Working Group in Sports Medicine

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Medicine and Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 77295

Special Issue Editors

Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Department of Physical Education & Sport Sciences at Serres Aristotle, University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: injury biomechanics; isokinetics; electromyography; soccer biomechanics
Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, Section of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University Hospital Policlinico-San Marco, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Interests: knee; orthopaedics; traumatology; fractures; surgery; postoperative rehabilitation; musculoskeletal disorders; pediatric orthopedic
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Anatomy, Histology and Movement Sciences Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: anatomy; histology; kinesiology; musculoskeletal disorders; sports medicine; cartilage; osteoarthritis; physical activity; aging; nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, 00128 Rome, Italy
Interests: spine biomechanics; intervertebral disc; sport medicine; knee; tissue regeneration; mesenchymal stem cells
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Exercise Physiology, Training & Training Therapy Research Group, Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport & Health, University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: sports medicine; exercise science; cardiopulmonary exercise testing; human performance; performance diagnostics; training therapy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sports medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Although most sports teams have employed team physicians for many years, it is only since the late 20th century that sports medicine has emerged as a distinct field of health care.

This special issue is open to all professionals worldwide in the fields of sports medicine.  In our SI we will publish researches on various aspects of sports medicine and sports science, prevention, management, and rehabilitation of sports, exercise and physical activity-related injuries. Other fields of interest could be anatomy, biochemistry, biomechanics, performance analysis, physiology, psychology, sports medicine and health, as well as coaching and talent identification, kinanthropometry, posturometry and other interdisciplinary perspectives.

Prof. Dr. Eleftherios Kellis
Prof. Dr. Vito Pavone
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Musumeci
Dr. Gianluca Vadalà
Dr. Peter Hofmann
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical activity, health and exercise
  • physiology and nutrition
  • sports medicine and biomechanics sports performance
  • physiological characteristics and training monitoring for the elite athlete
  • training program for competitive capacity
  • sports equipment and performance and health
  • diets promoting increased sports performance and health
  • exercise prescription promoting health benefits
  • acute response to exercise training
  • adaptations to the long-term performance of exercise training
  • motor learning & control sports injury prevention & rehabilitation

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Effects of COVID-19 Syndemic on Sport Community
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010019 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
Nowadays, we live in a society crossed by the greatest public health crisis in over a century: the COVID-19 pandemic [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

11 pages, 1291 KiB  
Article
Modified Isoinertial-Based Ruffier Test in Healthy Individuals: A Feasibility Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020036 - 24 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Cardiorespiratory fitness is an essential indicator in sports science and sports medicine that can be assessed with several tests. The Ruffier test is a submaximal test valid to estimate maximum oxygen uptake; it consists of 30 squats in 45 s, which may be [...] Read more.
Cardiorespiratory fitness is an essential indicator in sports science and sports medicine that can be assessed with several tests. The Ruffier test is a submaximal test valid to estimate maximum oxygen uptake; it consists of 30 squats in 45 s, which may be challenging for inexperienced individuals. This study aims to verify the feasibility of a modified inertial-based version of the Ruffier test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness with 10 squats in 15 s. Both classic and isoinertial Ruffier tests were administered to thirty-five healthy young adults (20 men and 15 women), age 22.06 ± 2.13 years, BMI 23.87 ± 2.74. The two one-sided test confirmed the comparability of the isoinertial Ruffier test with its classic version within equivalence bounds of ±3.726. Furthermore, gender, age, body weight, the difference between peak heart rate after isoinertial squatting and resting heart rate, and the isoinertial Ruffier index are the coefficients of our best VO2max prediction model with an adjusted R2 of 0.937, sensitivity of 0.89, and specificity of 0.81. The study evidenced the feasibility of the isoinertial Ruffier test to measure cardiorespiratory fitness through a quick, safe, and short squat test easy to perform in fitness centers and primary care clinics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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11 pages, 1369 KiB  
Article
Blood-Transfusion Risk Factors after Intramedullary Nailing for Extracapsular Femoral Neck Fracture in Elderly Patients
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010027 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 40840
Abstract
Background: Extracapsular femoral neck fractures (eFNF) are the third most common type of fracture in traumatology. Intramedullary nailing (IMN) is one of the most frequently used ortho-pedic treatments for eFNF. Blood loss is one of the main complications of this treatment. This study [...] Read more.
Background: Extracapsular femoral neck fractures (eFNF) are the third most common type of fracture in traumatology. Intramedullary nailing (IMN) is one of the most frequently used ortho-pedic treatments for eFNF. Blood loss is one of the main complications of this treatment. This study aimed to identify and evaluate the perioperative risk factors that lead to blood transfusion in frail patients with eFNF who undergo IMN. Methods: From July 2020 to December 2020, 170 eFNF-affected patients who were treated with IMN were enrolled and divided into two groups according to blood transfusion: NBT (71 patients who did not need a blood transfusion), and BT (72 patients who needed blood transfusion). Gender, age, BMI, pre-operative hemoglobin levels, in-ternational normalized ratio (INR) level, number of blood units transfused, length of hospital stay, surgery duration, type of anesthesia, pre-operative ASA score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and mortality rate were assessed. Results: Cohorts differed only for pre-operatively Hb and surgery time (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients who have a lower preoperative Hb level and longer surgery time have a high blood-transfusion risk and should be closely followed peri-operatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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13 pages, 12204 KiB  
Article
The Issue of Gender Bias Represented in Authorship in the Fields of Exercise and Rehabilitation: A 5-Year Research in Indexed Journals
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010018 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Despite progress made in recent decades, gender bias is still present in scientific publication authorship. The underrepresentation of women and overrepresentation of men has already been reported in the medical fields but little is known in the fields of exercise sciences and rehabilitation. [...] Read more.
Despite progress made in recent decades, gender bias is still present in scientific publication authorship. The underrepresentation of women and overrepresentation of men has already been reported in the medical fields but little is known in the fields of exercise sciences and rehabilitation. This study examines trends in authorship by gender in this field in the last 5 years. All randomized controlled trials published in indexed journals from April 2017 to March 2022 through the widely inclusive Medline dataset using the MeSH term “exercise therapy” were collected, and the gender of the first and last authors was identified through names, pronouns and photographs. Year of publication, country of affiliation of the first author, and ranking of the journal were also collected. A chi-squared test for trends and logistic regression models were performed to analyze the odds of a woman being a first or last author. The analysis was performed on a total of 5259 articles. Overall, 47% had a woman as the first author and 33% had a woman as the last author, with a similar trend over five years. The trend in women’s authorship varied by geographical area, with the higher representation of women authors in Oceania (first: 53.1%; last: 38.8%), North-Central America (first: 45.3%; last: 37.2%), and Europe (first: 47.2%; last: 33.3%). The logistic regression models (p < 0.001) indicated that women have lower odds of being authors in prominent authorship positions in higher-ranked journals. In conclusion, over the last five years, in the field of exercise and rehabilitation research, women and men are almost equally represented as first authors, in contrast with other medical areas. However, gender bias, unfavoring women, still exists, especially in the last authorship position, regardless of geographical area and journal ranking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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11 pages, 3152 KiB  
Article
Morphometric MRI Evaluation of Three Autografts Used in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010014 - 23 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to quantify the morphometric characteristics of three tendon autografts (hamstring tendons (HT), quadriceps tendon (QT), and patellar tendon (PT)) used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. For this purpose, knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to quantify the morphometric characteristics of three tendon autografts (hamstring tendons (HT), quadriceps tendon (QT), and patellar tendon (PT)) used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. For this purpose, knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained in 100 consecutive patients (50 males and 50 females) with an acute, isolated ACL tear without any other knee pathology were used. The level of the physical activity of the participants was determined using the Tegner scale. Measurements of the tendons’ dimensions (PT and QT tendon length, perimeter, cross-sectional area (CSA), and maximum mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions) were performed perpendicular to their long axes. Higher values were recorded as regards the mean perimeter and CSA of the QT in comparison with the PT and the HT (perimeter QT: 96.52 ± 30.43 mm vs. PT: 63.87 ± 8.45 mm, HT: 28.01 ± 3.73 mm, F = 404.629, p < 0.001; CSA QT: 231.88 ± 92.82 mm2 vs. PT: 108.35 ± 28.98 mm2, HT: 26.42 ± 7.15 mm2, F = 342.415, p < 0.001). The length of the PT was shorter in comparison with the QT (53.1 ± 7.8 vs. 71.7 ± 8.6 mm, respectively, t = −11.243, p < 0.001). The three tendons showed significant differences in relation to sex, tendon type, and position as regards the perimeter, CSA, and the mediolateral dimensions but not for the maximum anteroposterior dimension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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14 pages, 1510 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Combined Intradialytic Exercise Training Program on Functional Capacity and Body Composition in Kidney Transplant Candidates
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010009 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to gradual muscle mass loss, which is strongly associated with lower functional capacity, which limits a patient’s daily activities. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of a 4-month intradialytic exercise program on the [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to gradual muscle mass loss, which is strongly associated with lower functional capacity, which limits a patient’s daily activities. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of a 4-month intradialytic exercise program on the functional capacity and body composition of kidney transplant (KT) candidates. Twenty-nine male patients on hemodialysis (HD) waiting for a kidney transplant, with a mean age of 53.86 ± 9.56 years old and BMI 27.11 ± 5.55 kg/m2, were randomly assigned into the following two groups: A (nA = 15 HD patients), who followed a 4-month intradialytic exercise program combining aerobic and resistance training, with a supervised, progressively increasing workload, and B (nB = 14 HD patients), who continued to receive usual care. At baseline and the end of the study, the KT candidates underwent a 6-min walking distance (6-MWD), and a 10-repetition sit-to-stand test (10-STS) to access physical function, a handgrip strength (HGS) test to evaluate the muscle strength of the non-fistula hand. Moreover, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed to assess body composition indices, such as body fat (BF), body fat mass index (BFMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), body cell mass (BCM), basal metabolic rate (BMR), extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW), total body water (TBW) and phase angle (PhA). Following the exercise program, group A showed favorable improvements in HGS (from 26.59 ± 9.23 to 28.61 ± 9.58 kg, p < 0.05) and 6-MWD (from 427.07 ± 7.66 to 468.16 ± 11.39 m, p < 0.05). Intergroup results from 6-MWD showed a statistically significant difference (Δp = 0.04), at the end of the study. Moreover, group A results from BIA revealed a significant increase of BMR by 2.4% (p < 0.05), ECW by 3.6% (p = 0.01), ICW by 3.8% (p = 0.01), TBW by 4.1% (p = 0.01), lean mass by 2.7% (p = 0.01), and PhA by 13.3% (p = 0.04), while a reduction in BF by 5.0% (p = 0.01) and BFMI by 6.6% (p = 0.03) was also noticed. At the end of the study, group A showed statistical differences in BMR (Δp = 0.01), BMR/BW (Δp = 0.01), dry lean (Δp = 0.01), and PhA (Δp = 0.03), compared to the group B. Linear regression analysis in group A after training showed positive correlations between HGS and both PhA (r = 0.52, p = 0.04) and FFMI (r = 0.64, p = 0.01), and a strong negative correlation between 6-MWT and BF (r = −0.61, p = 0.01). In conclusion, a 4-month intradialytic exercise program can enhance body composition and some physical parameters in HD patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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16 pages, 2824 KiB  
Article
Shaping Exploration: How Does the Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Helps Patients Finding a New Movement Solution
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010004 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Despite the relative success of constraint-induced movement therapy in the recovery of injury-/trauma-related populations, the mechanisms by which it promotes its results are still unknown. From a dynamical systems approach, we investigated whether the induced exploratory patterns within and between trials during an [...] Read more.
Despite the relative success of constraint-induced movement therapy in the recovery of injury-/trauma-related populations, the mechanisms by which it promotes its results are still unknown. From a dynamical systems approach, we investigated whether the induced exploratory patterns within and between trials during an exercise in Shaping (the therapy’s practice) could shed light on this process. We analyzed data from four chronic spinal-cord injury patients during a task of placing and removing their feet from a step. We assessed the within and between trial dynamics through recurrent quantification analyses and task-space analyses, respectively. From our results, individuals found movement patterns directed to modulate foot height (to accomplish the task). Additionally, when the task was manipulated (increasing step height), individuals increased coupling and coupling variability in the ankle, hip, and knee over trials. This pattern of findings is in consonance with the idea of Shaping inducing exploration of different movements. Such exploration might be an important factor affording the positive changes observed in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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9 pages, 1016 KiB  
Article
Acute Effects of Kinesio Taping on Functional Performance in Healthy Soccer Players: A Randomized, Controlled Crossover Trial
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010002 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of the Kinesio tape (KT) application on functional performance in healthy athletes. In this randomized, controlled crossover trial, a total of sixteen healthy soccer players (male = 14; age = 23.28 ± 3.13 years old) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of the Kinesio tape (KT) application on functional performance in healthy athletes. In this randomized, controlled crossover trial, a total of sixteen healthy soccer players (male = 14; age = 23.28 ± 3.13 years old) were assigned randomly into either KT over quadriceps, KT over hamstring, KT over quadriceps plus hamstring, or no intervention control condition. Four conditions were applied in a crossover design through three consecutive test sessions for each condition with a washout period of 2 days between the trials. Afterwards, all participants performed a 5-min warm-up routine and four sets of 30-s static stretching exercises for the hamstring and gluteal muscles for three consecutive treatment sessions. The running, jump, and flexibility tests were used to assess the functional performance of healthy athletes. A total of sixteen participants completed the study. No significant differences in the jump, flexibility, and running tests among the conditions were reported (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that KT application has no acute effects in improving functional performance in healthy athletes. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to verify our results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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9 pages, 631 KiB  
Article
Examining the Effects of Mirror Therapy on Psychological Readiness and Perception of Pain in ACL-Injured Female Football Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040113 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Virtual reality-guided imagery (VRGI) and mirror therapy (MT) have been used in isolation to treat patients suffering from different injuries. However, no attempts have been made to understand the effects of combined VRGI and MT added to conventional physical therapy, and no information [...] Read more.
Virtual reality-guided imagery (VRGI) and mirror therapy (MT) have been used in isolation to treat patients suffering from different injuries. However, no attempts have been made to understand the effects of combined VRGI and MT added to conventional physical therapy, and no information exists regarding perceptual responses to these rehabilitation strategies in female football players. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effect of MT added to conventional rehabilitation on psychological readiness and perception of pain in ACL-injured female football players. Thirty ACL-injured female football players competing in the 2nd and 3rd Italian tier who underwent an ACL rehabilitation program from the same clinic participated in this study. Players were randomly distributed in an MT group (n = 15) and a CON group (n = 15). All participants reported their perception of pain on a VAS before and after the interventions and their psychological readiness to return to sport after ACL injury and reconstruction surgery on the ACL-RSI scale after the intervention. An independent-sample t-test was performed to assess between-group differences in post-intervention ACL-RSI, and a further independent-sample t-test to assume non-significant differences between VAS values before the intervention. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the null hypothesis of no different change in VAS over time between groups. After the intervention, the MT group perceived largely greater psychological readiness (p < 0.01). MT and CON groups experienced a large reduction in VAS after the intervention (p < 0.001). However, a small time × group interaction was observed (p = 0.023). MT reported a greater perception of the psychological readiness of the soccer players and a lower perception of pain than those who performed conventional therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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13 pages, 1210 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Somatosensory and Motor Processing Time in Retired Athletes with a History of Repeated Head Trauma
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040109 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Measurement of the adverse outcomes of repeated head trauma in athletes is often achieved using tests where the comparator is ‘accuracy’. While it is expected that ex-athletes would perform worse than controls, previous studies have shown inconsistent results. Here we have attempted to [...] Read more.
Measurement of the adverse outcomes of repeated head trauma in athletes is often achieved using tests where the comparator is ‘accuracy’. While it is expected that ex-athletes would perform worse than controls, previous studies have shown inconsistent results. Here we have attempted to address these inconsistencies from a different perspective by quantifying not only accuracy, but also motor response times. Age-matched control subjects who have never experienced head trauma (n = 20; 41.8 ± 14.4 years) where compared to two cohorts of retired contact sport athletes with a history of head trauma/concussions; one with self-reported concerns (n = 36; 45.4 ± 12.6 years), and another with no ongoing concerns (n = 19; 43.1 ± 13.5 years). Participants performed cognitive (Cogstate) and somatosensory (Cortical Metrics) testing with accuracy and motor times recorded. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) investigated corticospinal conduction and excitability. Results showed that there was little difference between groups in accuracy scores. Conversely, motor times in all but one test revealed that ex-athletes with self-reported concerns were significantly slower compared to other groups (p ranges 0.031 to <0.001). TMS latency showed significantly increased time (p = 0.008) in the group with ongoing concerns. These findings suggest that incorporating motor times is more informative than considering accuracy scores alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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8 pages, 513 KiB  
Article
Dead Bodybuilders Speaking from the Heart: An Analysis of Autopsy Reports of Bodybuilders That Died Prematurely
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040105 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 6825
Abstract
This study analyzed publicly available autopsy reports of male bodybuilders under the age of 50 who reportedly died from cardiovascular-related events. A general Google search with the terms “dead bodybuilders” was performed on 10 February 2022. Six reports were available for review and [...] Read more.
This study analyzed publicly available autopsy reports of male bodybuilders under the age of 50 who reportedly died from cardiovascular-related events. A general Google search with the terms “dead bodybuilders” was performed on 10 February 2022. Six reports were available for review and analysis. Bodybuilders had the following means: age (±SD) = 36 ± 7.1 years; height 1.82 ± 0.02 m; weight = 103.8 ± 5.3 kg; weight of heart = 575 ± 134.4 g; and left ventricular myocardium thickness (n = 3) = 16.3 ± 3.5 mm. The bodybuilders analyzed had a mean heart weight that is 73.7% heavier than the reference man (575 g vs. 332 g). Similarly, 100% of the autopsies reported left ventricular myocardium thickness of 16.3 ± 3.5 mm; this is 125% thicker than normative data for men. While abuse of AASs for prolonged periods of time may contribute to some of the cardiac abnormalities present in these bodybuilders, it should be noted that cardiac hypertrophy, including left ventricular hypertrophy, has also been reported in drug-free strength athletes. Each autopsy report included cardiovascular abnormalities within the cause of death. Association does not mean causation, but nonetheless bodybuilders should be aware of potential contributing cardiovascular risks with AAS abuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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4 pages, 190 KiB  
Communication
Assessment of Vaccination Status in Professional Football Players in Low Categories in Greece
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040073 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Background: There are limited data on the vaccination practices of footballers in low professional categories in Greece and Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the vaccination practices followed by the medical staff of the low professional football categories in Central [...] Read more.
Background: There are limited data on the vaccination practices of footballers in low professional categories in Greece and Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the vaccination practices followed by the medical staff of the low professional football categories in Central Greece. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and included questions on the vaccination practices of football players. The participants were chief medical officers of the fifteen low-category football teams in Central Greece. Overall, 10 out of 15 chief medical officers participated (response rate: 67%). Results: All participants recommended only the tetanus monovalent vaccine in cases with deep trauma of athletes. Influenza, pneumococcal vaccine, and Hepatitis A and B vaccines were not recommended by the medical officers. This was also the case for measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine and meningococcal vaccine with strains A, C, Y, W. Participants reported the lack of specific guidelines for vaccination in professional footballers. Conclusions: The recent study showed poor vaccination practices in low categories of professional football teams in Central Greece. The qualitative view of the respondents revealed the importance of the absence of guidelines on vaccination of football players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
8 pages, 597 KiB  
Article
Integrated Sports Medicine: A First Investigation of Heart Performance in Opera Singers
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7020036 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Introduction: Opera singers are continuously subjected to cardiopulmonary exercise. The impact on cardiac performance has not been studied. Our aim was to verify the impact of singing on heart performance, particularly by the evaluation of ECG and deformation parameters as strain, rotation and [...] Read more.
Introduction: Opera singers are continuously subjected to cardiopulmonary exercise. The impact on cardiac performance has not been studied. Our aim was to verify the impact of singing on heart performance, particularly by the evaluation of ECG and deformation parameters as strain, rotation and twist. Methods: A population of 17 OS (opera singers) underwent a 12-lead ECG and 2D echocardiographic evaluation. A post-processing analysis of the images to obtain the deformation parameters was included. The data expressed as mean as SD were compared to a group of 15 high-level athletes (A). Results: In both groups, the ECG parameters, 2D standard systodiastolic parameters and pulmonary pressure were normal, and in the OS group—LVDd: 47 ± 2.75 mm, LVSd: 31 ± 3.38 mm, E/A: 1.08 ± 0.23, RV: 27.63 ± 3.38 mm; in the A group—LVDd: 51 ± 1.50 mm, LVSd: 32 ± 2.50 mm, E/A: 2.37 ± 0.73, RV: 25.00 ± 3.00 mm. Indexed LV mass was significantly greater in athletes, while ejection fraction (EF) results were higher in OS. Deformation parameters did not differ among the two groups, with the exclusion of GLS expressing a major value in athletes. Rotational parameters resulted in the OS group similar to the athletes. Conclusions: OS show myocardial performance as high as the athletes. The data obtained suggest a positive impact of regular training as an opera singer. Deformation parameters highlight the fitness status in this group with a specific remodeling in RV in the presence of normal PP. Classic music singing appears to have a training effect on the heart. Further studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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16 pages, 24331 KiB  
Article
Intraoperative Load Sensing in Total Knee Arthroplasty Leads to a Functional but Not Clinical Difference: A Comparative, Gait Analysis Evaluation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010023 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2322
Abstract
Introduction: Although Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful procedure, a significant number of patients are still unsatisfied, reporting instability at the mid-flexion range (Mid-Flexion Instability-MFI). To avoid this complication, many innovations, including load sensors (LS), have been introduced. The intraoperative use of [...] Read more.
Introduction: Although Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful procedure, a significant number of patients are still unsatisfied, reporting instability at the mid-flexion range (Mid-Flexion Instability-MFI). To avoid this complication, many innovations, including load sensors (LS), have been introduced. The intraoperative use of LS may facilitate the balance of the knee during the entire range of motion to avoid MFI postoperatively. The objective of this study was to perform a Gait Analysis (GA) evaluation of a series of patients who underwent primary TKA using a single LS technology. Methods: The authors matched and compared two groups of patients treated with the same posterior stabilized TKA design. In Group A, 10 knees were intraoperatively balanced with LS technology, while 10 knees (Group B) underwent standard TKA. The correct TKA alignment was preoperatively determined aiming for a mechanical alignment. Clinical evaluation was performed according to the WOMAC, Knee Society Score (KSS) and Forgotten Joint Score, while functional evaluation was performed using a state-of-the-art GA platform. Results: We reported excellent clinical results in both groups without any statistical difference in patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs); from a functional standpoint, several GA space–time parameters were closer to normal in the sensor group when compared to the standard group, but a statistically significant difference was not reached. Conclusions: Gait Analysis represents a valid method to evaluate TKA kinematics. This study, with its limitations, showed that pressure sensitive technology represents a valid aid for surgeons aiming to improve the postoperative stability of TKA; however, other factors (i.e., level of intra-articular constraint and alignment) may play a major role in reproducing the normal knee biomechanics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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15 pages, 4122 KiB  
Article
Is Muscle Architecture Different in Athletes with a Previous Hamstring Strain? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010016 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3068
Abstract
Hamstring strains are a frequent injury in sports and are characterized by a high recurrence rate. The aim of this review was to examine the muscle and tendon architecture in individuals with hamstring injury. A systematic literature search in four databases yielded eleven [...] Read more.
Hamstring strains are a frequent injury in sports and are characterized by a high recurrence rate. The aim of this review was to examine the muscle and tendon architecture in individuals with hamstring injury. A systematic literature search in four databases yielded eleven studies on architecture following injury. Differences in the fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA) and muscle size measures (volume, thickness and physiological cross-sectional area) at rest were not significantly different between the previously injured limb and the contralateral limb (p > 0.05). There was moderate evidence that biceps femoris long head (BFlh) FL shortening was greater during contraction in the injured compared to the contralateral limb. The BFlh FL was smaller in athletes with a previous injury compared to uninjured individuals (p = 0.0015) but no differences in the FL and PA of other muscles as well as in the aponeurosis/tendon size were observed (p > 0.05). An examination of the FL of both leg muscles in individuals with a previous hamstring strain may be necessary before and after return to sport. Exercises that promote fascicle lengthening of both injured and uninjured leg muscles may be beneficial for athletes who recover from a hamstring injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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Review

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23 pages, 598 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness of Therapeutical Interventions on the Scapulothoracic Complex in the Management of Patients with Subacromial Impingement and Frozen Shoulder: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020038 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
Shoulder pain is one the most common musculoskeletal complaints. The most common pathological causes of shoulder pain in the general population are subacromial impingement syndrome and adhesive capsulitis, commonly referred to as “frozen shoulder”. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Shoulder pain is one the most common musculoskeletal complaints. The most common pathological causes of shoulder pain in the general population are subacromial impingement syndrome and adhesive capsulitis, commonly referred to as “frozen shoulder”. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the scapulo-thoracic complex, particularly in scapular kinematic functions, in rehabilitative interventions for shoulder pain in patients suffering from these two common conditions. This systematic review was performed using the scientific search engines PubMed, PEDro and Cochrane Library, considering only randomized controlled clinical trials. Selected articles were evaluated according to the level of evidence and methodological quality. Thirteen randomized clinical trials were selected. Interventions have been divided into three macro-categories: (1) manual therapy in patients with subacromial impingement, (2) therapeutic exercise programs including interventions on the scapulothoracic complex in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, and (3) therapeutic exercise programs including interventions on the scapulothoracic complex in patients with frozen shoulder. Following this, a qualitative analysis was performed according to outcomes such as pain, shoulder function, and scapular kinematics. Physiotherapy exercise programs that included scapular motor control training and scapular mobilizations, in particular, those of the scapulo-thoracic complex in scapular kinematic function, represent valid alternatives in the management of patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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16 pages, 602 KiB  
Review
Effects of Resistance Training in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010023 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2888
Abstract
Individuals with lower-limb amputations may have a significant strength deficit. This deficit may be related to the stump length and can lead to changes in gait, reduced energy efficiency, walking resistance, altered joint load, and increased risk of osteoarthritis and chronic low back [...] Read more.
Individuals with lower-limb amputations may have a significant strength deficit. This deficit may be related to the stump length and can lead to changes in gait, reduced energy efficiency, walking resistance, altered joint load, and increased risk of osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain. This systematic review used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) guidelines to examine the effects of resistance training in lower limb amputees. Interventions with resistance training and other training methods were sufficient to achieve muscle strength gain in muscles of the lower limbs, improved balance, and improvements in gait pattern and speed when walking. However, it was impossible to determine from the results whether resistance training was mainly responsible for these benefits or even whether the positive effects presented would be observed with only this training method. When combined with other exercises, interventions with resistance training made possible gains for this population. Accordingly, it is noteworthy that the main finding of this systematic review is that the effects may be different according to the level of amputation, with mainly transtibial and transfemoral amputations studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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