Selected Papers from MARTECH 2022, the 6th International Conference on Maritime Technology and Engineering

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 March 2023) | Viewed by 32955

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Centre for Marine Technology and Ocean Engineering (CENTEC), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: marine environment; ship dynamics; marine structures; safety and reliability
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The International Conferences on Maritime Technology and Engineering (MARTECH) are held biannually in Lisbon and are organized by the Centre for Marine Technology and Ocean Engineering (CENTEC) of the University of Lisbon and the Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Section of the Portuguese Association of Engineers. It covers the broad area related to various relevant maritime activities, with an emphasis on the main disciplines contributing to ship design and shipbuilding, maritime transportation, and ports and coastal and offshore activities.

MARTECH 2022 was the 6th Edition of the international conference that followed 11 editions of an earlier National Conference. It received a total of around 200 abstracts, from which 136 papers were finally accepted and presented, together with four keynote presentations. As in the previous editions, the proceedings were published in book format; however, there may still be scope for a Special Issue of JMSE based on this conference, as the keynote presentations were not included in the proceedings, and there was a substantial number of abstracts that were accepted but whose paper version could not be completed in time to be considered for publication in the proceedings. In addition, several papers that presented the initial results of a more extensive, ongoing study may be able to serve as the source for follow-up or expanded papers to be considered for publication in this Special Issue of the journal.

Thus, you are invited to submit papers for this Special Issue, which has the same broad coverage as the conference.

Dr. Carlos Guedes Soares
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydrodynamics
  • marine structures
  • ship machinery
  • ship design
  • ship building and repair
  • maritime transportation and ports
  • energy resources offshore
  • fishing and aquaculture
  • coastal developments
  • recreational craft and maritime tourism

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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28 pages, 3420 KiB  
Article
A New Model Uncertainty Measure of Wave-Induced Motions and Loads on a Container Ship with Forward Speed
by Hossam S. Abdelwahab, Shan Wang, Josko Parunov and C. Guedes Soares
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051042 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
A new uncertainty quantifier is presented for linear transfer functions of wave-induced ship motions and loads obtained by various seakeeping codes. The numerical simulations are conducted for the high-speed Flokstra container ship in regular waves at various heading angles, and the results are [...] Read more.
A new uncertainty quantifier is presented for linear transfer functions of wave-induced ship motions and loads obtained by various seakeeping codes. The numerical simulations are conducted for the high-speed Flokstra container ship in regular waves at various heading angles, and the results are compared with existing experimental data. The study employs five numerical codes that are based on three different seakeeping theories, namely strip theory, 3D frequency-domain method, and 3D time-domain method. Multiple measures are applied to quantify the uncertainty in the calculated transfer functions, such as frequency-independent model error, coefficient of determination, and the total difference. In addition, a new measure of uncertainty, termed modified total difference, is proposed for determining the uncertainty of individual seakeeping codes based on experimental data rather than the mean of results obtained by numerical codes. Results show that the uncertainty measures can identify differences between the codes. The predicted wave-induced loads have higher uncertainties compared to motions. The uncertainty assessment shows that none of the applied codes can produce accurate estimates for all wave-induced motions and loads at all heading angles at the same time. Full article
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25 pages, 3074 KiB  
Article
A Smart Risk Assessment Tool for Decision Support during Ship Evacuation
by Nikolaos P. Ventikos, Alexandros Koimtzoglou, Konstantinos Louzis, Nikolaos Themelis and Marios-Anestis Koimtzoglou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051014 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
In case of a ship emergency situation and during its evolvement that might result in an evacuation, the master and the bridge command team of a ship have to continuously assess risk. This is a very complex procedure, as crucial decisions concerning safety [...] Read more.
In case of a ship emergency situation and during its evolvement that might result in an evacuation, the master and the bridge command team of a ship have to continuously assess risk. This is a very complex procedure, as crucial decisions concerning safety are made under time pressure. The use of a decision-support tool would have a positive effect on their performance, resulting in an improvement in the way ships are evacuated. The purpose of this paper is to present the PALAEMON smart risk assessment platform (SRAP). SRAP is a real-time risk assessment platform developed to assist the decision-making process of the master and bridge command team of a ship regarding the evacuation process. Its purpose is to provide decision support for the following aspects: (1) the decision to sound the general alarm (GA) following an accident, (2) monitoring the progress of the mustering process in order to take any additional actions, and (3) the decision to abandon the ship or not. SRAP dynamically assesses the risk to the safety of the passengers and crew members in the different phases of the evacuation process, so one model in the form Bayesian networks (BNs) was developed for each stage of the evacuation process. The results of a case study that was implemented reflect how various parameters such as injuries, congestion, and the functionality of the ship’s systems affect the outcome of each model. Full article
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17 pages, 4207 KiB  
Article
Risky Maritime Encounter Patterns via Clustering
by M. Furkan Oruc and Yigit C. Altan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11050950 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
The volume of maritime traffic is increasing with the growing global trade demand. The effect of volume growth is especially observed in narrow and congested waterways as an increase in the ship-ship encounters, which can have severe consequences such as collision. This study [...] Read more.
The volume of maritime traffic is increasing with the growing global trade demand. The effect of volume growth is especially observed in narrow and congested waterways as an increase in the ship-ship encounters, which can have severe consequences such as collision. This study aims to analyze and validate the patterns of risky encounters and provide a framework for the visualization of model variables to explore patterns. Ship–ship interaction database is developed from the AIS messages, and interactions are analyzed via unsupervised learning algorithms to determine risky encounters using ship domain violation. K-means clustering-based novel methodology is developed to explore patterns among encounters. The methodology is applied to a long-term dataset from the Strait of Istanbul. Findings of the study support that ship length and ship speed can be used as indicators to understand the patterns in risky encounters. Furthermore, results show that site-specific risk thresholds for ship–ship encounters can be determined with additional expert judgment. The mid-clusters indicate that the ship domain violation is a grey zone, which should be treated carefully rather than a bold line. The developed approach can be integrated to narrow and congested waterways as an additional safety measure for maritime authorities to use as a decision support tool. Full article
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17 pages, 4362 KiB  
Article
Influence of Firefighting Intervention on Fire Spread Characteristics in Ship Engine Room
by Chenfeng Li, Jiayin Mao, Zixiong Kang, Shengzhu Zhao and Huilong Ren
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040877 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the ship engine room fire spreading characteristics based on the effect of firefighting interventions. The large eddy simulation (LES) and theoretical models are employed to simulate a fire scene in the engine room. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the ship engine room fire spreading characteristics based on the effect of firefighting interventions. The large eddy simulation (LES) and theoretical models are employed to simulate a fire scene in the engine room. The fire spreading characteristics and the mechanism of the use of a fine water mist are obtained by varying the ventilation conditions and parameters of the water sprinkler. The results show that the reason why a pool fire can be more easily extinguished as the spray speed increases is because the water mist with a higher spray speed has a larger spray area. Meanwhile, the temperature in the engine room would drop more rapidly with the increasing spray area due to the higher evaporation rate. Furthermore, the arrangement of the ventilation conditions had an obvious effect on the fire spreading characteristics, as the depletion of the combustion medium affects the combustion situation. Full article
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34 pages, 8179 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Analysis of Ship Manoeuvring Mathematical Models
by P. Pires da Silva, Serge Sutulo and C. Guedes Soares
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(2), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11020416 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Sensitivity analysis is applied to ship manoeuvring mathematical models as a means of dealing with model uncertainties, and often leads to model simplifications. A rather standard 3DOF manoeuvring model was tuned with the available results of full-scale trials of a naval combatant and [...] Read more.
Sensitivity analysis is applied to ship manoeuvring mathematical models as a means of dealing with model uncertainties, and often leads to model simplifications. A rather standard 3DOF manoeuvring model was tuned with the available results of full-scale trials of a naval combatant and was further used as the reference model for sensitivity analysis. The present research was based on multiple perturbed simulations of the turning, zigzag and spiral manoeuvres. A salient feature of the present study is that the perturbations were applied to the total hydrodynamic forces and moments as well as separately to their characteristic parts, i.e., to the linear and nonlinear single-variable and coupled components. Another special feature is that the deviations of the perturbated responses were estimated not only considering the standard manoeuvring performance indices, but also through application of the Euclidean metric directly to the time histories and to the spiral curve. The performed analysis permitted the sensitivity of the model to be traced to various parameters and groups thereof. It was established that the highest sensitivity of the model was to linear and some nonlinear multivariable parameters, and the Euclidean metric permitted a more detailed analysis than that based only on standard discrete manoeuvring indices. The obtained results are expected to be useful in the application of system identification methods to typical inherently stable fast surface-displacement ships. Full article
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12 pages, 13470 KiB  
Article
Developments and Applications of Green and Intelligent Inland Vessels in China
by Jialun Liu, Xinping Yan, Chenguang Liu, Ailong Fan and Feng Ma
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11020318 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
To provide a reference for practical applications of green and intelligent inland vessels, this paper summarizes the development status and five key technologies of green intelligent inland vessels in China. Green and intelligent inland vessels will be used for demonstration and application verification. [...] Read more.
To provide a reference for practical applications of green and intelligent inland vessels, this paper summarizes the development status and five key technologies of green intelligent inland vessels in China. Green and intelligent inland vessels will be used for demonstration and application verification. The application of key technologies in green, intelligent, and formation navigation is expounded. Finally, five tasks for developing the “New Generation of Waterborne Transportation” systems are proposed. Full article
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21 pages, 2524 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Analysis on the Hydrostatic Stability of a Self-Aligning Floating Offshore Wind Turbine
by Diane Scicluna, Claire De Marco Muscat-Fenech, Tonio Sant, Giuliano Vernengo and Tahsin Tezdogan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10122017 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
There exist vast areas of offshore wind resources with water depths greater than 100 m that require floating structures. This paper provides a detailed analysis on the hydrostatic stability characteristics of a novel floating wind turbine concept. The preliminary design supports an 8 [...] Read more.
There exist vast areas of offshore wind resources with water depths greater than 100 m that require floating structures. This paper provides a detailed analysis on the hydrostatic stability characteristics of a novel floating wind turbine concept. The preliminary design supports an 8 MW horizontal-axis wind turbine with a custom self-aligning single-point mooring (SPM) floater, which is to be constructed within the existing shipyard facilities in the Maltese Islands, located in the Central Mediterranean Sea. The theoretical hydrostatic stability calculations used to find the parameters to create the model are validated using SESAM®. The hydrostatic stability analysis is carried out for different ballast capacities whilst also considering the maximum axial thrust induced by the rotor during operation. The results show that the entire floating structure exhibits hydrostatic stability characteristics for both the heeling and pitching axes that comply with the requirements set by the DNV ST-0119 standard. Numerical simulations using partial ballast are also presented. Full article
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22 pages, 5153 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Ship Fuel Consumption for Different Hull Roughness in Realistic Weather Conditions
by Mina Tadros, Roberto Vettor, Manuel Ventura and C. Guedes Soares
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121891 - 4 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
This paper presents the effect of hull roughness over 10 years of operation on ship performance. The numerical model is developed by coupling NavCad and Matlab to perform the computation and the data processing. On the basis of a given hull, an engine, [...] Read more.
This paper presents the effect of hull roughness over 10 years of operation on ship performance. The numerical model is developed by coupling NavCad and Matlab to perform the computation and the data processing. On the basis of a given hull, an engine, and an optimized propeller, the performance of the ship is computed for eight cases of hull roughness according to the ITTC recommendations in both calm waters and different weather conditions along the ship route. The effect of both wind and waves is considered for computing the added ship resistance along the route, thus requiring more power than just only the added resistance in waves. This provides a more accurate estimation of the ship’s performance along the different sea states. Lastly, a weighted average of the main ship parameters is estimated to evaluate better the ship’s performance. According to this study, the fuel consumption in calm water can be increased by around 20% after 10 years of ship operation based on the level of hull roughness. However, in the same weather conditions along the ship route, the ship’s fuel consumption can be increased by 10% compared to the same trip with a clean hull. Full article
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12 pages, 2417 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Analysis of the Effects of Scrubber Installation on Ships
by Çağlar Karatuğ, Yasin Arslanoğlu and C. Guedes Soares
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1838; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121838 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3352
Abstract
A feasibility analysis was conducted on a crude oil tanker. Differences in power generation and fuel consumption of the diesel generators based on the noon report of the specified marine vessel were analyzed for similar periods before and after the scrubber application. Accordingly, [...] Read more.
A feasibility analysis was conducted on a crude oil tanker. Differences in power generation and fuel consumption of the diesel generators based on the noon report of the specified marine vessel were analyzed for similar periods before and after the scrubber application. Accordingly, the changes in releasing amounts of emissions were calculated. Then, a financial evaluation was realized with three economic indicators. As a result of the analysis performed, it is found that the power generation and fuel consumption realized by each diesel generator are increased after scrubber application. Nevertheless, its implementation on board may be considered acceptable in light of the economic findings. However, it has been determined that scrubber implementation causes an increase in all pollutants’ amounts except SOX. Therefore, it contradicts the zero-emission ship target and decarbonization strategy stated by IMO. Full article
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19 pages, 4943 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on Vibro-Acoustic Characteristics of Stiffened Plate Structures with Different Welding Parameters
by Ziheng Chen, Xiaodan Jia, Yongshui Lin, Huabing Liu and Weiguo Wu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121832 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Varied welding process parameters result in different welding energy inputs and welding residual stresses, significantly impacting the vibro-acoustic characteristics. This work investigated the influence of different welding energy inputs on the vibro-acoustic characteristics of the stiffened plate structure. Several experiments on the stiffened [...] Read more.
Varied welding process parameters result in different welding energy inputs and welding residual stresses, significantly impacting the vibro-acoustic characteristics. This work investigated the influence of different welding energy inputs on the vibro-acoustic characteristics of the stiffened plate structure. Several experiments on the stiffened plate structure with different welding energy inputs were conducted regarding modal, underwater vibration, and acoustic radiation. The results revealed that welding energy input had the most significant impact on the first-order natural frequency, and the impact first becomes higher and subsequently decreases as welding energy input increases. The welding energy input had relatively little effect on the peak point distribution of vibration and acoustic radiation curves but could affect the peak point amplitude. With the increase in welding energy input, the overall vibration acceleration level and sound radiation level in each frequency band decreased and then increased. The best result was obtained when the welding energy input was 167 J/cm with a welding current of 200 A, a welding voltage of 25 V, and a welding speed of 3.02–3.06 mm/s. Based on construction technology, this research can provide some instructive insights for enhancing the acoustic stealth performance of ships and marine structures. Full article
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18 pages, 13072 KiB  
Article
Holistic Approach to Ship Design
by Apostolos D. Papanikolaou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111717 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
The recently completed Horizon 2020 European Research project—HOLISHIP—Holistic Optimization of Ship Design and Operation for Life Cycle (2016–2020) has developed suitable tools and software platforms which are necessary for the creation of innovative design solutions meeting the set low-emission strategic objectives. The present [...] Read more.
The recently completed Horizon 2020 European Research project—HOLISHIP—Holistic Optimization of Ship Design and Operation for Life Cycle (2016–2020) has developed suitable tools and software platforms which are necessary for the creation of innovative design solutions meeting the set low-emission strategic objectives. The present paper introduces an innovative, holistic approach to ship design and the development of integrated design software platforms and tools, which are used in practical applications. In the era of the 4th industrial revolution, this project sets out to substantially advance ship design via the introduction of a fully computerized, multi-disciplinary optimization approach to ship design and life-cycle operation. The approach enables the exploration of a huge design space in a relatively short time, as well as the distributed/multi-site working and the virtual reality testing; thus, it is a strong asset for the development of innovative maritime concepts in response to the needs of the 21st century. Full article
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18 pages, 2171 KiB  
Article
Fire Risk Assessment of a Ship’s Power System under the Conditions of an Engine Room Fire
by Chenfeng Li, Houyao Zhang, Yifan Zhang and Jichuan Kang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111658 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
This paper presents a risk assessment method for a ship’s power system under the conditions of an engine room fire based on the expert comprehensive evaluation (ECE) method combined with the fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) method. The composition of the main engine [...] Read more.
This paper presents a risk assessment method for a ship’s power system under the conditions of an engine room fire based on the expert comprehensive evaluation (ECE) method combined with the fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) method. The composition of the main engine system in the engine room and the failure logic of each subsystem were analyzed, and the fuzzy fault tree of a ship engine room fire was constructed. The probability of system failure and the importance of basic events were calculated. The fire safety risk assessment model was established using the safety risk matrix. The risk assessment of a ship engine room fire was implemented. The results demonstrated that the fire frequency of the ship engine room was 5.232 × 10−6 h−1. The fire risk of the main engine fuel system was the highest. Fuel leakages from diesel supply tanks and heavy fuel oil tanks are the main cause of accidents. The proposed method eliminated the influence of incomplete statistics in the risk assessment process and improved the accuracy and credibility of the reassessment results. Full article
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15 pages, 2494 KiB  
Article
Environmental Inefficiencies of Short Sea Shipping Vessels by Optimization Processes Based on Resistance Prediction Methods
by Alba Matínez-López, Héctor Rubén Díaz Ojeda, Marcos Míguez González and África Marrero
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101457 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Fulfilment of the progressive environmental normative involves a singular challenge for Short Sea Shipping (SSS), since it must maintain its competitiveness versus other transport alternatives. For this reason, over the last decade SSS vessels have been the subject of numerous analyses, in terms [...] Read more.
Fulfilment of the progressive environmental normative involves a singular challenge for Short Sea Shipping (SSS), since it must maintain its competitiveness versus other transport alternatives. For this reason, over the last decade SSS vessels have been the subject of numerous analyses, in terms of operative research, and optimizations, from the marine engineering standpoint. Despite widespread awareness about the impact of a vessel’s resistance on environmental performance, many of the previous analyses were based on resistance prediction methods with low accuracy levels. This fact necessarily involves deviations regarding the expected sustainability of vessels. This paper attempts to quantify (in monetary terms) the environmental consequences due to this low level of accuracy. To meet this aim, it analyzes the environmental performance of an SSS feeder vessel, which was obtained from an optimization process based on standard resistance prediction techniques, when its propulsion power requirements for sailing at optimized speed were assessed through the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes method in Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations. The findings show that standard resistance prediction methods without consideration of hull shape must be avoided, not only in the optimization process, but also for operative research, especially in free sailing analysis. Full article
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22 pages, 7096 KiB  
Article
A Two-Stage Path Planning Algorithm Based on Rapid-Exploring Random Tree for Ships Navigating in Multi-Obstacle Water Areas Considering COLREGs
by Jinfen Zhang, Han Zhang, Jiongjiong Liu, Da Wu and C. Guedes Soares
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101441 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
A two-stage ship path planning method is proposed, based on the Rapid-exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm, which is composed of global path planning and local path planning, addressing the important problem of finding an economical and safe path from start to destination for [...] Read more.
A two-stage ship path planning method is proposed, based on the Rapid-exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm, which is composed of global path planning and local path planning, addressing the important problem of finding an economical and safe path from start to destination for ships under dynamic environment, especially in waters with multiple obstacles and multiple target ships. The global path planning takes into consideration the ship draft and Under Keel Clearance to find navigable water using RRT, and reduces the path length and waypoints based on elliptic sampling and smoothing. In the local path planning, a dynamic collision risk detection model is constructed by introducing the Quaternion Ship Domain under a dynamic environment, and the restrictions of ship manoeuvrability and COLREGs are also involved. The simulation results show that the proposed model can find a satisfactory path within a few iterations, and keep clear of both static obstacles and dynamic ships. The research can be used to make and verify planned ship routes before sailing and to guide officers to make decisions regarding collision avoidance. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 1481 KiB  
Review
Review of the Decision Support Methods Used in Optimizing Ship Hulls towards Improving Energy Efficiency
by Mina Tadros, Manuel Ventura and C. Guedes Soares
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040835 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3103
Abstract
This paper presents a review of the different methods and techniques used to optimize ship hulls over the last six years (2017–2022). This review shows the different percentages of reduction in ship resistance, and thus in the fuel consumption, to improve ships’ energy [...] Read more.
This paper presents a review of the different methods and techniques used to optimize ship hulls over the last six years (2017–2022). This review shows the different percentages of reduction in ship resistance, and thus in the fuel consumption, to improve ships’ energy efficiency, towards achieving the goal of maritime decarbonization. Operational research and machine learning are the common decision support methods and techniques used to find the optimal solution. This paper covers four research areas to improve ship hulls, including hull form, hull structure, hull cleaning and hull lubrication. In each area of research, several computer programs are used, depending on the study’s complexity and objective. It has been found that no specific method is considered the optimum, while the combination of several methods can achieve more accurate results. Most of the research work is focused on the concept stage of ship design, while research on operational conditions has recently taken place, achieving an improvement in energy efficiency. The finding of this study contributes to mapping the scientific knowledge of each technology used in ship hulls, identifying relevant topic areas, and recognizing research gaps and opportunities. It also helps to present holistic approaches in future research, supporting more realistic solutions towards sustainability. Full article
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