Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity

A special issue of Journal of Intelligence (ISSN 2079-3200).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 48084

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Interests: creativity; individual differences; creative cognition; semantic memory; cognitive neuroscience

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Interests: cognitive neuroscience; creativity; affective disorders
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Creativity is a distinct hallmark of human capacity that serves us adaptation, survival, and development. Cognitive neuroscience studies of creativity have flourished over the past two decades, providing us with a basic understanding of where and how creativity occurs in the brain; However, there is insufficient research focusing on how to enhance individual creativity via cognitive and non-cognitive intervention. Stimulating creativity should depend upon enough understanding of the nature of creativity including its definition, components, development, cognitive characteristics and processes, and neural mechanism. Hence, the aim of this Special Issue is to gather findings pertaining to the behavioral and neuroscience research of creativity, with the intention of bringing more insights and potential directions about how to stimulate creativity in training and teaching. We are looking to receive empirical research and review submissions, including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Brain activation patterns during creative thinking
  • Structural and functional brain of individual differences in creativity
  • Enhancing creativity with neuromodulation and training
  • Brain development and creativity
  • Artistic creativity and brain
  • Hyperscanning neuroimaging and team creativity
  • Creativity and cognitive ability (e.g., attention, working memory, metacognition)
  • Creativity and non-cognitive abilities/skills
  • Environmental factors on creativity

Dr. Qunlin Chen
Prof. Dr. Jiang Qiu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • creativity
  • creative cognition, neural basis
  • enhancing creativity
  • creative education
  • neuromodulation

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 817 KiB  
Article
Thinking Style Moderates the Impact of the Classroom Environment on Language Creativity
by Suqin Lin, Wenjin Duan, Yifan Wang and Haijun Duan
J. Intell. 2024, 12(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12010005 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1932
Abstract
The classroom environment significantly affects the development of creativity. This study examined the impact of the classroom environment on students’ creativity and the moderating role of thinking styles in this relationship. For this study, we recruited 451 students from six secondary schools. Data [...] Read more.
The classroom environment significantly affects the development of creativity. This study examined the impact of the classroom environment on students’ creativity and the moderating role of thinking styles in this relationship. For this study, we recruited 451 students from six secondary schools. Data were collected using the Chinese Language Creativity Test, Classroom Environment Inventory, and Thinking Styles Inventory. Hierarchical regression analysis examined the moderating effect of thinking styles on the relationship between the classroom environment and creativity. The results showed that peer relationships in the classroom environment negatively influence students’ fluency and originality in creativity. At the same time, teachers’ evaluation and teaching methods positively affect the fluency of creativity. Thinking styles moderated the impact of the classroom environment on language creativity. This study identified four different moderating effects: the thinking styles matching the classroom environment can enhance language creativity, whereas the mismatched ones hinder it. However, matching would limit language creativity for individuals with creative thinking styles (e.g., legislative and anarchic thinking styles), while a mismatch can boost creative performance. The findings help educators understand students’ creativity with different thinking styles in various classroom environments and provide individualized and effective strategies for optimizing educational environments and enhancing language creativity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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22 pages, 974 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Cognitive Factors on Creativity Quality in Design: Identification from Performances in Recall, Association and Combination
by Yuan Yin, Haoyu Zuo and Peter Childs
J. Intell. 2023, 11(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11020039 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2272
Abstract
The reason why people have different creativity quality levels may depend on their different performances relating to other cognitive factors that are important for creativity. This study was designed to identify the performance of three cognitive factors (recall, association, and combination) that a [...] Read more.
The reason why people have different creativity quality levels may depend on their different performances relating to other cognitive factors that are important for creativity. This study was designed to identify the performance of three cognitive factors (recall, association, and combination) that a designer may use in a creative process and then identify how the differing performance for these cognitive factors will affect creativity quality levels. Seventy-one participants were recruited to undertake a design task and complete a semi-structured interview. The results indicate that, in a creative design process, similar performances in recall, association, and combination can result in differences in creativity quality level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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14 pages, 985 KiB  
Article
Influence of Analytic Processing on Divergent and Convergent Thinking Tasks: The Role of Rational and Experiential Thinking Styles
by Jianati Hongdizi, Yu-Xin Cui, Xiang Zhou and Hong-Kun Zhai
J. Intell. 2023, 11(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11020023 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3302
Abstract
Scientific interest in the relationship between analytic processing and creativity has increased in recent years. However, there is conflicting evidence on whether analytic processing reduces or enhances creativity. We hypothesize that differences in creativity measurement paradigms (divergent or convergent thinking tasks) and the [...] Read more.
Scientific interest in the relationship between analytic processing and creativity has increased in recent years. However, there is conflicting evidence on whether analytic processing reduces or enhances creativity. We hypothesize that differences in creativity measurement paradigms (divergent or convergent thinking tasks) and the research orientation of analytic processing (dispositional or situational) may explain the conflicting findings. The present study aims to investigate how priming analytic processing affects individuals’ performance on divergent and convergent thinking tasks and the moderating role of thinking styles. In Study 1 (N = 155), participants were assigned to either an analytic processing group or a control group and performed convergent thinking (Remote Associates Task) and divergent thinking (Alternative Uses Test) tasks after priming. In Study 2 (N = 119), we conducted a priming paradigm of analytic processing that differed from Study 1, and a personal experiential-rational thinking style was introduced as a moderator. Results showed that priming analytic processing promoted convergent thinking performance but decreased fluency and flexibility scores on the divergent thinking task (Study 1). Notably, the effect of priming analytic processing on divergent thinking performance was significant only for participants with higher levels of rational thinking style (Study 2). These results suggest that thinking styles and dimensions of creativity should be considered in the relationship between analytic processing and creativity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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19 pages, 949 KiB  
Article
Emotional Intelligence and Creative Self-Efficacy among Gifted Children: Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem and Moderating Effect of Gender
by Xiaoyu Chen and Li Cheng
J. Intell. 2023, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11010017 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4245
Abstract
Creative self-efficacy is a type of individual creative self-belief, which is an important predictor of creative activities and achievements. For gifted children who have high creative potential, the influencing factors of their creative self-efficacy need to be further explored. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Creative self-efficacy is a type of individual creative self-belief, which is an important predictor of creative activities and achievements. For gifted children who have high creative potential, the influencing factors of their creative self-efficacy need to be further explored. This study aimed to explore the relationship between gender, emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and creative self-efficacy in gifted children, with special attention on the mediating role of self-esteem and the moderating role of gender in the relationship between emotional intelligence and creative self-efficacy. Participants in this study included 226 gifted students aged 10–13 (135 boys and 91 girls) from experimental classrooms designed for gifted students in North China. The creative self-efficacy scale (CSE), the emotional intelligence scale (EIS), and the self-esteem scale (SES) were tested. The statistical results indicate that: (1) emotional intelligence significantly positively predicted creative self-efficacy in gifted children; (2) self-esteem partially mediated the link between emotional intelligence and creative self-efficacy; and (3) gender acted as a moderator for the mediation model, in which self-esteem played a complete mediating role in gifted boys, while the mediating role of self-esteem in gifted girls was not significant. The results of this study reveal the influential mechanism of creative self-efficacy in gifted children of different genders and may provide further implications for promoting the creative potential of gifted children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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16 pages, 1870 KiB  
Article
A Positive Association between Working Memory Capacity and Human Creativity: A Meta-Analytic Evidence
by Zheng Gong, Kuan Miao, Xuerong Liu, Mengjie Luo, Yang Yu and Zhiyi Chen
J. Intell. 2023, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11010015 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2812
Abstract
Creativity serves as a fountain for social and scientific development. As one of the most crucial human capabilities, creativity has been believed to be supported by the core component of higher cognitive functions—working memory capacity (WMC). However, the evidence supporting the association between [...] Read more.
Creativity serves as a fountain for social and scientific development. As one of the most crucial human capabilities, creativity has been believed to be supported by the core component of higher cognitive functions—working memory capacity (WMC). However, the evidence supporting the association between WMC and creativity remains contradictory. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis using random-effects models to investigate the linear association between WMC and creativity by pooling the individual effect size from the previous literature. Further, a subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether such association is specific for different WMC categories (i.e., verbal WMC, visual–spatial WMC and dual-task WMC). The main meta-analytic results showed a significantly positive association between WMC and creativity (r = .083, 95% CI: .050–.115, p < .001, n = 3104, k = 28). The subgroup analysis demonstrated consistent results by showing a significantly positive association between them, irrespective of WMC category. We also found that cultural environments could moderate this association, and we identified a strong correlation in participants from an Asian cultural context. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence to clarify the positive association between WMC and creativity, and implies that the Asian cultural context may boost such an association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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16 pages, 6356 KiB  
Article
The Neural Mechanisms of the Effect of Spontaneous Insight on Re-Solution: An ERP Study
by Jie Chen, Ke Zhang, Xiumin Du, Junmiao Pan and Jing Luo
J. Intell. 2023, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11010010 - 3 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1463
Abstract
The insight memory advantage refers to the situation in which memory performance could be improved by solving a problem with an Aha experience. In re-solution tests and recognition tests, studies demonstrate an insight memory advantage by spontaneous insight or induced insight. For the [...] Read more.
The insight memory advantage refers to the situation in which memory performance could be improved by solving a problem with an Aha experience. In re-solution tests and recognition tests, studies demonstrate an insight memory advantage by spontaneous insight or induced insight. For the re-solution test, the neural mechanisms of the effect of induced insight were studied by the fMRI technique. However, the neural mechanisms of the effect of insight on re-solution in the temporal dimension were not known. The neural mechanisms of the effect of spontaneous insight on re-solution were not known. In the present study, we use the compound remote-associated (CRA) task to reveal the neural mechanisms of the effect of spontaneous insight on re-solution by the event-related potentials (ERPs) technique. The 25 participants were asked to solve a series of Chinese verbal CRA tasks and then perform a re-solution test 1 day later. Our results indicated that the solution with the Aha experience evoked a larger N400 in the early solution phase and a more negative wave in the late solution phase than the solution with no Aha experience. In the re-solution phase, items with an Aha during the solution phase were re-solved better with higher Aha rates than items with no Aha. In the re-solution phase, compared with items with no Aha, items with an Aha during the solution phase evoked a larger positive ERP in the 250 to 350 ms time window in the early phase, and a more negative deflection before the response (−900 to −800 ms) in the later phase. In one word, spontaneous insight during the solution phase could promote re-solution and elicit ERP deflection in the re-solution phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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15 pages, 840 KiB  
Article
The Relationships of Creative Coping and College Students’ Achievement Emotions and Academic Stress: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital
by Chenxin Xu and Qing Wang
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040126 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3522
Abstract
Creative coping is the use of creativity as a positive strategy when facing stress. The existing empirical investigation of creative coping is scarce, particularly in the field of educational psychology. The present study aims to explore the relationships of college students’ creative coping [...] Read more.
Creative coping is the use of creativity as a positive strategy when facing stress. The existing empirical investigation of creative coping is scarce, particularly in the field of educational psychology. The present study aims to explore the relationships of college students’ creative coping and their achievement emotions and academic stress as well as the underlying mechanism. The sample included 780 Chinese college students. The Creative Coping Scale, Positive Psychological Capital Questionnaire, Learning Stress Inventory for College Students, and the short version of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire were used. Statistical results showed that creative coping was positively related with students’ positive achievement emotions and negatively related with negative achievement emotions, but insignificantly with academic stress. Moreover, psychological capital played a mediating role in the relationship between creative coping and achievement emotions and in the relationship between creative coping and academic stress with a suppression effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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10 pages, 649 KiB  
Article
Darkness within: The Internal Mechanism between Dark Triad and Malevolent Creativity
by Zhenni Gao, Xinuo Qiao, Xiaobo Xu and Ning Hao
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040119 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3527
Abstract
The Dark Triad has been found to be associated with malevolent creativity (MC) in terms of trait level, and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Based on the cognitive–affective processing system theory and the existing studies, the current study aimed to explore the internal [...] Read more.
The Dark Triad has been found to be associated with malevolent creativity (MC) in terms of trait level, and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Based on the cognitive–affective processing system theory and the existing studies, the current study aimed to explore the internal mechanism between the Dark Triad and MC behavioral tendencies/performance. The results revealed that the Dark Triad is positively related to MC behavioral tendencies through trait aggression and general creativity behavioral tendencies. Regarding MC performance, the Dark Triad is positively related to the originality of malevolent ideas through MC behavioral tendencies, but this effect is only significant at low-to-medium levels of moral identity. In line with moral identity theory, a higher moral identity may prevent individuals from acting immorally due to their desire to maintain their moral image, which may further suppress malevolent idea generation. Therefore, cultivating moral identity may be an effective approach to weaken the Dark Triad–MC performance association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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18 pages, 1347 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Domain-Specific Creativity: The Mediating Role of Resilience and the Moderating Effects of Gratitude
by Dandan Tong, Hanxiao Kang, Minghui Li, Junyi Yang, Peng Lu and Xiaochun Xie
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040115 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3268
Abstract
Creativity incorporates both domain-general and domain-specific ideas. While previous studies have explored the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on creativity in both domains, a consensus has not been reached, and the mechanism is currently unclear. In the present study, we examined which aspect [...] Read more.
Creativity incorporates both domain-general and domain-specific ideas. While previous studies have explored the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on creativity in both domains, a consensus has not been reached, and the mechanism is currently unclear. In the present study, we examined which aspect of creativity EI was most strongly associated with in a group of undergraduates. Moreover, we explored the moderated mediation effect between EI and domain-specific creativity. In Study 1, 532 undergraduates completed questionnaires measuring EI, convergent and divergent creative thinking, and creative achievement. The results revealed that the most reliable positive correlations were between EI and domain-specific creativity. In Study 2, 926 undergraduates completed measurements of EI, resilience, gratitude, and creative achievement. The results revealed that resilience mediates the relationship between EI and creative achievement. Furthermore, gratitude moderated the indirect effect of EI on creative achievement through resilience. The indirect effect of EI on creative achievement was stronger for high-gratitude individuals than for low-gratitude individuals. This orientation and other results are discussed. Overall, our findings add further nuance to the relationship between EI and creativity in different domains. This study serves as a basis for other contributions aligned with these concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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15 pages, 1725 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Infectious Disease Threat on Malevolent Creativity
by Mingzhe Zhao, Ke Zhang and Xiumin Du
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040111 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
The behavioral immune system (BIS), which evolved to protect humans from infectious disease threats, prompts people to be sensitive to disease-connoting cues. A common denominator of many disease-connoting cues is benign physical abnormalities, such as birthmarks and obesity. Previous studies found that among [...] Read more.
The behavioral immune system (BIS), which evolved to protect humans from infectious disease threats, prompts people to be sensitive to disease-connoting cues. A common denominator of many disease-connoting cues is benign physical abnormalities, such as birthmarks and obesity. Previous studies found that among people whose BIS was activated (e.g., people who were exposed to situational disease prime or chronically concerned about disease threat), disease-connoting cues could make people feel threatened by infectious disease and induce their malevolence. Malevolence is a necessary feature of malevolent creativity (MC), which is defined as creativity that deliberately leads to harmful or immoral results. According to the motivated focus account of creativity, a threat could promote creativity when creativity is relevant to the threat. Thus, infectious disease threats might increase malevolent creativity. However, whether infectious disease threats could influence MC is unknown. Therefore, the current study aims to explore the effect of infectious disease threat on MC by two disease-connoting cues (birthmark, obesity). In Study 1 (n = 174), a 2 (threat prime: infectious disease, natural disaster) × 2 (disease-connoting cue: birthmarked face, normal face) between-subjects design was used. Participants were asked to complete a malevolent creativity task (MCT). In Study 2 (n = 131), we used a perceived vulnerability to disease scale (PVD) to assess people’s dispositional tendencies of concerns about disease and selected high as well as low PVD participants. A 2 (PVD: high, low) × 2 (disease-connoting cue: obese, average-weight) between-subjects design was used. Participants were asked to complete the negotiation task to assess their MC. The results of Study 1 showed that, compared with participants in the normal face condition, participants in the birthmarked face condition showed higher MC fluency and total MC when they were exposed to situational disease prime. Compared with the natural disaster prime group, the infectious disease prime group showed higher MC fluency and total MC when they were provoked by a birthmark person. The results of Study 2 showed that, compared with the average-weight condition, the obese condition led to higher MC fluency and originality among high PVD participants. Compared with low PVD participants, high PVD participants showed higher MC fluency and originality when they negotiated with an obese person. Our studies suggest that among people whose BIS is situationally or chronically activated, birthmarks and obesity could increase MC, and people’s malevolent creativity might be induced by disease-connoting cues during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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17 pages, 1238 KiB  
Article
Where Does Eureka Come From? The Effect of Unreportable Hints on the Phenomenology of Insight
by Artur Ammalainen and Nadezhda Moroshkina
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040110 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
Insight interests researchers given its special cognitive mechanisms and phenomenology (an Aha! experience or Eureka moment). There is a considerable amount of research on the effect of hints on performance in insight problem solving. However, only a few studies address the effect of [...] Read more.
Insight interests researchers given its special cognitive mechanisms and phenomenology (an Aha! experience or Eureka moment). There is a considerable amount of research on the effect of hints on performance in insight problem solving. However, only a few studies address the effect of hints on the subjective experiences of solvers, and the picture their results provide is unclear. We analyze the effect of unreportable true and false hints on different dimensions of the Aha! experience (subjective suddenness, Aha! experience as an effect, and certainty). Using the processing fluency framework, we predict that true hints lead to more insights and stronger Aha! experience and certainty, while false hints lead to the opposite results due to the controlled inhibition of the inappropriate representation. The results showed that false hints decreased the chance of finding a correct solution. The true-hint condition did not lead to more correct solutions but made solutions feel sudden more often than the control condition. The ratings of the Aha! experience and certainty were higher for solutions obtained after true hints than after false hints. We obtained partial support for the effect of unreportable hints on “Eureka!” moments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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14 pages, 358 KiB  
Article
Different Facets of Creativity in Employees Covering Non-Clinical to Clinical Manifestations of Burnout
by Elisabeth M. Weiss, Markus Canazei, Corinna M. Perchtold-Stefan, Christian Rominger, Ilona Papousek and Andreas Fink
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040105 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Empirical studies exploring the relationship between burnout and creativity are very rare. In the present study, a well-defined group of clinical burnout patients (n = 75) and two groups of working people showing high (n = 39) vs. low burnout symptoms (n = [...] Read more.
Empirical studies exploring the relationship between burnout and creativity are very rare. In the present study, a well-defined group of clinical burnout patients (n = 75) and two groups of working people showing high (n = 39) vs. low burnout symptoms (n = 62) were investigated. Participants completed various creativity tests including self-assessed facets of creativity, as well as psychometric measures of figural and verbal creativity. Furthermore, we examined individual and clinical characteristics that may influence creativity in burnout patients, such as depression, sleep quality, daytime fatigue, and cognitive measures (i.e., selective attention and executive control). The clinical burnout group scored lowest in all creativity tasks and cognitive tests. Additionally, they showed lower nighttime sleep quality and higher depression scores. However, creativity scores in both groups of working people were largely comparable, indicating that only more severe (i.e., clinical) manifestations of burnout are linked to creativity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
24 pages, 5547 KiB  
Article
WikiLink: An Encyclopedia-Based Semantic Network for Design Creativity
by Haoyu Zuo, Qianzhi Jing, Tianqi Song, Lingyun Sun, Peter Childs and Liuqing Chen
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040103 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Data-driven design is a process to reuse data sources and provide valuable information to provoke creative ideas in the stages of design. However, existing semantic networks for design creativity are built on data sources restricted to technological and scientific information. Existing studies build [...] Read more.
Data-driven design is a process to reuse data sources and provide valuable information to provoke creative ideas in the stages of design. However, existing semantic networks for design creativity are built on data sources restricted to technological and scientific information. Existing studies build the edges of a semantic network on statistical or semantic relationships, which are less likely to make full use of the benefits from both types of relationships and discover implicit knowledge for design creativity. Therefore, to overcome the gaps, we constructed WikiLink, a semantic network based on Wikipedia, which is an integrated source of general knowledge and specific knowledge, with broad coverage of disciplines. The weight in WikiLink fuses both the statistic and semantic weights between concepts instead of simply one type of weight, and four algorithms are developed for inspiring new ideas. Evaluation experiments are undertaken, and the results show that the network is characterised by high coverage of terms, relationships and disciplines, which demonstrates and supports the network’s effectiveness and usefulness. A demonstration and case study results indicate that WikiLink can serve as an idea generation tool for creativity in conceptual design. The source code of WikiLink and the backend data are provided open-source for more users to explore and develop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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18 pages, 988 KiB  
Article
Surprise! Why Insightful Solution Is Pleasurable
by Anna Savinova and Sergei Korovkin
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040098 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Insight problems—as a type of ill-defined problems—are often solved without an articulate plan, and finding their solution is accompanied by the Aha! experience (positive feeling from suddenly finding a solution). However, the solution of such problems can also be guided, for example, by [...] Read more.
Insight problems—as a type of ill-defined problems—are often solved without an articulate plan, and finding their solution is accompanied by the Aha! experience (positive feeling from suddenly finding a solution). However, the solution of such problems can also be guided, for example, by expectations in terms of criteria for achieving the goal. We hypothesize that adjusting the expectation accuracy based on the reward prediction error (discrepancy between the reward and its prediction) affects the strength of affective components of the Aha! experience (pleasure and surprise), allowing to learn how to solve similar problems. We manipulated expectation accuracy by varying the similarity in problem solution principle and structure in a short learning set. Each set was followed by a critical problem where both the structure and solution principle were changed (except for control set). Subjective feelings, solution time, and expectation were measured after each problem. The results revealed that problems with similarities become more expected at the end of the set and their solution time is decreased. However, the critical problem featured a rapid increase in pleasure and surprise and decrease in expectedness only in the condition where both the solution principle and structure were expected, suggesting that problem structure is a key feature determining expectedness in insight problem solving. The Aha! experience is not an epiphenomenon; it plays a role in learning of problem solving through adjusting expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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16 pages, 863 KiB  
Article
Childhood Trauma and Malevolent Creativity in Chinese College Students: Moderated Mediation by Psychological Resilience and Aggression
by Wenfu Li, Linghui Zhang, Zhilei Qin, Jingting Chen and Chuanxin Liu
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040097 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2381
Abstract
Although a previous study has shown that childhood trauma influences malevolent creativity, aggression and psychological resilience have been linked with childhood trauma and creativity. However, little is known about the complex correlations among these factors in Chinese college students. The present study aimed [...] Read more.
Although a previous study has shown that childhood trauma influences malevolent creativity, aggression and psychological resilience have been linked with childhood trauma and creativity. However, little is known about the complex correlations among these factors in Chinese college students. The present study aimed to investigate the mediating role of aggression and the moderating role of psychological resilience between childhood trauma and malevolent creativity. A total of 389 undergraduates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The moderated mediation model was conducted to explore whether aggression mediated the correlation between childhood trauma and malevolent creativity and whether psychological resilience moderated the indirect role of childhood trauma. The results showed that childhood trauma positively correlated with aggression and malevolent creativity and was negatively associated with psychological resilience. Aggression partly mediated the association of childhood trauma with malevolent creativity. Resilience moderated the indirect effect of the mediation model, such that the indirect effect of childhood trauma on malevolent creativity through aggression increased as the level of resilience increased. The study indicated that childhood trauma exposure is associated with malevolent creativity behavior, and aggression mediated this association. The level of psychological resilience differentiates the indirect paths of childhood trauma on malevolent creativity. These results have important implications for preventing and containing expressions of malevolent creativity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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23 pages, 896 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Relationship between the Dynamic Behaviors of the Leader and Group Performance during Creativity
by Qingbai Zhao, Ying Li, Songqing Li, Zheng Liang, Shi Chen, Riman Ga, Quanlei Yu and Zhijin Zhou
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040087 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
The leader is considered to play key roles such as organization or management in promoting group creativity. Previous studies focused more on the psychological and behavioral characteristics rather than on the dynamic behaviors of leaders in group activity. In this study, two experiments [...] Read more.
The leader is considered to play key roles such as organization or management in promoting group creativity. Previous studies focused more on the psychological and behavioral characteristics rather than on the dynamic behaviors of leaders in group activity. In this study, two experiments were conducted to respectively explore the effects of emergent and elected leaders’ problem-solving related utterances and turn-taking in conversation on group creativity. The results of Experiment 1 showed that, for emergent leaders, none of the utterances about problem solving of leaders was different from that of followers and leaders’ utterances about retrospective summary were positively related to the appropriateness of group creativity; meanwhile, the frequency of turns of leaders was higher than that of followers and was positively related with the appropriateness of group creativity. The results of Experiment 2 showed that, for elected leaders, the utterances about problem analysis, strategy planning, control and reflection, and retrospective summary of leaders were more than that of followers and leaders’ utterances about viewpoint generation were positively related to both novelty and appropriateness, while the frequency of turns of leaders was neither different from followers nor related to the novelty and appropriateness. This study focused on the dynamic behaviors of leaders in interpersonal interaction and revealed the role of leaders in group creativity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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19 pages, 2808 KiB  
Article
The Effects of the Creator’s Situation on Creativity Evaluation: The Rater’s Cognitive Empathy and Affective Empathy Matter in Rating Creative Works
by Yilai Pei, Jiantao Han, Jingwen Zhao, Mengrong Liu and Weiguo Pang
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040075 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
Successful intelligence theory suggests that creativity is necessary for personal achievement outside of intelligence. Unlike intelligence, creativity can develop in a supportive environment. People should consider the situation of disadvantaged groups, which are characterized by low personal achievement and a bad growth environment [...] Read more.
Successful intelligence theory suggests that creativity is necessary for personal achievement outside of intelligence. Unlike intelligence, creativity can develop in a supportive environment. People should consider the situation of disadvantaged groups, which are characterized by low personal achievement and a bad growth environment in creativity evaluation from a caring perspective. This study focuses on the effect of the creator’s situation on creative evaluation and the role of the rater’s empathy (i.e., cognitive empathy and affective empathy) and sympathy in creative evaluation. Four pairs of creator’s situations (by age, physical state, family situation, and economic state) were designed to represent people with disadvantages or advantages. A between-subject design was used with 590 undergraduate students randomly assigned to eight sub-conditions. The participants were asked to assess three products in eight situations. The rater’s empathy and sympathy in creativity evaluation were explored in the overall disadvantage (N = 300) and advantage (N = 290) conditions. The results showed that the participants only provided significantly higher ratings to the creative product made by a child. Cognitive empathy only predicted a creative rating under disadvantaged conditions, and affective empathy negatively moderated this effect. Affective empathy only predicted a creative rating under advantage conditions, and cognitive empathy positively moderated this effect. Affective empathy only predicted a creative rating under advantage conditions, and cognitive empathy positively moderated this effect. The possible mechanisms of the effect and implications for the establishment of a supportive environment for creativity and creativity teaching practice were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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11 pages, 693 KiB  
Article
The Role of Metacognitive Strategy Monitoring and Control in the Relationship between Creative Mindsets and Divergent Thinking Performance
by Xiaoyu Jia, Tianwei Xu and Yuchi Zhang
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10020035 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3097
Abstract
Previous research has shown that creative mindsets influence creativity. Compared with people with a fixed creative mindset, those with a growth creative mindset performed better in creative tasks. The underlying mechanism, however, is not completely understood. The present study has extended previous works [...] Read more.
Previous research has shown that creative mindsets influence creativity. Compared with people with a fixed creative mindset, those with a growth creative mindset performed better in creative tasks. The underlying mechanism, however, is not completely understood. The present study has extended previous works to explore whether metacognitive strategy monitoring and control influence the relationship between creative mindsets and divergent thinking performance. The thinking aloud method was used to summarize four strategies in a divergent thinking task (an alternative uses task, AUT) in a pilot study: memory retrieval, splitting, property-based, and general use strategies. In the formal study, the creative mindsets scale, AUT, self-strategic utility judgment (i.e., an index of metacognitive strategy monitoring), and frequency of strategies usage (i.e., an index of metacognitive strategy control) were used to explore the relationships among creative mindsets, divergent thinking, and metacognitive strategy monitoring and control. The results indicated a positive correlation between a growth creative mindset and divergent thinking but a negative correlation between a fixed creative mindset and divergent thinking. More importantly, there were identified mediating roles of metacognitive monitoring and control of splitting and property-based strategies in the relationship between creative mindsets and divergent thinking. The findings reveal that creative mindsets are a critical predictor of divergent thinking, and metacognitive monitoring and control of abstract strategies mediate this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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