Advanced Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials and Devices for Healthcare Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2022) | Viewed by 19281

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Guest Editor
INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati, Italy
Interests: carbon nanotubes; material sciences; nanotechnology; multifunctional materials; nano carbon; biomedical applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of advanced materials for biological and medical applications has increasingly received attention over the last several years. This Special Issue covers broad aspects from biosensors and diagnostic agents with diversified and specific characteristics in terms of composition and functionality, to fundamental concepts of biosensing using nanomaterials; their synthesis; engineering their sensing properties based on optical, electrochemical, magnetic, acoustic, and thermal transduction; their integration with biological elements; the design of biosensing devices; the evaluation of their sensing performance; and the exploration of their broad applications from medical diagnostics, industry, environmental control, food analysis, and defense applications. I invite potential authors to focus on recent progress in the development of new approaches for the synthesis of these advanced nanomaterials for biosensing with different chemical compositions (metals, semiconductors, metal-oxides, polymers, graphene, DNA, enzymes, etc.), nanoscale dimensions and morphologies (particles, pores, wires, tubes, rods, etc.), and the characterization of their sensing properties, with a focus on designing new biosensing devices with improved performance for emerging applications. Additionally, as nanoparticles composed of biopolymers, hydrogels, and nanocapsules have been used for drug delivery systems triggered by pH, temperature, and ionic stimuli, I wish to broaden the aim of this Special Issue to consider all devices based on nanotechnology and biomaterials, with a particular emphasis on the development and use of new materials for drug delivery purposes. The use of new technologies is encouraged, and full characterization (microscopic, spectroscopic), including in vitro and in vivo tests, will be welcome.

Prof. Dr. Stefano Bellucci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biological and medical applications
  • drug delivery systems
  • advanced materials
  • nanoparticles
  • nanomaterials
  • biosensors
  • diagnostics
  • nanobiopolymers

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 9490 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluations of Green ZnO-Decorated Acid-Activated Bentonite-Mediated Curcumin Extract (ZnO@CU/BE) as Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Agents
by Hassan Ahmed Rudayni, Marwa H. Shemy, Malak Aladwani, Lina M. Alneghery, Gasem M. Abu-Taweel, Ahmed A. Allam, Mostafa R. Abukhadra and Stefano Bellucci
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(4), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14040198 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Green ZnO-decorated acid-activated bentonite-mediated curcumin extract (ZnO@CU/BE) was prepared as a multifunctional antioxidant and antidiabetic agent based on the extract of curcumin, which was used as a reducing and capping reagent. ZnO@CU/BE showed notably enhanced antioxidant properties against nitric oxide (88.6 ± 1.58%), [...] Read more.
Green ZnO-decorated acid-activated bentonite-mediated curcumin extract (ZnO@CU/BE) was prepared as a multifunctional antioxidant and antidiabetic agent based on the extract of curcumin, which was used as a reducing and capping reagent. ZnO@CU/BE showed notably enhanced antioxidant properties against nitric oxide (88.6 ± 1.58%), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (90.2 ± 1.76%), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (87.3 ± 1.61%), and superoxide (39.5 ± 1.12%) radicals. These percentages are higher than the reported values of ascorbic acid as a standard and the integrated components of the structure (CU, BE/CU, and ZnO). This signifies the impact of the bentonite substrate on enhancing the solubility, stability, dispersion, and release rate of the intercalated curcumin-based phytochemicals, in addition to enhancing the exposure interface of ZnO nanoparticles. Therefore, effective antidiabetic properties were observed, with significant inhibition effects on porcine pancreatic α-amylase (76.8 ± 1.87%), murine pancreatic α-amylase (56.5 ± 1.67%), pancreatic α-glucosidase (96.5 ± 1.07%), murine intestinal α-glucosidase (92.5 ± 1.10%), and amyloglucosidase (93.7 ± 1.55%) enzymes. These values are higher than those determined using commercial miglitol and are close to the values measured using acarbose. Hence, the structure can be applied as an antioxidant and antidiabetic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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16 pages, 4575 KiB  
Article
The Anticancer Efficacy of Thiourea-Mediated Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets against Human Colon Cancer Cells (HT-29)
by Babu Vimalanathan, J. Judith Vijaya, B. Carmel Jeeva Mary, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, Magesh Daniel, Ramasamy Jayavel, Mohamed Bououdina and Stefano Bellucci
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030130 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
The current research focuses on the fabrication of water-soluble, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) employing thiourea (T) using a simple cost-effective method, and subsequently examining its anticancer characteristics. The cytotoxicity caused by graphene oxide (GO) and T-rGO is investigated in detail. Biological results reveal [...] Read more.
The current research focuses on the fabrication of water-soluble, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) employing thiourea (T) using a simple cost-effective method, and subsequently examining its anticancer characteristics. The cytotoxicity caused by graphene oxide (GO) and T-rGO is investigated in detail. Biological results reveal a concentration-dependent toxicity of GO and T-rGO in human colon cancer cells HT-29. A decrease in cell viability alongside DNA fragmentation is observed. Flow cytometry analysis confirms the cytotoxic effects. The novelty in this work is the use of raw graphite powder, and oxidants such as KMNO4, NaNO3, and 98 percent H2SO4 to produce graphene oxide by a modified Hummers method. This study demonstrates a simple and affordable procedure for utilising thiourea to fabricate a water-soluble reduced graphene oxide, which will be useful in a variety of biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 4477 KiB  
Article
Hydrothermal Synthesis and In Vivo Fluorescent Bioimaging Application of Eu3+/Gd3+ Co-Doped Fluoroapatite Nanocrystals
by Sriyani Menike Korale Gedara, Zi-You Ding, Iresha Lakmali Balasooriya, Yingchao Han and Merita Nirmali Wickramaratne
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030108 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
In this study, Eu3+/Gd3+ co-doped fluoroapatitååe (Eu/Gd:FAP) nanocrystals were synthesized by the hydrothermal method as a fluorescent bioimaging agent. The phase composition, morphology, fluorescence, and biosafety of the resulting samples were characterized. Moreover, the in vivo fluorescent bioimaging application of [...] Read more.
In this study, Eu3+/Gd3+ co-doped fluoroapatitååe (Eu/Gd:FAP) nanocrystals were synthesized by the hydrothermal method as a fluorescent bioimaging agent. The phase composition, morphology, fluorescence, and biosafety of the resulting samples were characterized. Moreover, the in vivo fluorescent bioimaging application of Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals was evaluated in mice with subcutaneously transplanted tumors. The results showed that the Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals were short rod-like particles with a size of 59.27 ± 13.34 nm × 18.69 ± 3.32 nm. With an increasing F substitution content, the Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals displayed a decreased size and enhanced fluorescence emission. Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals did not show hemolysis and cytotoxicity, indicating good biocompatibility. In vivo fluorescent bioimaging study demonstrated that Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals could be used as a bioimaging agent and displayed stable fluorescence emitting in tumors, indicating an accumulation in tumor tissue due to the passive targeting ability. In addition, any adverse effects of Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals on major organs were not observed. This study shows that biocompatible rare earth co-doped FAP nanocrystals have the potential to be used as a bioimaging agent in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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32 pages, 4316 KiB  
Review
Green Carbon Dots: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties and Biomedical Applications
by Hong Hui Jing, Fevzi Bardakci, Sinan Akgöl, Kevser Kusat, Mohd Adnan, Mohammad Jahoor Alam, Reena Gupta, Sumaira Sahreen, Yeng Chen, Subash C. B. Gopinath and Sreenivasan Sasidharan
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010027 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 12904
Abstract
Carbon dots (CDs) are a new category of crystalline, quasi-spherical fluorescence, “zero-dimensional” carbon nanomaterials with a spatial size between 1 nm to 10 nm and have gained widespread attention in recent years. Green CDs are carbon dots synthesised from renewable biomass such as [...] Read more.
Carbon dots (CDs) are a new category of crystalline, quasi-spherical fluorescence, “zero-dimensional” carbon nanomaterials with a spatial size between 1 nm to 10 nm and have gained widespread attention in recent years. Green CDs are carbon dots synthesised from renewable biomass such as agro-waste, plants or medicinal plants and other organic biomaterials. Plant-mediated synthesis of CDs is a green chemistry approach that connects nanotechnology with the green synthesis of CDs. Notably, CDs made with green technology are economical and far superior to those manufactured with physicochemical methods due to their exclusive benefits, such as being affordable, having high stability, having a simple protocol, and being safer and eco-benign. Green CDs can be synthesized by using ultrasonic strategy, chemical oxidation, carbonization, solvothermal and hydrothermal processes, and microwave irradiation using various plant-based organic resources. CDs made by green technology have diverse applications in biomedical fields such as bioimaging, biosensing and nanomedicine, which are ascribed to their unique properties, including excellent luminescence effect, strong stability and good biocompatibility. This review mainly focuses on green CDs synthesis, characterization techniques, beneficial properties of plant resource-based green CDs and their biomedical applications. This review article also looks at the research gaps and future research directions for the continuous deepening of the exploration of green CDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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