Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 13444

Special Issue Editors

Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
Interests: submarine landslide; free surface flow; engineering geology; geophysical flow; geological disasters; granular rheology; mesh-free methods
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Guest Editor
School of Science and Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
Interests: tsunami; fluid-structure interaction; submarine landslide; granular rheology; discrete element modelling; geological disaster
School of Port and Transportation Engineering, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, China
Interests: ocean hydrodynamics; saltwater intrusion forecasting; sediment transportation; sea/river bed evolution; estuarine and coastal hydrodynamics; hydraulic structure

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coastal region is the interface between the continental interiors and the open ocean with complex geological environment. It houses billions of people and provides abundant resources with economic and engineering value. With the continuous advancement of engineering construction in coastal regions, specified insight and knowledge are required to reduce the geological environment hazards in these invaluable productive areas on the planet.

The present Special Issue, “Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region”, covers the recent advances and future developments concerning geological environment, geological hazards, engineering geology, hydrodynamics, environment fluid and geotechnical engineering in coastal region. In additional to these main topics, we further encourage the submission of original research and synthetic reviews through field investigations, novel data acquisition techniques, laboratory and model experiment researches, new numerical approaches, and the application of artificial intelligence approaches in these fields.

Dr. Zili Dai
Dr. Chongqiang Zhu
Dr. Wei Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine geological environment
  • marine geotechnical engineering
  • marine hydrodynamics
  • marine geological hazards
  • coastal protection
  • coastal morphological process
  • climate impacts

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 8749 KiB  
Article
Sediment Thickness Model of Andalusia’s Nearshore and Coastal Inland Topography
by Cristina Torrecillas, Andres Payo, Manuel Cobos, Helen Burke, Dave Morgan, Helen Smith and Gareth Owen Jenkins
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020269 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
This study represents the first attempt to map the sediment thickness spatial distribution along the Andalusian coastal zone by integrating various publicly available datasets. While prior studies have presented bedform- and sediment-type syntheses, none have attempted to quantify sediment thickness at the scale [...] Read more.
This study represents the first attempt to map the sediment thickness spatial distribution along the Andalusian coastal zone by integrating various publicly available datasets. While prior studies have presented bedform- and sediment-type syntheses, none have attempted to quantify sediment thickness at the scale and resolution performed in this study. The study area has been divided into 18 physiographic zones, and we have used BGS Groundhog Desktop v2.6 software for 3D modeling and sediment thickness model calculations. We present here the modeling workflow, model results, and the challenges that we have encountered, including discrepancies in geological maps, difficulty managing data input for grain size/consolidation, and the need for additional geological information. We have compared the modeled sediment fractions of the unconsolidated material with 4194 seabed samples distributed along the study area and found that the differences between the modeled versus the sampled emphasized the importance of incorporating river contributions, particularly from the Guadalquivir River, into the model for more accurate results. The model intermediate and final outputs and the software routines used to query the sediment thickness model are provided as publicly accessible datasets and tools. The modeled sediment thickness could contribute to making quantitative predictions of morphological change at a scale that is relevant to longer-term strategic coastal management in Andalusia. The methodology and tools used for this study are transferable to any study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region)
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17 pages, 4117 KiB  
Article
Simplified Design Method of Laterally Loaded Rigid Monopiles in Cohesionless Soil
by Ruping Luo, Anhui Wang, Jie Li, Wenyun Ding and Bitang Zhu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020208 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 731
Abstract
This paper presents a simplified design method for laterally loaded rigid monopiles in cohesionless soil. The proposed design method is based on a constant depth of the rotation point and a bi-linear distribution of soil lateral reaction along the embedded length of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a simplified design method for laterally loaded rigid monopiles in cohesionless soil. The proposed design method is based on a constant depth of the rotation point and a bi-linear distribution of soil lateral reaction along the embedded length of the monopile. Furthermore, a mobilization coefficient of soil resistance is introduced to quantify the magnitude of the soil reaction mobilized under a certain load level applied at the pile head. The mobilization coefficient is found to be directly related to the pile head rotation by back-analyzing test results measured from 13 laterally loaded piles in the published literature. The feasibility and reliability of the proposed design method are evaluated with another 23 laterally loaded piles, which are compiled in a database. The results show that the proposed design method yields relatively satisfactory predictions of the nonlinear load-deformation responses of these piles. Furthermore, comparison of soil lateral reaction profiles between those measured and calculated with the proposed method proves the validity of the assumed soil reaction profiles. As the mobilization coefficient is back-analyzed from piles mostly embedded in uniform ground and the pile bending and translational deformations are neglected in this study, the proposed method is suitable for monopile designs in uniform sites with medium~medium-dense sand, in which the pile bending and translational deformations can be ignored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region)
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19 pages, 10142 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Modeling of Tsunami Waves Triggered by Submarine Landslides Based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method
by Zili Dai, Xiaofeng Li and Baisen Lan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(10), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11102015 - 19 Oct 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Submarine landslides are a global geohazard that can displace huge volumes of loose submarine sediment, thereby triggering enormous tsunami waves and causing a serious threat to coastal cities. To investigate the generation of submarine landslide tsunamis, a three-dimensional numerical model based on the [...] Read more.
Submarine landslides are a global geohazard that can displace huge volumes of loose submarine sediment, thereby triggering enormous tsunami waves and causing a serious threat to coastal cities. To investigate the generation of submarine landslide tsunamis, a three-dimensional numerical model based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is presented in this work. The model is first validated through the simulation of two underwater landslide model tests, and is then applied to simulate the movement of the Baiyun landslide in the South China Sea (SCS). The kinetics features of the submarine landslide, including the sliding velocity and runout distance, are obtained from the SPH simulation. The tsunami waves generated by the Baiyun landslide are predicted. In addition, sensitivity analyses are conducted to investigate the impact of landslide volume and water depth on the amplitude of the tsunami waves. The results indicate that the amplitude of tsunami waves triggered by submarine landslides increases with the landslide volume and decreases with the water depth of the landslide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region)
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23 pages, 11182 KiB  
Article
Performance of Prefabricated Hollow Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Bracings on Transverse Bending: Experimental and Numerical Analyses
by Zizhang Dong, Huadong Peng, Kun Wang and Tao Liu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(10), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11102009 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Due to the complex hydrogeological conditions in coastal regions, the use of internal bracing systems is necessary for supporting coastal foundation pits. This paper introduces a novel prefabricated foundation pit bracing system based on Hollow Concrete-Filled Steel Tube (H-CFST) structures that can be [...] Read more.
Due to the complex hydrogeological conditions in coastal regions, the use of internal bracing systems is necessary for supporting coastal foundation pits. This paper introduces a novel prefabricated foundation pit bracing system based on Hollow Concrete-Filled Steel Tube (H-CFST) structures that can be reused, offering significant economic and societal benefits. However, there is a severe lack of research on the application of H-CFST bracing systems. Through model tests and finite element simulations, the load-displacement characteristics and failure modes of prefabricated H-CFST bracing under transverse bending were investigated. The study revealed that when a wall thickness of 1.5 d was chosen, the self-designed hoop effectively mitigated strength and stiffness reduction at the bracing connection point. When the load reached 150 kN, the outer steel tube of the H-CFST components experienced localized yielding, and when the load was increased to 300 kN, the end supports exhibited cracking. Finite element analysis provided a more accurate prediction of bracing failure at 147.18 kN, and it offered valuable insights for optimizing the bracing design. Based on the above research, theoretical methods for calculating the bearing capacity of each bracing component under transverse bending conditions have been proposed and validated against experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region)
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11 pages, 2836 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Geological Conditions in the Hangzhou Bay Area on the Deformation Behavior of Deep Excavations
by Yihong Zhu, Mingming Wu, Gangping Zhang, Jianlin Yu, Qiliang Xu, Riqing Xu and Tianci Yu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(9), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11091836 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 764
Abstract
The deformation behavior of deep excavations is affected by many factors, among which the geological conditions are greatly affected. Hangzhou Bay is affected by marine siltation and river alluvium, and the geological conditions within the urban area of Hangzhou are quite different. In [...] Read more.
The deformation behavior of deep excavations is affected by many factors, among which the geological conditions are greatly affected. Hangzhou Bay is affected by marine siltation and river alluvium, and the geological conditions within the urban area of Hangzhou are quite different. In this paper, the geological and deformation data of 79 deep excavation cases in the Hangzhou urban area were collected, and the statistical analysis showed that the deformation control of excavations in the silt area was poor. The average maximum lateral wall displacement of deep excavations of the Hangzhou urban area was 0.41%H (H was the depth of the excavation), the average value of the alluvial area was 0.22%H, and the average value of the silted area was 0.55%H. The influence of geological conditions, wall type, and construction period on the deformation of excavations was compared, and the deformation behavior of excavations in the silted area was clearly affected by various factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region)
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20 pages, 15930 KiB  
Article
Influence of Horizontal Loading in Changing the Ultimate Uplift Bearing Capacity of Monopile Foundation of Offshore Wind Turbine
by Yong-Xin Sun, Zhi-Peng Wang, Hong-Qiang Dou, Zhan-Fei Qu, Bing-Lei Xue and Ling-Yun Feng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(6), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061150 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Throughout their lifespan, monopile foundations supporting offshore wind turbines inevitably experience horizontal loads from waves, winds, and currents, resulting in cumulative deformation. It has been believed that deformation caused by horizontal loading weakens the interaction between the pile and the soil, leading to [...] Read more.
Throughout their lifespan, monopile foundations supporting offshore wind turbines inevitably experience horizontal loads from waves, winds, and currents, resulting in cumulative deformation. It has been believed that deformation caused by horizontal loading weakens the interaction between the pile and the soil, leading to a reduction in the ultimate uplift bearing capacity of the pile foundation. However, there is a scarcity of literature investigating this issue, particularly regarding monopiles used in offshore wind turbine installations. Therefore, this study aims to explore the impact of horizontal cyclic loads on the ultimate uplift bearing capacity of monopile, focusing on the pile–soil interaction. To achieve this, a series of 1 g model tests were conducted on a rigid model pile embedded in silt with varying relative compaction. The test results indicate that the ultimate uplift bearing capacity of the pile is significantly diminished after experiencing horizontal cyclic loading, and the extent of reduction is closely linked to the amplitude of the horizontal deformation. A semi-empirical model is developed to predict the ultimate uplift bearing capacity of the pile foundation following horizontal cyclic loading. The key findings of this study are as follows: (1) The earth pressure in the active zone gradually decreases with an increasing number of cycles, while the earth pressure in the passive zone experiences a slight increase under horizontal cyclic loading. (2) The position of the pile rotation center under horizontal cyclic loading is approximately 0.84 times the depth at which the pile is buried, and this relationship appears to be independent of soil density and cyclic load ratio. (3) The variation of earth pressure corresponding to the horizontal deformation of the pile in the active zone can be divided into three phases: a rapid decline phase, a slow decline phase, and a stable phase. (4) The reduction in the ultimate uplift capacity is influenced by the cyclic ratio and number of cycles but does not appear to have a significant relationship with soil density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region)
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40 pages, 16981 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Bayesian Risk Model for Coastal Flow Slides Using 3-D Hydrodynamic Transport and Monte Carlo Simulation
by Ahmet Durap, Can Elmar Balas, Şevket Çokgör and Egemen Ander Balas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11050943 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
The literature suggests two forms of flow slides: breaching and liquefaction. Both forms of failure have comparable ultimate circumstances, but the progression and sand movement mechanisms of breaching failure diverge from those of liquefaction. The first type, breaching, occurs in densely packed sand [...] Read more.
The literature suggests two forms of flow slides: breaching and liquefaction. Both forms of failure have comparable ultimate circumstances, but the progression and sand movement mechanisms of breaching failure diverge from those of liquefaction. The first type, breaching, occurs in densely packed sand and is characterized by slow sand grain discharge throughout the dilation of the failing soil particles and negative excess pore pressures. The latter form, known as liquefaction, is the process by which a mass of soil abruptly begins to behave like a flowing liquid, and as a result, it can flow out across overly mild slopes. The process begins in compacted sand and is linked to positive surplus pore water pressures that are caused by the compaction of the sand. Despite the available literature on flow slide failures, our understanding of the mechanisms involved remains limited. Since flow slides often begin below the water surface, they can go undetected until the collapse reaches the bank above ground. The complexity of flow slides requires the use of cutting-edge technological instruments, diving equipment, advanced risk assessment, and a variety of noteworthy probabilistic and sensitivity analyses. Hence, we developed a new sensitivity index to identify the risk of breach failure and vulnerable coastal areas to this risk. In addition, we developed a sophisticated hybrid model that allows for all possibilities of flow slides in sync with random variables used in this new sensitivity index. In this new hybrid model, three distinctive models exist. The 3D Hydrodynamic Model addresses waves, wind, current, climate change, and sediment transport. The Monte Carlo Simulation is responsible for sensitivity analysis, and the Bayesian Network focuses on joint probabilities of coastal flow slide parameters of this new index that incorporates all environmental parameters, including climate change. With the assistance of these three models, researchers aim to: (a) expand the application scope by presenting a method on coastal flow slides; (b) consider different particle diameters corresponding to critical angle slope failure; (c) analyze variables that can play a pivotal role in the flow slides; and (d) present a methodology for coupling coastal flow slide projections with reliable outcomes. The hybrid model incorporates random variables of retrogressive breach failures, and the new risk index considers their ranges to control the simulation. The use of such a hybrid model and risk index offers a robust and computationally efficient approach to evaluating coastal flow slides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region)
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19 pages, 12357 KiB  
Article
Pre- and Post-Liquefaction Behaviors of Manufactured Sand Considering the Particle Shape and Stress History Effects
by Zhe Wang, Guanyu Chen, Dazhi Wu, Yao Li and Juntao Hu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040739 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
As the substitution of natural quartz sand (QS), manufactured sand (MS) is highly demanded in the filling and reclamation of foundations in geotechnical engineering, which may be subjected to cyclic shear stresses induced by wave, seismic, and traffic loadings. One of the noticeable [...] Read more.
As the substitution of natural quartz sand (QS), manufactured sand (MS) is highly demanded in the filling and reclamation of foundations in geotechnical engineering, which may be subjected to cyclic shear stresses induced by wave, seismic, and traffic loadings. One of the noticeable distinctions between MS and QS is their particle shape, which has a significant effect on their shear and liquefaction behaviors under the monotonic and cyclic shear stresses, and needs to be further investigated. In this study, the particle shapes of MS and QS were quantitatively characterized by metallurgical microscope tests and digital image processing. Their pre- and post-liquefaction behaviors were evaluated by a series of direct shear tests, cyclic simple shear tests (CSS), and post-liquefaction monotonic shear tests (PMS). The results show that in the CSS test, samples with irregular particles showed stronger liquefaction and shear resistances, indicating that MS was more stable under cyclic shear loadings. In the PMS tests, it was found that the liquefaction and shear resistances of the samples not only increased with the increasing particle irregularity but also with the increasing shear amplitude in the pre-liquefaction stage. Furthermore, quantitative relationships between the particle shape, shear history, and indexes of shear and liquefaction behaviors of the samples were proposed by regression analysis. The research findings could guide the application of MS in offshore and foundation engineering and provide a reference for the selection of MS and its foundation design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region)
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Review

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31 pages, 11328 KiB  
Review
The Practice and Development of T-Bar Penetrometer Tests in Offshore Engineering Investigation: A Comprehensive Review
by Huanhuan Qiao, Lulu Liu, Huan He, Xiaoyan Liu, Xuening Liu and Peng Peng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(6), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061160 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
In recent years, the development of marine hydrocarbon resources has led to an increased demand for research on the marine soil bearing capacity and cyclic loading effect in marine engineering design. Because of the difficulties and high costs involved in obtaining high-quality soil [...] Read more.
In recent years, the development of marine hydrocarbon resources has led to an increased demand for research on the marine soil bearing capacity and cyclic loading effect in marine engineering design. Because of the difficulties and high costs involved in obtaining high-quality soil samples from offshore sites, in situ testing techniques have become the preferred method of determining design parameters in offshore geotechnical engineering projects. This paper provides a review of the current state of marine penetrometer deployment technology used in offshore engineering investigations and presents a summary of the T-bar penetrometer test for measuring marine soft clay. The existing literature research on penetration mechanisms, numerical simulations, laboratory experiments, and field tests of the T-bar penetrometer in the field of marine geotechnical engineering are analyzed. Finally, the potential difficulties, challenges, and prospects of the T-bar penetrometer tests are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Environment and Engineering in Coastal Region)
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