Functional Biomaterials and Digital Technologies in Dentistry: From Bench to Bedside

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983). This special issue belongs to the section "Dental Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2023) | Viewed by 25180

Special Issue Editors

Department of Prosthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China
Interests: implant dentistry; digital dentistry; dental materials; biodegradable metals; additive manufacturing; biomaterials
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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Interests: biomaterials; materials chemistry; electrochemistry; biodegradable metals; corrosion science; surface modification
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Guest Editor
Center of Oral Implantology, Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
Interests: implant dentistry; dental materials; bone regeneration; evidence-based dentistry
Department of Periodontology, Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
Interests: periodontitis; oral surgery; oral health-systemic health; oral health; general health; digital dentistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of dentistry requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the advancements of medicine, materials science and engineering, and computer science. To date, various functional biomaterials have been developed and proposed for oral and maxillofacial applications, due to their excellent biocompatibility, superior mechanical properties, and proper biofunctionality. In addition, advancements in digital technologies for biomaterials have attracted increasing attention. However, the translation process of functional biomaterials and digital technologies from bench to clinic remains extremely challenging.

The Special Issue entitled “Functional Biomaterials and Digital Technologies in Dentistry: from Bench to Bedside” aims to provide insight into the recent advances in functional biomaterials and digital technologies. It intends to explore opportunities for the basic research and clinical application of biomaterials and digital technologies. The main topics of this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following: advanced functional biomaterials (metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites) and digital technologies (CAD/CAM milling, 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing) in the fields of dental applications.

We invite you to submit a manuscript(s) and present your recent research articles, reviews, short commutations, and case reports that reveal the current state of the art and future trends in this field.

Dr. Ping Li
Prof. Dr. Guojiang Wan
Prof. Dr. Shulan Xu
Dr. An Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • digital dentistry
  • metals
  • ceramics
  • polymers
  • CAD/CAM
  • 3D printing

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 178 KiB  
Editorial
Functional Biomaterials and Digital Technologies in Dentistry: From Bench to Bedside
by Ping Li, Guojiang Wan, Shulan Xu and An Li
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15040107 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 726
Abstract
This Special Issue, “Functional Biomaterials and Digital Technologies in Dentistry: From Bench to Bedside”, highlights the integration of advanced materials science and digital technologies in dental and maxillofacial applications [...] Full article

Research

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14 pages, 2811 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of Computerized Optical Impression Making in Fabrication of Removable Dentures for Partially Edentulous Jaws: An In Vivo Feasibility Study
by Babak Saravi, Julia Ilbertz, Kirstin Vach, Ralf J. Kohal and Sebastian B. M. Patzelt
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(9), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14090458 - 5 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2295
Abstract
The use of computerized optical impression making (COIM) for the fabrication of removable dentures for partially edentulous jaws is a rising trend in dental prosthetics. However, the accuracy of this method compared with that of traditional impression-making techniques remains uncertain. We therefore decided [...] Read more.
The use of computerized optical impression making (COIM) for the fabrication of removable dentures for partially edentulous jaws is a rising trend in dental prosthetics. However, the accuracy of this method compared with that of traditional impression-making techniques remains uncertain. We therefore decided to evaluate the accuracy of COIM in the context of partially edentulous jaws in an in vivo setting. Twelve partially edentulous patients with different Kennedy classes underwent both a conventional impression (CI) and a computerized optical impression (COI) procedure. The CI was then digitized and compared with the COI data using 3D analysis software. Four different comparison situations were assessed: Whole Jaw (WJ), Mucosa with Residual Teeth (M_RT), Isolated Mucosa (IM), and Isolated Abutment Teeth (AT). Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate group differences by quantifying the deviation values between the CIs and COIs. The mean deviations between the COIs and CIs varied significantly across the different comparison situations, with mucosal areas showing higher deviations than dental hard tissue. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the maxilla and mandible. Although COIM offers a no-pressure impression method that captures surfaces without irritation, it was found to capture mucosa less accurately than dental hard tissue. This discrepancy can likely be attributed to software algorithms that automatically filter out mobile tissues. Clinically, these findings suggest that caution is required when using COIM for prosthetics involving mucosal tissues as deviations could compromise the fit and longevity of the prosthetic appliance. Further research is warranted to assess the clinical relevance of these deviations. Full article
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20 pages, 3582 KiB  
Article
Biomimetic Liquid Crystal-Modified Mesoporous Silica−Based Composite Hydrogel for Soft Tissue Repair
by Xiaoling Li, Lei Wan, Taifu Zhu, Ruiqi Li, Mu Zhang and Haibin Lu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(6), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14060316 - 8 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The reconstruction of blood vessels plays a critical role in the tissue regeneration process. However, existing wound dressings in tissue engineering face challenges due to inadequate revascularization induction and a lack of vascular structure. In this study, we report the modification of mesoporous [...] Read more.
The reconstruction of blood vessels plays a critical role in the tissue regeneration process. However, existing wound dressings in tissue engineering face challenges due to inadequate revascularization induction and a lack of vascular structure. In this study, we report the modification of mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) with liquid crystal (LC) to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility in vitro. This LC modification facilitated crucial cellular processes such as the proliferation, migration, spreading, and expression of angiogenesis−related genes and proteins in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, we incorporated LC−modified MSN within a hydrogel matrix to create a multifunctional dressing that combines the biological benefits of LC−MSN with the mechanical advantages of a hydrogel. Upon application to full−thickness wounds, these composite hydrogels exhibited accelerated healing, evidenced by enhanced granulation tissue formation, increased collagen deposition, and improved vascular development. Our findings suggest that the LC−MSN hydrogel formulation holds significant promise for the repair and regeneration of soft tissues. Full article
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16 pages, 15156 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxicity Induced by Black Phosphorus Nanosheets in Vascular Endothelial Cells via Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Activation
by Hao Dong, Yin Wen, Jiating Lin, Xianxian Zhuang, Ruoting Xian, Ping Li and Shaobing Li
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(5), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14050284 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
Black phosphorus (BP), an emerging two-dimensional material with unique optical, thermoelectric, and mechanical properties, has been proposed as bioactive material for tissue engineering. However, its toxic effects on physiological systems remain obscure. The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of BP to vascular endothelial [...] Read more.
Black phosphorus (BP), an emerging two-dimensional material with unique optical, thermoelectric, and mechanical properties, has been proposed as bioactive material for tissue engineering. However, its toxic effects on physiological systems remain obscure. The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of BP to vascular endothelial cells. BP nanosheets (BPNSs) with a diameter of 230 nm were fabricated via a classical liquid-phase exfoliation method. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to determine the cytotoxicity induced by BPNSs (0.31–80 μg/mL). When the concentrations were over 2.5 μg/mL, BPNSs adversely affected the cytoskeleton and cell migration. Furthermore, BPNSs caused mitochondrial dysfunction and generated excessive intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at tested concentrations after 24 h. BPNSs could influence the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including the P53 and BCL-2 family, resulting in the apoptosis of HUVECs. Therefore, the viability and function of HUVECs were adversely influenced by the concentration of BPNSs over 2.5 μg/mL. These findings provide significant information for the potential applications of BP in tissue engineering. Full article
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12 pages, 2657 KiB  
Article
Self-Assembling Peptide RADA16 Nanofiber Scaffold Hydrogel-Wrapped Concentrated Growth Factors in Osteogenesis of MC3T3
by Renjie Yang, Jiali Chen, Dingjie Wang, Yichen Xu and Guomin Ou
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(5), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14050260 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Concentrated growth factors (CGFs) are widely used in surgery with bone grafting, but the release of growth factors from CGFs is rapid. RADA16, a self-assembling peptide, can form a scaffold that is similar to the extracellular matrix. Based on the properties of RADA16 [...] Read more.
Concentrated growth factors (CGFs) are widely used in surgery with bone grafting, but the release of growth factors from CGFs is rapid. RADA16, a self-assembling peptide, can form a scaffold that is similar to the extracellular matrix. Based on the properties of RADA16 and CGF, we hypothesized that the RADA16 nanofiber scaffold hydrogel could enhance the function of CGFs and that the RADA16 nanofiber scaffold hydrogel-wrapped CGFs (RADA16-CGFs) would perform a good osteoinductive function. This study aimed to investigate the osteoinductive function of RADA16-CGFs. Scanning electron microscopy, rheometry, and ELISA were performed, and MC3T3-E1 cells were used to test cell adhesion, cytotoxicity, and mineralization after administration with RADA16-CGFs. We found that RADA16 endowed with the sustained release of growth factors from CGFs, which can help maximize the function of CGFs in osteoinduction. The application of the atoxic RADA16 nanofiber scaffold hydrogel with CGFs can be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of alveolar bone loss and other problems that require bone regeneration. Full article
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16 pages, 18578 KiB  
Article
Response of Human Gingival Fibroblasts and Porphyromonas gingivalis to UVC-Activated Titanium Surfaces
by Yin Wen, Hao Dong, Jiating Lin, Xianxian Zhuang, Ruoting Xian, Ping Li and Shaobing Li
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030137 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) photofunctionalization has been demonstrated to synergistically improve the osteoblast response and reduce biofilm formation on titanium (Ti) surfaces. However, it remains obscure how photofunctionalization affects soft tissue integration and microbial adhesion on the transmucosal part of a dental implant. This study [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV) photofunctionalization has been demonstrated to synergistically improve the osteoblast response and reduce biofilm formation on titanium (Ti) surfaces. However, it remains obscure how photofunctionalization affects soft tissue integration and microbial adhesion on the transmucosal part of a dental implant. This study aimed to investigate the effect of UVC (100–280 nm) pretreatment on the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. g.) to Ti-based implant surfaces. The smooth and anodized nano-engineered Ti-based surfaces were triggered by UVC irradiation, respectively. The results showed that both smooth and nano-surfaces acquired super hydrophilicity without structural alteration after UVC photofunctionalization. UVC-activated smooth surfaces enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of HGFs compared to the untreated smooth ones. Regarding the anodized nano-engineered surfaces, UVC pretreatment weakened the fibroblast attachment but had no adverse effects on proliferation and the related gene expression. Additionally, both Ti-based surfaces could effectively inhibit P. g. adhesion after UVC irradiation. Therefore, the UVC photofunctionalization could be more potentially favorable to synergistically improve the fibroblast response and inhibit P. g. adhesion on the smooth Ti-based surfaces. Full article
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14 pages, 6788 KiB  
Article
Adhesive Property of 3D-Printed PEEK Abutments: Effects of Surface Treatment and Temporary Crown Material on Shear Bond Strength
by Dingjie Wang, Xingting Han, Feng Luo, Florian M. Thieringer, Yichen Xu, Guomin Ou and Sebastian Spintzyk
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040288 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Three-dimensionally printed polyetheretherketone (PEEK) materials are promising for fabricating customized dental abutments. This study aimed to investigate the adhesive property of a 3D-printed PEEK material. The effects of surface treatment and temporary crown materials on shear bond strength were evaluated. A total of [...] Read more.
Three-dimensionally printed polyetheretherketone (PEEK) materials are promising for fabricating customized dental abutments. This study aimed to investigate the adhesive property of a 3D-printed PEEK material. The effects of surface treatment and temporary crown materials on shear bond strength were evaluated. A total of 108 PEEK discs were 3D printed by fused-filament fabrication. Surface treatments, including sandblasting, abrasive paper grinding, and CO2 laser ablation, were applied to the PEEK discs, with the untreated specimens set as the control. Afterward, the surface topographies of each group were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, n = 1) and roughness measurements (n = 7). After preparing the bonding specimens with three temporary crown materials (Artificial teeth resin (ATR), 3M™ Filtek™ Supreme Flowable Restorative (FR), and Cool Temp NATURAL (CTN)), the shear bond strength was measured (n = 6), and the failure modes were analyzed by microscopy and SEM. The results showed that ATR exhibited a significantly higher shear bond strength compared to FR and CTN (p < 0.01), and the PEEK surfaces treated by sandblasting and abrasive paper grinding showed a statistically higher shear bond strength compared to the control (p < 0.05). For clinical application, the ATR material and subtractive surface treatments are recommended for 3D-printed PEEK abutments. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 2020 KiB  
Review
The Use of Warm Air for Solvent Evaporation in Adhesive Dentistry: A Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Studies
by Rim Bourgi, Louis Hardan, Carlos Enrique Cuevas-Suárez, Francesco Scavello, Davide Mancino, Naji Kharouf and Youssef Haikel
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(5), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14050285 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Any excess solvent from dental adhesive systems must be eliminated prior to material photopolymerization. For this purpose, numerous approaches have been proposed, including the use of a warm air stream. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different temperatures of warm air [...] Read more.
Any excess solvent from dental adhesive systems must be eliminated prior to material photopolymerization. For this purpose, numerous approaches have been proposed, including the use of a warm air stream. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different temperatures of warm air blowing used for solvent evaporation on the bond strength of resin-based materials to dental and nondental substrates. Two different reviewers screened the literature in diverse electronic databases. In vitro studies recording the effect of warm air blowing to evaporate solvents of adhesive systems on the bond strength of resin-based materials to direct and indirect substrates were included. A total of 6626 articles were retrieved from all databases. From this, 28 articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and 27 remained for the quantitative analysis. The results of the meta-analysis for etch-and-rinse adhesives revealed that the use of warm air for solvent evaporation was statistically significantly higher (p = 0.005). For self-etch adhesives and silane-based materials, this effect was observed too (p < 0.001). The use of a warm air stream for solvent evaporation enhanced the bonding performance of alcohol-/water-based adhesive systems for dentin. This effect seems to be similar when a silane coupling agent is submitted to a heat treatment before the cementation of a glass-based ceramic. Full article
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15 pages, 1315 KiB  
Review
Research Advances on Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promoting the Reconstruction of Alveolar Bone through RANKL/RANK/OPG Pathway
by Xia Huang, Yuxiao Li, Hui Liao, Xin Luo, Yueping Zhao, Yadong Huang, Zhiying Zhou and Qi Xiang
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14040193 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
Periodontal bone tissue defects and bone shortages are the most familiar and troublesome clinical problems in the oral cavity. Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (SC-EVs) have biological properties similar to their sources, and they could be a promising acellular therapy to assist with periodontal [...] Read more.
Periodontal bone tissue defects and bone shortages are the most familiar and troublesome clinical problems in the oral cavity. Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (SC-EVs) have biological properties similar to their sources, and they could be a promising acellular therapy to assist with periodontal osteogenesis. In the course of alveolar bone remodeling, the RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is an important pathway involved in bone metabolism. This article summarizes the experimental studies of SC-EVs applied for the therapy of periodontal osteogenesis recently and explores the role of the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway in their mechanism of action. Their unique patterns will open a new field of vision for people, and they will help to advance a possible future clinical treatment. Full article
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15 pages, 4329 KiB  
Review
Obturator Manufacturing for Oronasal Fistula after Cleft Palate Repair: A Review from Handicraft to the Application of Digital Techniques
by Jiali Chen, Renjie Yang, Bing Shi, Yichen Xu and Hanyao Huang
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040251 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4835
Abstract
An oronasal fistula (ONF) is an abnormal structure between the oral and nasal cavities, which is a common complication of cleft palate repair due to the failure of wound healing. When some patients with ONF are unsuitable for secondary surgical repair, the obturator [...] Read more.
An oronasal fistula (ONF) is an abnormal structure between the oral and nasal cavities, which is a common complication of cleft palate repair due to the failure of wound healing. When some patients with ONF are unsuitable for secondary surgical repair, the obturator treatment becomes a potential method. The objectives of the obturator treatment should be summarized as filling the ONF comfortably and cosmetically restoring the dentition with partial function. The anatomy of patients with cleft palate is complex, which may lead to a more complex structure of the ONF. Thus, the manufacturing process of the obturator for these patients is more difficult. For performing the design and fabrication process rapidly and precisely, digital techniques can help, but limitations still exist. In this review, literature searches were conducted through Medline via PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Science Direct, and Web of Science, and 122 articles were selected. The purpose of this review was to introduce the development of the obturator for treating patients with ONF after cleft palate repair, from the initial achievement of the obstruction of the ONF to later problems such as fixation, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and infection, as well as the application of digital technologies in obturator manufacturing. Full article
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Other

28 pages, 2445 KiB  
Systematic Review
Cytotoxicity of Biodegradable Zinc and Its Alloys: A Systematic Review
by Qian Liu, An Li, Shizhen Liu, Qingyun Fu, Yichen Xu, Jingtao Dai, Ping Li and Shulan Xu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14040206 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
Zinc-based biodegradable metals (BMs) have been developed for biomedical implant materials. However, the cytotoxicity of Zn and its alloys has caused controversy. This work aims to investigate whether Zn and its alloys possess cytotoxic effects and the corresponding influence factors. According to the [...] Read more.
Zinc-based biodegradable metals (BMs) have been developed for biomedical implant materials. However, the cytotoxicity of Zn and its alloys has caused controversy. This work aims to investigate whether Zn and its alloys possess cytotoxic effects and the corresponding influence factors. According to the guidelines of the PRISMA statement, an electronic combined hand search was conducted to retrieve articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus (2013.1–2023.2) following the PICOS strategy. Eighty-six eligible articles were included. The quality of the included toxicity studies was assessed utilizing the ToxRTool. Among the included articles, extract tests were performed in 83 studies, and direct contact tests were conducted in 18 studies. According to the results of this review, the cytotoxicity of Zn-based BMs is mainly determined by three factors, namely, Zn-based materials, tested cells, and test system. Notably, Zn and its alloys did not exhibit cytotoxic effects under certain test conditions, but significant heterogeneity existed in the implementation of the cytotoxicity evaluation. Furthermore, there is currently a relatively lower quality of current cytotoxicity evaluation in Zn-based BMs owing to the adoption of nonuniform standards. Establishing a standardized in vitro toxicity assessment system for Zn-based BMs is required for future investigations. Full article
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29 pages, 1649 KiB  
Systematic Review
Four-Dimensional Superimposition Techniques to Compose Dental Dynamic Virtual Patients: A Systematic Review
by Ying Yuan, Qian Liu, Shuo Yang and Wulin He
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010033 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
Four-dimensional virtual patient is a simulation model integrating multiple dynamic data. This study aimed to review the techniques in virtual four-dimensional dental patients. Searches up to November 2022 were performed using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. The studies included [...] Read more.
Four-dimensional virtual patient is a simulation model integrating multiple dynamic data. This study aimed to review the techniques in virtual four-dimensional dental patients. Searches up to November 2022 were performed using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. The studies included were based on the superimposition of two or more digital information types involving at least one dynamic technique. Methodological assessment of the risk of bias was performed according to the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist. Methods, programs, information, registration techniques, applications, outcomes, and limitations of the virtual patients were analyzed. Twenty-seven full texts were reviewed, including 17 case reports, 10 non-randomized controlled experimental studies, 75 patients, and 3 phantoms. Few studies showed a low risk of bias. Dynamic data included real-time jaw motion, simulated jaw position, and dynamic facial information. Three to five types of information were integrated to create virtual patients based on diverse superimposition methods. Thirteen studies showed acceptable dynamic techniques/models/registration accuracy, whereas 14 studies only introduced the feasibility. The superimposition of stomatognathic data from different information collection devices is feasible for creating dynamic virtual patients. Further studies should focus on analyzing the accuracy of four-dimensional virtual patients and developing a comprehensive system. Full article
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