRASS GIS of satellite image processing and analysis enabled us to identify and visualize changes in vegetation patterns. The technical excellence of the GRASS GIS in image processing and analysis was demonstrated in the scripts used in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1886 KiB  
Article
Application of Idealised Modelling and Data Analysis for Assessing the Compounding Effects of Sea Level Rise and Altered Riverine Inflows on Estuarine Tidal Dynamics
by Danial Khojasteh, Tej Vibhani, Hassan Shafiei, William Glamore and Stefan Felder
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040815 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Estuaries worldwide are experiencing increasing threats from climate change, particularly from the compounding effects of sea level rise (SLR) and varying magnitude of river inflows. Understanding the tidal response of estuaries to these effects can guide future management and help assess ecological concerns. [...] Read more.
Estuaries worldwide are experiencing increasing threats from climate change, particularly from the compounding effects of sea level rise (SLR) and varying magnitude of river inflows. Understanding the tidal response of estuaries to these effects can guide future management and help assess ecological concerns. However, there is limited existing understanding on how estuarine tidal dynamics may respond to the compounding effects of SLR and altered riverine inflows in different estuaries. To partially address this knowledge gap, this study used data analysis and scrutinised idealised hydrodynamic models of different estuary shapes and boundary conditions to (i) identify broad effects of SLR on estuarine tidal dynamics under various river inflow conditions, (ii) determine how longitudinal cross-sections are impacted by these effects, and (iii) highlight some implications for environmental risk management. Results indicated that short- to moderate-length, high convergent estuaries experience the greatest and short- to moderate-length prismatic and low convergent estuaries experience the least variations in their overall tidal dynamics (i.e., tidal range, current velocity, and asymmetry). These variations were most evident in estuaries with large riverine inflows and macrotidal conditions. Compounding effects of SLR and altered riverine inflows induced spatially heterogenous changes to tidal range, current velocity, and asymmetry, with transects nearest to the estuary mouth/head and at a three-quarter estuary length (measured from estuary mouth) identified as the most and the least vulnerable zones, respectively. These findings provide an initial broad assessment of some effects of climate change in estuaries and may help to prioritise future investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 21339 KiB  
Article
Coastal Erosion Identification and Monitoring in the Patras Gulf (Greece) Using Multi-Discipline Approaches
by Nikolaos Depountis, Dionysios Apostolopoulos, Vasileios Boumpoulis, Dimitris Christodoulou, Athanassios Dimas, Elias Fakiris, Georgios Leftheriotis, Alexandros Menegatos, Konstantinos Nikolakopoulos, George Papatheodorou and Nikolaos Sabatakakis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(3), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11030654 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
The primary objective of this research is to demonstrate advanced surveying methods and techniques for coastal erosion identification and monitoring in a densely human-populated coastline, the southern coastline of the Gulf of Patras (Greece), which diachronically suffers erosion problems expected to become worse [...] Read more.
The primary objective of this research is to demonstrate advanced surveying methods and techniques for coastal erosion identification and monitoring in a densely human-populated coastline, the southern coastline of the Gulf of Patras (Greece), which diachronically suffers erosion problems expected to become worse in the forthcoming years due to climate change and human intervention. Its importance lies in the fact that it presents a robust methodology on how all modern scientific knowledge and techniques should be used in coastal erosion problems. The presented methods include the use of satellite and aerial photo imaging, shallow seabed bathymetry and morphology, sediment sampling, geotechnical investigations, as well as hydrodynamic modelling. The results are extensively analyzed in terms of their importance in coastal erosion studies and are cross-validated to define those areas most vulnerable to erosion. Towards this scope, the seabed erosion rate produced by hydrodynamic modelling is compared with the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) calculations performed in the examined area to identify which coastal zones are under a regime of intensive erosion. The results between the CVI and the seabed erosion rate appear to coincide in terms of the erosion potential, especially in zones where the vulnerability regime has been calculated as being high or very high, with the P. oceanica meadows playing an important role in reducing erosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2688 KiB  
Article
Large-Eddy Simulation of Wave Attenuation and Breaking on a Beach with Coastal Vegetation Modelled as Porous Medium
by Iason A. Chalmoukis, Georgios A. Leftheriotis and Athanassios A. Dimas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(3), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11030519 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Erosion and flooding are the main threats for most coastal regions. Nature-based solutions, such as coastal vegetation (CV) fields, have received significant attention in recent years because they effectively dissipate wave energy while maintaining biodiversity. In this study, a porous medium model was [...] Read more.
Erosion and flooding are the main threats for most coastal regions. Nature-based solutions, such as coastal vegetation (CV) fields, have received significant attention in recent years because they effectively dissipate wave energy while maintaining biodiversity. In this study, a porous medium model was implemented in an in-house software to simulate the three-dimensional, two-phase (water/air) flow induced by wave propagation past CV fields. First, the model was validated against experimental measurements of wave propagation past a CV field on a horizontal bed. Then, the model was used to assess the influence on wave behaviour of the equivalent porosity, neq, and the cross-shore length, LCV, of a CV field with a constant plant height on a beach with a constant bed slope. Results were obtained for the non-vegetated case (neq = 1) and five vegetated cases with different neq and LCV values. It was found that decreasing neq moves wave breaking offshore at larger depths (40% increase for the case with neq = 0.82), while it does not affect much the breaking height (4% was the largest difference). For very high neq (0.98 in the present study) and/or small LCV (83% of the wavelength just offshore of the CV field in the present study), wave breaking may occur at depths smaller than in the non-vegetated situation due to increased wave shoaling over the corresponding CV fields. The undertow distribution is strongly modified and an increased wave setup (highest for neq = 0.82) is observed for all vegetated cases in comparison to the non-vegetated one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 6685 KiB  
Article
Accelerating Predictions of Morphological Bed Evolution by Combining Numerical Modelling and Artificial Neural Networks
by Andreas Papadimitriou, Michalis Chondros, Anastasios Metallinos and Vasiliki Tsoukala
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111621 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Process-based models have been employed extensively in the last decades for the prediction of coastal bed evolution in the medium term (1–5 years), under the combined action of waves and currents, due to their ability to resolve the dominant coastal processes. Despite their [...] Read more.
Process-based models have been employed extensively in the last decades for the prediction of coastal bed evolution in the medium term (1–5 years), under the combined action of waves and currents, due to their ability to resolve the dominant coastal processes. Despite their widespread application, they are associated with high demand for computational resources, rendering the annual prediction of the coastal bed evolution a tedious task. To combat this, wave input reduction methods are generally employed to reduce the sheer amount of sea-states to be simulated to assess the bed level changes. The purpose of this research is to further expand on the concept of input reduction methods by presenting a methodology combining numerical modelling and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The trained ANN is tasked with eliminating wave records unable to initiate sediment motion and hence further reduce the required computational times. The methodology was implemented in both an idealized and a real-field case study to examine the sensitivity, and produced very satisfactory predictions of the rates of bed level change, with respect to a benchmark simulation containing a very detailed wave climate. The obtained results have strong implications for further accelerating the demanding morphological simulations while enhancing the reliability and accuracy of model predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuaries, Coasts, and Seas in a Changing Climate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop