Sustainable and Safe Maritime Transportation

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 5491

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, Pot pomorščakov 4, 6320 Portorož, Slovenija
Interests: risk assessment; safety analysis; maritime safety; CFD simulation; fire modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Safety, reliability, and sustainability are currently the most recalled words by companies in the maritime sector and by various policy makers and relevant international institutions (such as the International Maritime Organization). The societal goal to address the ability to safely co-exist on Earth over a long time is, in the maritime sector, related to the continuous growth of goods in maritime transport and the need to reduce its influence on the environment. Several perspectives are promoted in the maritime community. The safety perspective addresses the need to reduce the risk of maritime transport or manage the risk with the most efficient approaches. Several stages are promoted from education to engineering, development, and organizational approaches. Recent research and novel approaches in the sustainable and safe maritime transport arena are the focus of this Special Issue of JMSE.

Review and research papers are preferred, with a specific focus on safe and sustainable maritime transport.

Dr. Peter Vidmar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • maritime transport
  • safety
  • shipping emission
  • sustainable transport
  • port safety
  • energy efficiency
  • alternative fuels
  • cold ironing

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 8107 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Objective Optimization Method for Maritime Search and Rescue Resource Allocation: An Application to the South China Sea
by Yaxin Dong, Hongxiang Ren, Yuzhu Zhu, Rui Tao, Yating Duan and Nianjun Shao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12010184 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 817
Abstract
To effectively address the increase in maritime accidents and the challenges posed by the trend toward larger ships for maritime safety, it is crucial to rationally allocate the limited maritime search and rescue (MSAR) resources and enhance accident response capabilities. We present a [...] Read more.
To effectively address the increase in maritime accidents and the challenges posed by the trend toward larger ships for maritime safety, it is crucial to rationally allocate the limited maritime search and rescue (MSAR) resources and enhance accident response capabilities. We present a comprehensive method for allocating MSAR resources, aiming to improve the overall efficiency of MSAR operations. First, we use long short-term memory to predict the number of future accidents and employ the K-medoids algorithm to identify the accident black spots in the studied area. Next, we analyze the multi-constraint conditions in the MSAR resource allocation process. A multi-objective integer programming model is constructed to minimize the response time and allocation cost. Finally, we use the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (DNSGA-II) with Deb’s rules to solve the model, and we propose a multi-attribute decision optimization-based method for MSAR resource allocation. We found that the DNSGA-II exhibits better convergence and generates higher-quality solutions compared to the NSGA-II, particle swarm optimization (PSO), and enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithms. Compared with the existing MSAR resource emergency response system, the optimized scheme reduces the response time and allocation cost by 11.32% and 6.15%, respectively. The proposed method can offer decision makers new insights when formulating MSAR resource allocation plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Maritime Transportation)
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13 pages, 3942 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of Palladium Loading on Pd-Based Three-Way Catalyst Performance and Propane Reactivity for Emission Reduction in Liquefied Petroleum Gas Engines
by Daekun Kim
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(11), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11112187 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 855
Abstract
To reduce air pollution worldwide, regulations on exhaust gas emissions from ships are becoming increasingly stringent. One fuel that is being considered as an alternative to replace the heavy fuel oil used in existing ship engines and thereby reduce harmful emissions, such as [...] Read more.
To reduce air pollution worldwide, regulations on exhaust gas emissions from ships are becoming increasingly stringent. One fuel that is being considered as an alternative to replace the heavy fuel oil used in existing ship engines and thereby reduce harmful emissions, such as NOx, SOx, and greenhouse gases, is sulfur-free liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). To assess the viability of this alternative, it is necessary to understand propane reactivity, the main component of LPG, and develop after-treatment devices applicable to LPG engines. This research evaluated the performance of three prototype Pd-based three-way catalysts (TWCs) with varying Pd loadings (6.5, 4.1, and 1.4 g/L), focusing on their effectiveness concerning propane reactivity in LPG engines. For the fresh samples, catalysts with 4.1 g/L Pd demonstrated performance that was comparable to, or even surpassed, those containing 6.5 g/L Pd. Notably, the temperature of 50% conversion (T50) for NO and C3H8 in the fresh Pd-4.1 was lower by 14 °C and 10 °C, respectively, compared to the fresh Pd-6.5 sample, despite having 37% less precious-metal loading. However, after hydrothermal aging at 900 °C for 100 h, the performance of the 4.1 g/L Pd catalyst significantly deteriorated, exhibiting lower efficiency than the 6.5 g/L Pd catalyst. The study also delved into various probe reactions, including the water–gas shift and propane steam reforming. Advanced analytical techniques, such as N2 physisorption and scanning transmission electron microscopy, were employed to elucidate the texture and structural characteristics of the catalyst, providing a comprehensive understanding of its behavior and potential applications. Through this research, within the efforts of the maritime sector to address challenges posed by emission regulations and rising costs associated with precious metals, this study has the potential to contribute to the development of cost-effective emission control solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Maritime Transportation)
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18 pages, 6989 KiB  
Article
Sediment Resuspension Distribution Modelling Using a Ship Handling Simulation along with the MIKE 3 Application
by Jure Srše, Marko Perkovič and Aleksander Grm
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(8), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11081619 - 19 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The environmental effects of ship propellers were not even close to fully examined before the current massive ships were introduced to sea trade. Larger ships, result in greater length, beam, draft and propulsion power. Of concern here is the under-keel clearance (UKC) and [...] Read more.
The environmental effects of ship propellers were not even close to fully examined before the current massive ships were introduced to sea trade. Larger ships, result in greater length, beam, draft and propulsion power. Of concern here is the under-keel clearance (UKC) and applied power, the most important parameters causing sea bottom sediment resuspension and, consequently, the transport and deposition of washed sediments. The problems are multifarious: shorelines could be contaminated with heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals, which are sometimes buried deep in the sediment bed. The effects of resuspension on marine life have been well documented by marine biologists. Further, a ship passing through a flow field may have a significant hydrodynamic effect on the shipping channel: waves generated by moving vessels can accelerate shoreline erosion; erosion around quay piles have a negative impact on sea flora. Waves can also affect other manoeuvring vessels or ships at berth. Available empirical models are applicable for a steady state condition, addressing velocity and, consequently, shears at the sea bottom for defined UKC and states of applied power. The idea here is to calculate material resuspension dynamically in the water column based on realistic manoeuvring conditions, which can be a matter of some complexity. During a manoeuvre, the pilot must bring the ship into or out of the harbour in the safest possible way, operating the telegraph, rudder, thrusters and possibly tugs, and also co-ordinating the work of the linesmen. The jet speed powering the vessel is not only a function of the speed of the propeller, but also of the present speed of the ship, which has an effect on the propeller’s constantly changing torque. Additionally, the bathymetry is constantly changing, and the streamlines hit not only the seabed, but also the bank and other structures of the harbour basin. The resuspended material remains in the column long after the ship has finished manoeuvring, moving slowly through the entire water column and being transported not only by the remaining streamlines of the ship but also by general currents. Realistic manoeuvring parameters can be obtained from real-time simulations with a real crew using state-of-the-art Full Mission Bridge Simulators (FMBS); eddies and the like contribute to the distribution and material resuspension and can be calculated by applying numerical modelling. In this paper, a container ship departure manoeuvre is simulated dynamically using Wartsila FMBS obtained data, which are postprocessed and coupled with the MIKE 3 FM hydrodynamic modelling application to which we add the precise port of Koper bathymetry to gain ship propeller spatial jet velocity distribution in specific time domains. Obtained jet velocity distribution is further coupled with the MIKE 3 MT particle tracking application to visualize total resuspended sediment transport patterns, etc. Container ships were selected to amplify the urgency of this phenomenon; they are the most intrusive in terms of resuspending and scouring the seabed given their powerful engines and larger propellers. Passenger ships could have been used, car carriers, or even tankers; but the fear among scientists is that the issue will not be taken seriously enough by certain stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Maritime Transportation)
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19 pages, 4664 KiB  
Article
Update on Risk Criteria for Crude Oil Tanker Fleet
by Peter Vidmar and Marko Perkovič
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040695 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
In recent years, the maritime trade of crude oil has suffered notable perturbations caused by the unbalanced relationship between supply and demand. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a drop in oil consumption in 2019, followed by a reduction in production in 2020. The seaborne [...] Read more.
In recent years, the maritime trade of crude oil has suffered notable perturbations caused by the unbalanced relationship between supply and demand. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a drop in oil consumption in 2019, followed by a reduction in production in 2020. The seaborne transport of oil accounts for approximately 50–60% of all crude oil in world production. The crude oil market is a crucial regulator of the global economy and instabilities in this market have noticeable effects on collective risks. The immediate risks that the society see are the changes in the cost of living, which are followed by political uncertainties. Less visible are the risks that these uncertainties have on shipping companies and the level of management stability they have to maintain in order to keep seagoing safe. This paper presents an update on the overall state of risk management for the crude oil tanker fleet, evidenced by EMSA and other international marine organisations. The previous paper, entitled Safety Assessment of Crude Oil Tankers, which applied the methodology of the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA), was published in 2018 and covered the historical data related to the fleet size, accident reports, amount of oil spilled on sea and the economic value of the crude oil transport business. The particular focus of this paper is on the evolution of the risk acceptance criteria over the years and the difference in the predictions from 2018 to the present day. The effects of the pandemic on crude oil shipping are discussed through the changes in the risks. Three of them are analysed: PLL (potential loss of lives), PLC (potential loss of containment) and PLP (potential loss of property). The representation of the risk applies the F-N curves among the risk acceptance criteria lines observed for different tanker sizes. Among the three risks, the paper exposes the vulnerability of the loss of containment risk, where the strong economic impact of the oil trade outweighs the environmental concerns. In relation to the PLC, the paper proposes the approach of relating the oil spill acceptability with the spill quantity and ship revenue instead of to the cost of cleaning or the cost of environment recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Maritime Transportation)
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