Advanced Bioceramics

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2022) | Viewed by 23575

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare), Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Italy
Interests: chemistry; biochemistry; biomaterials; electrochemistry; pharmaceutical chemistry; drug delivery; nanoscience and nanotechnology; biomedical applications

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Guest Editor
INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati, Italy
Interests: carbon nanotubes; material sciences; nanotechnology; multifunctional materials; nano carbon; biomedical applications
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials play an important role in modern society, that will tend to increase in the near future. The interest in biomaterials derives from the need to use biocompatible products to limit toxic effects in humans who come in contact with them. From the field of medicine to that of industrial packaging, research on biomaterials is making enormous progress. It is important to discuss and spread awareness of these discoveries, in order to inform the scientific community about the existing possibilities in the field of biomaterials and to provide inspiration for future research.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for the Special Issue “Advanced Bioceramics”. The broad scope of this Special Issue provides an excellent opportunity to submit full papers, short communications or review papers.

Dr. Alessandro Sorrentino
Prof. Stefano Bellucci
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • pharmaceutical chemistry
  • industrial applications
  • medicine
  • drug delivery
  • prosthetics
  • dental applications
  • artificial bones.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 5752 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Chemisorbed Tribo-Film for Ceramic-on-Ceramic Hip Joint Prostheses by Raman Spectroscopy
by Risha Rufaqua, Martin Vrbka, Dušan Hemzal, Dipankar Choudhury, David Rebenda, Ivan Křupka and Martin Hartl
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12020029 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3577
Abstract
To understand the possible lubricant mechanism in ceramic-on-ceramic hip joint prostheses, biochemical reactions of the synovial fluid and the corresponding frictional coefficients were studied. The experiments were performed in a hip joint simulator using the ball-on-cup configuration with balls and cups made from [...] Read more.
To understand the possible lubricant mechanism in ceramic-on-ceramic hip joint prostheses, biochemical reactions of the synovial fluid and the corresponding frictional coefficients were studied. The experiments were performed in a hip joint simulator using the ball-on-cup configuration with balls and cups made from two types of ceramics, BIOLOX®forte and BIOLOX®delta. Different lubricants, namely albumin, γ-globulin, hyaluronic acid and three model synovial fluids, were studied in the experiments and Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the biochemical responses of these lubricants at the interface. BIOLOX®delta surface was found less reactive to proteins and model fluid lubricants. In contrast, BIOLOX®forte ball surface has shown chemisorption with both proteins, hyaluronic acid and model fluids imitating total joint replacement and osteoarthritic joint. There was no direct correlation between the measured frictional coefficient and the observed chemical reactions. In summary, the study reveals chemistry of lubricant film formation on ceramic hip implant surfaces with various model synovial fluids and their components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bioceramics)
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17 pages, 7499 KiB  
Article
Micro-Nano Surface Characterization and Bioactivity of a Calcium Phosphate-Incorporated Titanium Implant Surface
by Fausto Zamparini, Carlo Prati, Luigi Generali, Andrea Spinelli, Paola Taddei and Maria Giovanna Gandolfi
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010003 - 7 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3145
Abstract
The surface topography of dental implants and micro-nano surface characterization have gained particular interest for the improvement of the osseointegration phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface micro-nanomorphology and bioactivity (apatite forming ability) of Ossean® surface, a resorbable [...] Read more.
The surface topography of dental implants and micro-nano surface characterization have gained particular interest for the improvement of the osseointegration phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface micro-nanomorphology and bioactivity (apatite forming ability) of Ossean® surface, a resorbable blast medium (RBM) blasted surface further processed through the incorporation of a low amount of calcium phosphate. The implants were analyzed using environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM), connected to Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), field emission gun SEM-EDX (SEM-FEG) micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after immersion in weekly refreshed Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 28 days. The analysis of the samples before immersion showed a moderately rough surface, with micropits and microgrooves distributed on all of the surface; EDX microanalysis revealed the constitutional elements of the implant surface, namely titanium (Ti), aluminum (Al) and vanadium (V). Limited traces of calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were detected, attributable to the incorporated calcium phosphate. No traces of calcium phosphate phases were detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy. ESEM analysis of the implant aged in HBSS for 28 days revealed a significantly different surface, compared to the implant before immersion. At original magnifications <2000×, a homogeneous mineral layer was present on all the surface, covering all the pits and microgrooves. At original magnifications ≥10,000×, the mineral layer revealed the presence of small microspherulites. The structure of these spherulites (approx. 2 µm diameter) was observed in nanoimmersion mode revealing a regular shape with a hairy-like contour. Micro-Raman analysis showed the presence of B-type carbonated apatite on the implant surface, which was further confirmed by XPS analysis. This implant showed a micro-nano-textured surface supporting the formation of a biocompatible apatite when immersed in HBSS. These properties may likely favor bone anchorage and healing by stimulation of mineralizing cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bioceramics)
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13 pages, 5363 KiB  
Article
Biocompatibility of α-Al2O3 Ceramic Substrates with Human Neural Precursor Cells
by Akrivi Asimakopoulou, Ioannis Gkekas, Georgia Kastrinaki, Alessandro Prigione, Vasileios T. Zaspalis and Spyros Petrakis
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11030065 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3446
Abstract
Background: Biocompatible materials-topography could be used for the construction of scaffolds allowing the three-dimensional (3D) organization of human stem cells into functional tissue-like structures with a defined architecture. Methods: Structural characterization of an alumina-based substrate was performed through XRD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, scanning [...] Read more.
Background: Biocompatible materials-topography could be used for the construction of scaffolds allowing the three-dimensional (3D) organization of human stem cells into functional tissue-like structures with a defined architecture. Methods: Structural characterization of an alumina-based substrate was performed through XRD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and wettability measurements. Biocompatibility of the substrate was assessed by measuring the proliferation and differentiation of human neural precursor stem cells (NPCs). Results: α-Al2O3 is a ceramic material with crystallite size of 40 nm; its surface consists of aggregates in the range of 8–22 μm which forms a rough surface in the microscale with 1–8 μm cavities. The non-calcined material has a surface area of 5.5 m2/gr and pore size distribution of 20 nm, which is eliminated in the calcined structure. Thus, the pore network on the surface and the body of the ceramic becomes more water proof, as indicated by wettability measurements. The alumina-based substrate supported the proliferation of human NPCs and their differentiation into functional neurons. Conclusions: Our work indicates the potential use of alumina for the construction of 3D engineered biosystems utilizing human neurons. Such systems may be useful for diagnostic purposes, drug testing, or biotechnological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bioceramics)
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11 pages, 2596 KiB  
Communication
Clinoenstatite/Tantalum Coating for Enhancement of Biocompatibility and Corrosion Protection of Mg Alloy
by Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi-Rad, Aliakbar Najafinezhad, Esah Hamzah, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Filippo Berto and Xiongbiao Chen
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11020026 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4133
Abstract
Biodegradable Mg alloys have appeared as the most appealing metals for biomedical applications, particularly as temporary bone implants. However, issues regarding high corrosion rate and biocompatibility restrict their application. Hence, in the present work, nanostructured clinoenstatite (CLT, MgSiO3)/tantalum nitride (TaN) was [...] Read more.
Biodegradable Mg alloys have appeared as the most appealing metals for biomedical applications, particularly as temporary bone implants. However, issues regarding high corrosion rate and biocompatibility restrict their application. Hence, in the present work, nanostructured clinoenstatite (CLT, MgSiO3)/tantalum nitride (TaN) was deposited on the Mg-Ca-Zn alloy via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) along with physical vapor deposition (PVD) to improve the corrosion and biological characteristics of the Mg-Ca-Zn alloy. The TaN intermediate layer with bubble like morphology possessed a compact and homogenous structure with a thickness of about 950 nm while the thick CLT over-layer (~15 μm) displayed a less compact structure containing nano-porosities as well as nanoparticles with spherical morphology. The electrochemical tests demonstrated that the as prepared CLT/TaN film is able to substantially increase the anticorrosion property of Mg-Ca-Zn bare alloy. Cytocompatibility outcomes indicated that formation of CLT and TaN on the Mg bare alloy surface enhanced cell viability, proliferation and growth, implying excellent biocompatibility. Taken together, the CLT/TaN coating exhibits appropriate characteristic including anticorrosion property and biocompatibility in order to employ in biomedical files. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bioceramics)
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Review

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28 pages, 2047 KiB  
Review
Graphene Oxide (GO) Materials—Applications and Toxicity on Living Organisms and Environment
by Aminah N. Ghulam, Otávio A. L. dos Santos, Layla Hazeem, Bianca Pizzorno Backx, Mohamed Bououdina and Stefano Bellucci
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13020077 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 7875
Abstract
Graphene-based materials have attracted much attention due to their fascinating properties such as hydrophilicity, high dispersion in aqueous media, robust size, high biocompatibility, and surface functionalization ability due to the presence of functional groups and interactions with biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic [...] Read more.
Graphene-based materials have attracted much attention due to their fascinating properties such as hydrophilicity, high dispersion in aqueous media, robust size, high biocompatibility, and surface functionalization ability due to the presence of functional groups and interactions with biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acid. Modified methods were developed for safe, direct, inexpensive, and eco-friendly synthesis. However, toxicity to the environment and animal health has been reported, raising concerns about their utilization. This review focuses primarily on the synthesis methods of graphene-based materials already developed and the unique properties that make them so interesting for different applications. Different applications are presented and discussed with particular emphasis on biological fields. Furthermore, antimicrobial potential and the factors that affect this activity are reviewed. Finally, questions related to toxicity to the environment and living organisms are revised by highlighting factors that may interfere with it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bioceramics)
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