Experimentation, Numerical and Analytical Methods in Functional Biomaterials

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2022) | Viewed by 45684

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Laboratory for Strength of Materials & Structures, Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Egnatia Street, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: experimental studies; biomechanical properties; finite element simulations; dynamic loadings; smart materials; structural engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lately, the need for personalized medical treatment has increased very rapidly, thus driving research of functional biomaterials towards the development of new applied techniques and methodologies. Investigations into functional biomaterials, however, have not yet been able to use realistic, quantitative, modeling-based experiments to validate, in a safe manner, the complicated mechanisms to safely and effectively predict the applicability of the proposed techniques. 

However, a wide research effort is underway to bring mature applications into this field. The present Special Issue will focus on projecting innovative ideas that have been validated with either experimental studies or numerical and analytical approaches.

Distinguished researchers are encouraged to present their studies concerning the general fields of biomechanics, orthopedic techniques, fracture mechanics, and material modeling.

It is our pleasure to invite all of you to submit your research to this special issue. Research Articles, Short Communications and Review Papers are welcome!

Dr. Konstantinos Katakalos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • experimental studies
  • finite element simulation
  • metallic materials
  • biodegradable materials;biomaterials
  • fracture mechanics
  • orthopedic applications

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 12951 KiB  
Article
The Promotion of Mechanical Properties by Bone Ingrowth in Additive-Manufactured Titanium Scaffolds
by Changning Sun, Enchun Dong, Jiayu Chen, Jibao Zheng, Jianfeng Kang, Zhongmin Jin, Chaozong Liu, Ling Wang and Dichen Li
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030127 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
Although the initial mechanical properties of additive-manufactured (AM) metal scaffolds have been thoroughly studied and have become a cornerstone in the design of porous orthopaedic implants, the potential promotion of the mechanical properties of the scaffolds by bone ingrowth has barely been studied. [...] Read more.
Although the initial mechanical properties of additive-manufactured (AM) metal scaffolds have been thoroughly studied and have become a cornerstone in the design of porous orthopaedic implants, the potential promotion of the mechanical properties of the scaffolds by bone ingrowth has barely been studied. In this study, the promotion of bone ingrowth on the mechanical properties of AM titanium alloy scaffolds was investigated through in vivo experiments and numerical simulation. On one hand, the osseointegration characteristics of scaffolds with architectures of body-centred cubic (BCC) and diamond were compared through animal experiments in which the mechanical properties of both scaffolds were not enhanced by the four-week implantation. On the other hand, the influences of the type and morphology of bone tissue in the BCC scaffolds on its mechanical properties were investigated by the finite element model of osseointegrated scaffolds, which was calibrated by the results of biomechanical testing. Significant promotion of the mechanical properties of AM metal scaffolds was only found when cortical bone filled the pores in the scaffolds. This paper provides a numerical prediction method to investigate the effect of bone ingrowth on the mechanical properties of AM porous implants, which might be valuable for the design of porous implants. Full article
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17 pages, 16956 KiB  
Article
Geometry-Based Computational Fluid Dynamic Model for Predicting the Biological Behavior of Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
by Abdalla M. Omar, Mohamed H. Hassan, Evangelos Daskalakis, Gokhan Ates, Charlie J. Bright, Zhanyan Xu, Emily J. Powell, Wajira Mirihanage and Paulo J. D. S. Bartolo
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030104 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2896
Abstract
The use of biocompatible and biodegradable porous scaffolds produced via additive manufacturing is one of the most common approaches in tissue engineering. The geometric design of tissue engineering scaffolds (e.g., pore size, pore shape, and pore distribution) has a significant impact on their [...] Read more.
The use of biocompatible and biodegradable porous scaffolds produced via additive manufacturing is one of the most common approaches in tissue engineering. The geometric design of tissue engineering scaffolds (e.g., pore size, pore shape, and pore distribution) has a significant impact on their biological behavior. Fluid flow dynamics are important for understanding blood flow through a porous structure, as they determine the transport of nutrients and oxygen to cells and the flushing of toxic waste. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the scaffold architecture, pore size and distribution on its biological performance using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Different blood flow velocities (BFV) induce wall shear stresses (WSS) on cells. WSS values above 30 mPa are detrimental to their growth. In this study, two scaffold designs were considered: rectangular scaffolds with uniform square pores (300, 350, and 450 µm), and anatomically designed circular scaffolds with a bone-like structure and pore size gradient (476–979 µm). The anatomically designed scaffolds provided the best fluid flow conditions, suggesting a 24.21% improvement in the biological performance compared to the rectangular scaffolds. The numerical observations are aligned with those of previously reported biological studies. Full article
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15 pages, 5734 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation Study on Relationship between the Fracture Mechanisms and Residual Membrane Stresses of Metallic Material
by Yan Yik Lim, Azizi Miskon, Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi, Megat Mohamad Hamdan Megat Ahmad and Muhamad Abu Bakar
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13010020 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
The distribution and dissipation energies in fracture mechanisms were a critical challenge to derive, especially for this ultra-thin sample. The membrane failure, which is the end of the fracture mechanisms, is a result of the cone wave reflections from the backend membrane boundaries. [...] Read more.
The distribution and dissipation energies in fracture mechanisms were a critical challenge to derive, especially for this ultra-thin sample. The membrane failure, which is the end of the fracture mechanisms, is a result of the cone wave reflections from the backend membrane boundaries. These reflections delay the failure processes due to the shock impacts. To compare these results with the experimental work, a numerical simulation was conducted for these processes. The cylinder-shaped rigid projectile was impacted using a frictionless Lagrange solver. The target was a cartridge brass circle plate clamped at its perimeter, and its zone was refined to a ten-times higher meshing density for better analysis. The erosion and cut-off controls involved a zero-gap interaction condition and an instantaneous geometric erosion strain of 200%. Due to the maximum projectile velocity of 382 m/s having the slowest perforation, the target thickness was found to be 5.5 mm. The fracture mechanism phenomena, such as tensile, compressive, through-thickness, and growth in-plane delamination, propagating delamination, and local punch shear waves were observed. After deducting tensile and flexural strengths from the last experiment, a total residual membrane stress of 650 MPa was found. This result indicated a relationship between the fracture mechanisms and residual membrane stresses of metallic material. Full article
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14 pages, 3029 KiB  
Article
Low-Modulus PMMA Has the Potential to Reduce Stresses on Endplates after Cement Discoplasty
by Susanne Lewin, Peter Försth and Cecilia Persson
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13010018 - 4 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3389
Abstract
Cement discoplasty has been developed to treat patients with advanced intervertebral disc degeneration. In discoplasty, poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement is injected into the disc, leading to reduced pain and certain spinal alignment correction. Standard PMMA-cements have much higher elastic modulus than the surrounding [...] Read more.
Cement discoplasty has been developed to treat patients with advanced intervertebral disc degeneration. In discoplasty, poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement is injected into the disc, leading to reduced pain and certain spinal alignment correction. Standard PMMA-cements have much higher elastic modulus than the surrounding vertebral bone, which may lead to a propensity for adjacent fractures. A PMMA-cement with lower modulus might be biomechanically beneficial. In this study, PMMA-cements with lower modulus were obtained using previously established methods. A commercial PMMA-cement (V-steady®, G21 srl) was used as control, and as base cement. The low-modulus PMMA-cements were modified by 12 vol% (LA12), 16 vol% (LA16) and 20 vol% (LA20) linoleic acid (LA). After storage in 37 °C PBS from 24 h up to 8 weeks, specimens were tested in compression to obtain the material properties. A lower E-modulus was obtained with increasing amount of LA. However, with storage time, the E-modulus increased. Standard and low-modulus PMMA discoplasty were compared in a previously developed and validated computational lumbar spine model. All discoplasty models showed the same trend, namely a substantial reduction in range of motion (ROM), compared to the healthy model. The V-steady model had the largest ROM-reduction (77%), and the LA20 model had the smallest (45%). The average stress at the endplate was higher for all discoplasty models than for the healthy model, but the stresses were reduced for cements with higher amounts of LA. The study indicates that low-modulus PMMA is promising for discoplasty from a mechanical viewpoint. However, validation experiments are needed, and the clinical setting needs to be further considered. Full article
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8 pages, 860 KiB  
Communication
Three-Dimensional-Printed Scaffolds for Meniscus Tissue Engineering: Opportunity for the Future in the Orthopaedic World
by Angelo V. Vasiliadis, Nikolaos Koukoulias and Konstantinos Katakalos
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12040069 - 2 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3453
Abstract
The meniscus is a critical component of a healthy knee joint. It is a complex and vital fibrocartilaginous tissue that maintains appropriate biomechanics. Injuries of the meniscus, particularly in the inner region, rarely heal and usually progress into structural breakdown, followed by meniscus [...] Read more.
The meniscus is a critical component of a healthy knee joint. It is a complex and vital fibrocartilaginous tissue that maintains appropriate biomechanics. Injuries of the meniscus, particularly in the inner region, rarely heal and usually progress into structural breakdown, followed by meniscus deterioration and initiation of osteoarthritis. Conventional therapies range from conservative treatment, to partial meniscectomy and even meniscus transplantation. All the above have high long-term failure rates, with recurrence of symptoms. This communication presents a brief account of in vitro and in vivo studies and describes recent developments in the field of 3D-printed scaffolds for meniscus tissue engineering. Current research in meniscal tissue engineering tries to combine polymeric biomaterials, cell-based therapy, growth factors, and 3D-printed scaffolds to promote the healing of meniscal defects. Today, 3D-printing technology represents a big opportunity in the orthopaedic world to create more specific implants, enabling the rapid production of meniscal scaffolds and changing the way that orthopaedic surgeons plan procedures. In the future, 3D-printed meniscal scaffolds are likely to be available and will also be suitable substitutes in clinical applications, in an attempt to imitate the complexity of the native meniscus. Full article
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11 pages, 2500 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Adaptation in Pelvis–Femur Model with Hip Arthroplasties
by Abdul Halim Abdullah and Mitsugu Todo
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12030049 - 3 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3910
Abstract
The prediction of bone remodeling behaviour is a challenging factor in encouraging the long-term stability of hip arthroplasties. The presence of femoral components modifies the biomechanical environment of the bone and alters the bone growth process. Issues of bone loss and gait instability [...] Read more.
The prediction of bone remodeling behaviour is a challenging factor in encouraging the long-term stability of hip arthroplasties. The presence of femoral components modifies the biomechanical environment of the bone and alters the bone growth process. Issues of bone loss and gait instability on both limbs are associated with the remodeling process. In this study, finite element analysis with an adaptive bone remodeling algorithm was used to predict the changes in bone mineral density following total hip and resurfacing hip arthroplasty. A three-dimensional model of the pelvis–femur was constructed from computed tomography (CT-based) images of a 79-year-old female patient with hip osteoarthritis. The prosthesis stem of the total hip arthroplasty was modelled with a titanium alloy material, while the femoral head had alumina properties. Meanwhile, resurfacing of the hip implant was completed with a cobalt-chromium material. Contact between the components and bone was designed to be perfectly bonded at the interface. Results indicate that the bone mineral density was modified over five years on all models, including hip osteoarthritis. The changes of BMD were predicted as being high between year zero and year one, especially in the proximal region. Changes were observed to be minimal in the following years. The bone remodeling process was also predicted for the non-operated femur. However, the adaptation was lower compared to the operated limbs. The reduction in bone mineral density suggested the bone loss phenomenon after a few years. Full article
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14 pages, 9344 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Bottom Profile Dimples on the Femoral Head on Wear in Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty
by J. Jamari, Muhammad Imam Ammarullah, Amir Putra Md Saad, Ardiyansyah Syahrom, Mohammad Uddin, Emile van der Heide and Hasan Basri
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12020038 - 6 Jun 2021
Cited by 105 | Viewed by 5513
Abstract
Wear and wear-induced debris is a significant factor in causing failure in implants. Reducing contact pressure by using a textured surface between the femoral head and acetabular cup is crucial to improving the implant’s life. This study presented the effect of surface texturing [...] Read more.
Wear and wear-induced debris is a significant factor in causing failure in implants. Reducing contact pressure by using a textured surface between the femoral head and acetabular cup is crucial to improving the implant’s life. This study presented the effect of surface texturing as dimples on the wear evolution of total hip arthroplasty. It was implemented by developing finite element analysis from the prediction model without dimples and with bottom profile dimples of flat, drill, and ball types. Simulations were carried out by performing 3D physiological loading of the hip joint under normal walking conditions. A geometry update was initiated based on the patient’s daily routine activities. Our results showed that the addition of dimples reduced contact pressure and wear. The bottom profile dimples of the ball type had the best ability to reduce wear relative to the other types, reducing cumulative linear wear by 24.3% and cumulative volumetric wear by 31% compared to no dimples. The findings demonstrated that surface texturing with appropriate dimple bottom geometry on a bearing surface is able to extend the lifetime of hip implants. Full article
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14 pages, 38744 KiB  
Article
Personalized Biomechanical Analysis of the Mandible Teeth Behavior in the Treatment of Masticatory Muscles Parafunction
by Denis Gribov, Mikhail Antonik, Denis Butkov, Alexandr Stepanov, Pavel Antonik, Yaser Kharakh, Anton Pivovarov and Sergey Arutyunov
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12020023 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3584
Abstract
A 3D finite element model of the mandible dentition was developed, including 14 teeth, a periodontal ligament (PDL), and a splint made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The study considered three design options: 1—the case of splint absence; 2—the case of the splint presence installed [...] Read more.
A 3D finite element model of the mandible dentition was developed, including 14 teeth, a periodontal ligament (PDL), and a splint made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The study considered three design options: 1—the case of splint absence; 2—the case of the splint presence installed after manufacture; and 3—the case of splint presence installed after correction (grinding) performed to ensure a uniform distribution of occlusal force between the teeth. For cases of absence and presence of splint, three measurements of the functional load were performed using the T-Scan III software and hardware complex (TekScan, Boston, MA, USA). It was found that the presence of a splint led to a decrease in the total value of the occlusive load and to a uniform distribution between all the mandible teeth. The occlusal force was considered as a static vertical force evenly distributed between the nodes belonging to the occlusive surface of the corresponding tooth for the first design option and the occlusal surface of the splint for the second and third ones, respectively. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the splint usage was effective in order to change the distribution of the functional load during the treatment of proved masticatory muscles’ parafunction; the safety of using a splint for teeth and surrounding tissues under the influence of the considered functional load was shown; the potential applicability of PMMA as a structural material of a splint that had been used for the treatment of masticatory muscles’ parafunction was established. Full article
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11 pages, 3417 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Consequences of Dynamically Loaded NiTi Wires under Typical Actuator Conditions in Rehabilitation and Neuroscience
by Umut D. Çakmak, Zoltán Major and Michael Fischlschweiger
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010004 - 8 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2181
Abstract
In the field of rehabilitation and neuroscience, shape memory alloys play a crucial role as lightweight actuators. Devices are exploiting the shape memory effect by transforming heat into mechanical work. In rehabilitation applications, dynamic loading of the respective device occurs, which in turn [...] Read more.
In the field of rehabilitation and neuroscience, shape memory alloys play a crucial role as lightweight actuators. Devices are exploiting the shape memory effect by transforming heat into mechanical work. In rehabilitation applications, dynamic loading of the respective device occurs, which in turn influences the mechanical consequences of the phase transforming alloy. Hence in this work, dynamic thermomechanical material behavior of temperature-triggered phase transforming NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) wires with different chemical compositions and geometries was experimentally investigated. Storage modulus and mechanical loss factor of NiTi alloys at different temperatures and loading frequencies were analyzed under force-controlled conditions. Counterintuitive storage modulus- and loss factor-dependent trends regarding the loading frequency dependency of the mechanical properties on the materials’ composition and geometry were, hence, obtained. It was revealed that loss factors showed a pronounced loading frequency dependency, whereas the storage modulus was not affected. It was shown that force-controlled conditions led to a lower storage modulus than expected. Furthermore, it turned out that a simple empirical relation could capture the characteristic temperature dependency of the storage modulus, which is an important input relation for modeling the rehabilitation device behavior under different dynamic and temperature loading conditions, taking directly into account the material behavior of the shape memory alloy. Full article
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Review

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12 pages, 1839 KiB  
Review
Finite Element Method for the Evaluation of the Human Spine: A Literature Overview
by Symeon Naoum, Angelo V. Vasiliadis, Christos Koutserimpas, Nikolaos Mylonakis, Michail Kotsapas and Konstantinos Katakalos
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12030043 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5304
Abstract
The finite element method (FEM) represents a computer simulation method, originally used in civil engineering, which dates back to the early 1940s. Applications of FEM have also been used in numerous medical areas and in orthopedic surgery. Computing technology has improved over the [...] Read more.
The finite element method (FEM) represents a computer simulation method, originally used in civil engineering, which dates back to the early 1940s. Applications of FEM have also been used in numerous medical areas and in orthopedic surgery. Computing technology has improved over the years and as a result, more complex problems, such as those involving the spine, can be analyzed. The spine is a complex anatomical structure that maintains the erect posture and supports considerable loads. Applications of FEM in the spine have contributed to the understanding of bone biomechanics, both in healthy and abnormal conditions, such as scoliosis, fractures (trauma), degenerative disc disease and osteoporosis. However, since FEM is only a digital simulation of the real condition, it will never exactly simulate in vivo results. In particular, when it concerns biomechanics, there are many features that are difficult to represent in a FEM. More FEM studies and spine research are required in order to examine interpersonal spine stiffness, young spine biomechanics and model accuracy. In the future, patient-specific models will be used for better patient evaluations as well as for better pre- and inter-operative planning. Full article
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11 pages, 1233 KiB  
Review
The Role of Scaffolds in Tendon Tissue Engineering
by Angelo V. Vasiliadis and Konstantinos Katakalos
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11040078 - 1 Nov 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5321
Abstract
Tendons are unique forms of connective tissue aiming to transmit the mechanical force of muscle contraction to the bones. Tendon injury may be due to direct trauma or might be secondary to overuse injury and age-related degeneration, leading to inflammation, weakening and subsequent [...] Read more.
Tendons are unique forms of connective tissue aiming to transmit the mechanical force of muscle contraction to the bones. Tendon injury may be due to direct trauma or might be secondary to overuse injury and age-related degeneration, leading to inflammation, weakening and subsequent rupture. Current traditional treatment strategies focus on pain relief, reduction of the inflammation and functional restoration. Tendon repair surgery can be performed in people with tendon injuries to restore the tendon’s function, with re-rupture being the main potential complication. Novel therapeutic approaches that address the underlying pathology of the disease is warranted. Scaffolds represent a promising solution to the challenges associated with tendon tissue engineering. The ideal scaffold for tendon tissue engineering needs to exhibit physiologically relevant mechanical properties and to facilitate functional graft integration by promoting the regeneration of the native tissue. Full article
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Other

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6 pages, 600 KiB  
Opinion
From Three-Dimensional (3D)- to 6D-Printing Technology in Orthopedics: Science Fiction or Scientific Reality?
by Angelo V. Vasiliadis, Nikolaos Koukoulias and Konstantinos Katakalos
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030101 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3156
Abstract
Over the past three decades, additive manufacturing has changed from an innovative technology to an increasingly accessible tool in all aspects of different medical practices, including orthopedics. Although 3D-printing technology offers a relatively inexpensive, rapid and less risky route of manufacturing, it is [...] Read more.
Over the past three decades, additive manufacturing has changed from an innovative technology to an increasingly accessible tool in all aspects of different medical practices, including orthopedics. Although 3D-printing technology offers a relatively inexpensive, rapid and less risky route of manufacturing, it is still quite limited for the fabrication of more complex objects. Over the last few years, stable 3D-printed objects have been converted to smart objects or implants using novel 4D-printing systems. Four-dimensional printing is an advanced process that creates the final object by adding smart materials. Human bones are curved along their axes, a morphological characteristic that augments the mechanical strain caused by external forces. Instead of the three axes used in 4D printing, 5D-printing technology uses five axes, creating curved and more complex objects. Nowadays, 6D-printing technology marries the concepts of 4D- and 5D-printing technology to produce objects that change shape over time in response to external stimuli. In future research, it is obvious that printing technology will include a combination of multi-dimensional printing technology and smart materials. Multi-dimensional additive manufacturing technology will drive the printing dimension to higher levels of structural freedom and printing efficacy, offering promising properties for various orthopedic applications. Full article
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