Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials for Drug Delivery".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2022) | Viewed by 25617

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INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati, Italy
Interests: carbon nanotubes; material sciences; nanotechnology; multifunctional materials; nano carbon; biomedical applications
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of biocompatible materials for life science applications is a rapidly developing field of research. The aim is to foster the emergence of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic (theranostics) solutions for various diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions, as well as cancer. Vectors consisting of biocompatible biomaterials for the controlled and targeted release of drugs can be applied in therapeutic approaches for disease treatment, whereas advanced sensors based on biocompatible functional biomaterials can provide advanced solutions for early and accurate diagnostics. The design, synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of natural and synthetic biomaterials, along with the necessary modifications to make them biocompatible, are rather challenging tasks.

This Special Issue will collect contributions on different aspects related to the design, synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of natural and synthetic biomaterials utilized in biomedical applications, as well as methods and strategies to enhance biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo, including the interactions of functional biomaterials with human and animal organisms.

Prof. Dr. Stefano Bellucci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • in vitro
  • in vivo
  • biocompatibility
  • functional biomaterials
  • theranostics
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • cancer
  • biosensors
  • drug delivery
  • human and animal organisms

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 13024 KiB  
Article
Preliminary In Vitro Assessment of Decellularized Porcine Descending Aorta for Clinical Purposes
by Martina Casarin, Tiago Moderno Fortunato, Saima Jalil Imran, Martina Todesco, Deborah Sandrin, Massimo Marchesan, Gino Gerosa, Filippo Romanato, Andrea Bagno, Fabrizio Dal Moro and Alessandro Morlacco
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030141 - 2 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1981
Abstract
Conduit substitutes are increasingly in demand for cardiovascular and urological applications. In cases of bladder cancer, radical cystectomy is the preferred technique: after removing the bladder, a urinary diversion has to be created using autologous bowel, but several complications are associated with intestinal [...] Read more.
Conduit substitutes are increasingly in demand for cardiovascular and urological applications. In cases of bladder cancer, radical cystectomy is the preferred technique: after removing the bladder, a urinary diversion has to be created using autologous bowel, but several complications are associated with intestinal resection. Thus, alternative urinary substitutes are required to avoid autologous intestinal use, preventing complications and facilitating surgical procedures. In the present paper, we are proposing the exploitation of the decellularized porcine descending aorta as a novel and original conduit substitute. After being decellularized with the use of two alternative detergents (Tergitol and Ecosurf) and sterilized, the porcine descending aorta has been investigated to assess its permeability to detergents through methylene blue dye penetration analysis and to study its composition and structure by means of histomorphometric analyses, including DNA quantification, histology, two-photon microscopy, and hydroxyproline quantification. Biomechanical tests and cytocompatibility assays with human mesenchymal stem cells have been also performed. The results obtained demonstrated that the decellularized porcine descending aorta preserves its major features to be further evaluated as a candidate material for urological applications, even though further studies have to be carried out to demonstrate its suitability for the specific application, by performing in vivo tests in the animal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
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22 pages, 12629 KiB  
Article
TiO2/HA and Titanate/HA Double-Layer Coatings on Ti6Al4V Surface and Their Influence on In Vitro Cell Growth and Osteogenic Potential
by Michalina Ehlert, Aleksandra Radtke, Natalia Forbot, Tomasz Jędrzejewski, Katarzyna Roszek, Patrycja Golińska, Grzegorz Trykowski and Piotr Piszczek
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040271 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HA) layers are appropriate biomaterials for use in the modification of the surface of implants produced inter alia from a Ti6Al4V alloy. The issue that must be solved is to provide implants with appropriate biointegration properties, enabling the permanent link between them [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) layers are appropriate biomaterials for use in the modification of the surface of implants produced inter alia from a Ti6Al4V alloy. The issue that must be solved is to provide implants with appropriate biointegration properties, enabling the permanent link between them and bone tissues, which is not so easy with the HA layer. Our proposition is the use of the intermediate layer ((IL) = TiO2, and titanate layers) to successfully link the HA coating to a metal substrate (Ti6Al4V). The morphology, structure, and chemical composition of Ti6Al4V/IL/HA systems were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). We evaluated the apatite-forming ability on the surface of the layer in simulated body fluid. We investigated the effects of the obtained systems on the viability and growth of human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells, mouse L929 fibroblasts, and adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro, as well as on their osteogenic properties. Based on the obtained results, we can conclude that both investigated systems reflect the physiological environment of bone tissue and create a biocompatible surface supporting cell growth. However, the nanoporous TiO2 intermediate layer with osteogenesis-supportive activity seems most promising for the practical application of Ti6Al4V/TiO2/HA as a system of bone tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 3511 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Process Optimization of Rauvolfia serpentina Nanosuspension by HPMC and In Vitro Evaluation of ACE Inhibitory Potential
by Syeeda Iram Touqeer, Nazish Jahan, Naseem Abbas and Ahsan Ali
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040268 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) overactivation is one of the primary causes of hypertension, which leads to cardiovascular disorders all over the world. In the scientific world, nanosuspension is a novel area of study that could offer an alternative treatment for active pharmaceuticals that [...] Read more.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) overactivation is one of the primary causes of hypertension, which leads to cardiovascular disorders all over the world. In the scientific world, nanosuspension is a novel area of study that could offer an alternative treatment for active pharmaceuticals that are not well soluble in water. Since active compounds’ bioavailability is reduced by their poor solubility, there are eventually fewer applications. Drug solubility, dissolving rate, and bioavailability are improved by nanosuspension, which shrinks medication particle size into the nanoscale range and boosts the surface area to volume ratio of the drug. There is a need to prepare Rauvolfia serpentina’s nanosuspension in order to get around some of the major challenges that it faces because of its poor solubility and wide range of biological activities. Using the antisolvent precipitation approach, a nanosuspension of Rauvolfia serpentina was created with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). Rouvolfia serpentina nanosuspensions were prepared using a design of expert (DOE) approach, which allowed for the evaluation of key process parameters. To get an optimal sample, the effects of stabilizer concentration and anti-solvent volume on particle size, zeta potential, and PdI using CCD-RSM were investigated. Using the substrate Hippuryl-histidyl-leucine, the in vitro ACE inhibitory potential was assessed. On human erythrocytes, the safety of nanosuspension was evaluated in vitro. The ideal value of independent variables was discovered to be 0.25% w/v in order to achieve the desired response. Using scanning electron microscopy, the morphology of optimized nanosuspension was discovered to be rod-shaped (SEM). Compared to nanoformulation, crude extract had higher ACE inhibitory potential (83.11%). Human erythrocytes were found to be unaffected by nano-sized particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
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19 pages, 6854 KiB  
Article
A Novel Hybrid Membrane for Urinary Conduit Substitutes Based on Small Intestinal Submucosa Coupled with Two Synthetic Polymers
by Martina Casarin, Martina Todesco, Deborah Sandrin, Filippo Romanato, Andrea Bagno, Alessandro Morlacco and Fabrizio Dal Moro
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040222 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2272
Abstract
Among the urinary tract’s malignancies, bladder cancer is the most frequent one: it is at the tenth position of most common cancers worldwide. Currently, the gold standard therapy consists of radical cystectomy, which results in the need to create a urinary diversion using [...] Read more.
Among the urinary tract’s malignancies, bladder cancer is the most frequent one: it is at the tenth position of most common cancers worldwide. Currently, the gold standard therapy consists of radical cystectomy, which results in the need to create a urinary diversion using a bowel segment from the patient. Nevertheless, due to several complications associated with bowel resection and anastomosis, which significantly affect patient quality of life, it is becoming extremely important to find an alternative solution. In our recent work, we proposed the decellularized porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a candidate material for urinary conduit substitution. In the present study, we create SIS-based hybrid membranes that are obtained by coupling decellularized SIS with two commercially available polycarbonate urethanes (Chronoflex AR and Chronoflex AR-LT) to improve SIS mechanical resistance and impermeability. We evaluated the hybrid membranes by means of immunofluorescence, two-photon microscopy, FTIR analysis, and mechanical and cytocompatibility tests. The realization of hybrid membranes did not deteriorate SIS composition, but the presence of polymers ameliorates the mechanical behavior of the hybrid constructs. Moreover, the cytocompatibility tests demonstrated a significant increase in cell growth compared to decellularized SIS alone. In light of the present results, the hybrid membrane-based urinary conduit can be a suitable candidate to realize a urinary diversion in place of an autologous intestinal segment. Further efforts will be performed in order to create a cylindrical-shaped hybrid membrane and to study its hydraulic behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
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18 pages, 3813 KiB  
Article
Polyzwitterionic Coating of Porous Adsorbents for Therapeutic Apheresis
by Vladislav Semak, Tanja Eichhorn, René Weiss and Viktoria Weber
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040216 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
Adsorbents for whole blood apheresis need to be highly blood compatible to minimize the activation of blood cells on the biomaterial surface. Here, we developed blood-compatible matrices by surface modification with polyzwitterionic polysulfobetainic and polycarboxybetainic coatings. Photoreactive zwitterionic terpolymers were synthesized by free-radical [...] Read more.
Adsorbents for whole blood apheresis need to be highly blood compatible to minimize the activation of blood cells on the biomaterial surface. Here, we developed blood-compatible matrices by surface modification with polyzwitterionic polysulfobetainic and polycarboxybetainic coatings. Photoreactive zwitterionic terpolymers were synthesized by free-radical polymerization of zwitterionic, photoreactive, and fluorescent monomers. Upon UV irradiation, the terpolymers were photodeposited and mutually crosslinked on the surface of hydrophobic polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene and hydrophilic polyacrylamide-co-polyacrylate (DALI) beads. Fluorescent microscopy revealed coatings with an average thickness of 5 µm, which were limited to the bead surface. Blood compatibility was assessed based on polymer-induced hemolysis, coagulation parameters, and in vitro tests. The maintenance of the adsorption capacity after coating was studied in human whole blood with cytokines for polystyrene beads (remained capacity 25–67%) and with low-density lipoprotein (remained capacity 80%) for polyacrylate beads. Coating enhanced the blood compatibility of hydrophobic, but not of hydrophilic adsorbents. The most prominent effect was observed on coagulation parameters (e.g., PT, aPTT, TT, and protein C) and neutrophil count. Polycarboxybetaine with a charge spacer of five carbons was the most promising polyzwitterion for the coating of adsorbents for whole blood apheresis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 2466 KiB  
Article
Effect of Alumina Particles on the Osteogenic Ability of Osteoblasts
by Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Yeon-Hee Lee, Buyankhishig Gankhuyag, Chiranjib Chakraborty and Sang-Soo Lee
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030105 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
Biomaterials are used as implants for bone and dental disabilities. However, wear particles from the implants cause osteolysis following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Ceramic implants are considered safe and elicit a minimal response to cause periprosthetic osteolysis. However, few reports have highlighted the [...] Read more.
Biomaterials are used as implants for bone and dental disabilities. However, wear particles from the implants cause osteolysis following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Ceramic implants are considered safe and elicit a minimal response to cause periprosthetic osteolysis. However, few reports have highlighted the adverse effect of ceramic particles such as alumina (Al2O3) on various cell types. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effect of Al2O3 particles on osteoprogenitors. A comparative treatment of Al2O3, Ti, and UHMWPE particles to osteoprogenitors at a similar concentration of 200 μg/mL showed that only Al2O3 particles were able to suppress the early and late differentiation markers of osteoprogenitors, including collagen synthesis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mRNA expression of Runx2, OSX, Col1α, and OCN. Al2O3 particles even induced inflammation and activated the NFkB signaling pathway in osteoprogenitors. Moreover, bone-forming signals such as the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway were inhibited by the Al2O3 particles. Al2O3 particles were found to induce the mRNA expression of WNT/β-catenin signaling antagonists such as DKK2, WIF, and sFRP1 several times in osteoprogenitors. Taken together, this study highlights a mechanistic view of the effect of Al2O3 particles on osteoprogenitors and suggests therapeutic targets such as NFĸB and WNT signaling pathways for ceramic particle-induced osteolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
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Review

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21 pages, 1610 KiB  
Review
Current Development in Biomaterials—Hydroxyapatite and Bioglass for Applications in Biomedical Field: A Review
by Diana Georgiana Filip, Vasile-Adrian Surdu, Andrei Viorel Paduraru and Ecaterina Andronescu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040248 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4136
Abstract
Inorganic biomaterials, including different types of metals and ceramics are widely used in various fields due to their biocompatibility, bioactivity, and bioresorbable capacity. In recent years, biomaterials have been used in biomedical and biological applications. Calcium phosphate (CaPs) compounds are gaining [...] Read more.
Inorganic biomaterials, including different types of metals and ceramics are widely used in various fields due to their biocompatibility, bioactivity, and bioresorbable capacity. In recent years, biomaterials have been used in biomedical and biological applications. Calcium phosphate (CaPs) compounds are gaining importance in the field of biomaterials used as a standalone material or in more complex structures, especially for bone substitutes and drug delivery systems. The use of multiple dopants into the structure of CaPs compounds can significantly improve their in vivo and in vitro activity. Among the general information included in the Introduction section, in the first section of this review paper, the authors provided a background on the development of hydroxyapatite, methods of synthesis, and its applications. The advantages of using different ions and co-ions for substitution into the hydroxyapatite lattice and their influence on physicochemical, antibacterial, and biological properties of hydroxyapatite are also presented in this section of the review paper. Larry Hench’s 45S5 Bioglass®, commercially named 45S5, was the first bioactive glass that revealed a chemical bond with bone, highlighting the potential of this biomaterial to be widely used in biomedicine for bone regeneration. The second section of this article is focused on the development and current products based on 45S5 Bioglass®, covering the historical evolution, importance of the sintering method, hybrid bioglass composites, and applications. To overcome the limitations of the original biomaterials, studies were performed to combine hydroxyapatite and 45S5 Bioglass® into new composites used for their high bioactivity and improved properties. This particular type of combined hydroxyapatite/bioglass biomaterial is discussed in the last section of this review paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
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41 pages, 10287 KiB  
Review
Review on Biocompatibility and Prospect Biomedical Applications of Novel Functional Metallic Glasses
by Michał Biały, Mariusz Hasiak and Amadeusz Łaszcz
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040245 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3101
Abstract
The continuous development of novel materials for biomedical applications is resulting in an increasingly better prognosis for patients. The application of more advanced materials relates to fewer complications and a desirable higher percentage of successful treatments. New, innovative materials being considered for biomedical [...] Read more.
The continuous development of novel materials for biomedical applications is resulting in an increasingly better prognosis for patients. The application of more advanced materials relates to fewer complications and a desirable higher percentage of successful treatments. New, innovative materials being considered for biomedical applications are metallic alloys with an amorphous internal structure called metallic glasses. They are currently in a dynamic phase of development both in terms of formulating new chemical compositions and testing their properties in terms of intended biocompatibility. This review article intends to synthesize the latest research results in the field of biocompatible metallic glasses to create a more coherent picture of these materials. It summarizes and discusses the most recent findings in the areas of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, in vitro cellular studies, antibacterial properties, and in vivo animal studies. Results are collected mainly for the most popular metallic glasses manufactured as thin films, coatings, and in bulk form. Considered materials include alloys based on zirconium and titanium, as well as new promising ones based on magnesium, tantalum, and palladium. From the properties of the examined metallic glasses, possible areas of application and further research directions to fill existing gaps are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
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11 pages, 1767 KiB  
Review
Overview of Physicochemical Properties of Nanoparticles as Drug Carriers for Targeted Cancer Therapy
by Vugar Yagublu, Aynura Karimova, Javahir Hajibabazadeh, Christoph Reissfelder, Mustafa Muradov, Stefano Bellucci and Adil Allahverdiyev
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040196 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4403
Abstract
The advent of nanotechnology has brought about revolutionary innovations in biological research techniques and medical practice. In recent years, various “smart” nanocarriers have been introduced to deliver therapeutic agents specifically to the tumor tissue in a controlled manner, thereby minimizing their side effects [...] Read more.
The advent of nanotechnology has brought about revolutionary innovations in biological research techniques and medical practice. In recent years, various “smart” nanocarriers have been introduced to deliver therapeutic agents specifically to the tumor tissue in a controlled manner, thereby minimizing their side effects and reducing both dosage and dosage frequency. A large number of nanoparticles have demonstrated initial success in preclinical evaluation but modest therapeutic benefits in the clinical setting, partly due to insufficient delivery to the tumor site and penetration in tumor tissue. Therefore, a precise understanding of the relationships betweenthe physicochemical properties of nanoparticles and their interaction with the surrounding microenvironment in the body is extremely important for achieving higher concentrations and better functionality in tumor tissues. This knowledge would help to effectively combine multiple advantageous functions in one nanoparticle. The main focus of the discussion in this review, therefore, will relate to the main physicochemical properties of nanoparticles while interacting within the body and their tuning potential for increased performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
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