Dentistry: Clinical Applications and Innovative Techniques of New Biomaterials

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983). This special issue belongs to the section "Dental Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 March 2024) | Viewed by 24949

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania, Luigi Vanvitelli, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: temporomandibular disorders; TED; temporomandibular joint; orofacial pain; dentistry; telemedicine; tele dentistry; implant; prosthesis; oral surgery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Medical Oncology, Department of Precision Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; cell biology; cancer cells; cancer cell biology; genetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few years, new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have been developed in dentistry, the  materials represent a fundamental aspect of clinical practice, so many innovative techniques and materials have been developed in every field of dentistry. Tremendous contemporary biomaterials and technologies have been developed to diagnose and treat diseases in oral and maxillofacial areas, these achievements have made it possible to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis and plan treatments more precisely.

This applies to biomaterials used for dentistry in children and adults, as well as materials used during prosthetic, orthodontic, surgical, and periodontal treatment. Moreover, there is increasing interest in artificial intelligence and orthodontics, in digital dentistry, new biomaterials, orthodontics, clear aligners, sleep dentistry, and temporomandibular disorders. The innovation of digital dentistry is in its predictability but also in its improvement in terms of communication between patient and doctor. The aim of this Special Issue is to cover all the new approaches materials and technologies, including the management of malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders, the epidemiology and risk factors in dentistry.

This Special Issue offers the possibility to researchers and clinicians to send their research and their studies on new dental materials, biomaterials, technologies, and to share the results achieved in all fields of dentistry, such as periodontics, prosthetics, orthodontics, tempormandibular disorders, oral surgery, and for maxillofacial applications.

We are delighted to invite investigators to submit original research articles, literature reviews, and high-quality case reports.

Dr. Giuseppe Minervini
Dr. Valentina Belli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • biothecnologies
  • TMJ
  • telemedicine
  • technologies
  • web
  • teledentistry
  • temporomandibular disorders
  • bruxism
  • orofacial pain
  • EMG
  • dental implants
  • oral microbioma
  • prosthodontics
  • orthodontics
  • anomaly
  • ankylosis

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 2364 KiB  
Article
Clinical and Biochemical Evaluation of the Use of Alb-PRF versus L-PRF in Mandibular Third Molar Extractions: A Split-Mouth Randomized Clinical Trial
by Kayvon Javid, Carlos Fernando Mourão, Rafael Coutinho Mello-Machado, Suelen Cristina Sartoretto, Madelaine Torres, Emanuelle Stellet Lourenço, Paulo Emilio Correa Leite, José Mauro Granjeiro, Gutemberg Gomes Alves and Monica Diuana Calasans-Maia
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(10), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14100505 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering seeks biomaterials that enable cell migration, angiogenesis, matrix deposition, and tissue regeneration. Blood concentrates like platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) offer a cost-effective source of cells and growth factors to enhance healing. The present study aimed to evaluate heated serum albumin with [...] Read more.
Bone tissue engineering seeks biomaterials that enable cell migration, angiogenesis, matrix deposition, and tissue regeneration. Blood concentrates like platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) offer a cost-effective source of cells and growth factors to enhance healing. The present study aimed to evaluate heated serum albumin with liquid PRF (Alb-PRF) and L-PRF clinically and biochemically after placement in dental sockets following mandibular third molar extraction. In a controlled, split-mouth study involving 10 volunteers, 20 extracted molars were treated with either Alb-PRF or L-PRF. Post-extraction, pain, trismus, infection presence, and swelling were measured. The concentrations of different analytes in the surgical sites were also examined. The data were statistically analyzed, with significance defined at p < 0.05 (t-test). No significant difference was noted between the groups for pain and trismus, but Alb-PRF showed a significant reduction in swelling on day seven. The Alb-PRF group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-1b, IL-6, IFNy, IL-8, IL-15, RANTES, and MIP-1a) after seven days, with only higher expressions of MIP-1b, IL-1b, and MCP-1 found in the L-PRF group. Differences were observed in the release of analytes between L-PRF and Alb-PRF, with Alb-PRF significantly reducing edema after seven days. Alb-PRF reduced edema, while L-PRF increased inflammatory cytokines. When compared to L-PRF, Alb-PRF reduced edema and the release of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting promising effects in socket healing while underscoring the role of growth factors and cytokines in potential applications of blood concentrates. Full article
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12 pages, 3595 KiB  
Article
Osseointegration of Tantalum Trabecular Metal in Titanium Dental Implants: Histological and Micro-CT Study
by Modhi Al Deeb, Abdullah AlFarraj Aldosari and Sukumaran Anil
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(7), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14070355 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the Tantalum Trabecular Metal dental implant design on implant stability and the process of osseointegration following its placement in the rabbit femoral condyle. The subjects for the experiment consisted of 10 New Zealand white rabbits. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the Tantalum Trabecular Metal dental implant design on implant stability and the process of osseointegration following its placement in the rabbit femoral condyle. The subjects for the experiment consisted of 10 New Zealand white rabbits. Twenty implants, comprising 10 Trabecular Metal (TM) and 10 Traditional Screw Vent (TSV) implants, were placed into the femoral condyles of these rabbits. The implant type was alternated based on a random sequence. Following a healing period of 8 weeks, the implants were retrieved for further analysis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histological studies, and histomorphometry evaluations. The Bone-to-Implant Contact (BIC) ratio and the Bone Volume (BV) percentage in the region of interest were subsequently assessed. The BIC and BV values between TM and TSV implants were compared using the Student t-test. The TM implants exhibited significantly greater BIC and BV scores. In particular, the BIC percentage was recorded as 57.9 ± 6.5 for the TM implants, as opposed to 47.6 ± 8 for the TSV implants. Correspondingly, the BV percentage was 57 ± 7.3 for the TM implants and 46.4 ± 7.4 for the TSV implants. The bone volume percentage measured using micro-CT evaluation was 89.1 ± 8.7 for the TM implants and 79.1 ± 8.6 for the TSV implants. Given the observed results, it is plausible to suggest that the bone growth surrounding the tantalum mesh could have improved the integration of the bone and facilitated its ingrowth into the TM implant. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 422 KiB  
Review
In Vitro Evaluation of Lithium Disilicate Endocrowns and Post and Core Crowns—A Systematic Review
by Zeeshan Qamar, Ahmed Mohammed Saad Alghamdi, Naji Khaled Bin Haydarah, Abdulateef Ahmed Balateef, Ahmed Aydhah Alamoudi, Munther Amer Abumismar, Ankita Mathur and Giuseppe Minervini
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(5), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14050276 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the results of the studies that have compared the physical and mechanical properties of lithium disilicate (LDS) endocrowns constructed for posterior teeth to those retained by post-and-core retention systems. The review was conducted following [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the results of the studies that have compared the physical and mechanical properties of lithium disilicate (LDS) endocrowns constructed for posterior teeth to those retained by post-and-core retention systems. The review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. The electronic search process was conducted on PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Embase and ISI Web of Knowledge (WoS) from the earliest available date till 31 January 2023. Additionally, the studies were assessed for their overall quality and risk of bias using the Quality Assessment Tool For In Vitro Studies (the QUIN). The initial search resulted in 291 articles, out of which, only 10 studies met the eligibility criteria. In all studies LDS endocrowns were compared with various kinds of endodontic posts and crowns made from other materials. There were no definite pattern or trends observed in the fracture strengths of tested specimens. There was no predilection observed in failure patters among the experimental specimens. No predilection was observed in the fracture strengths of LDS endocrowns when compared to post-and-core crowns. Furthermore, no differences in failure patterns could be observed when both types of restorations were compared. The authors propose standardized testing of endocrowns against post-and-core crowns in future studies. In conclusion, long-term clinical trials are advocated to compare the survival, failure and complication rates of LDS endocrowns and post-and-core restorations. Full article
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17 pages, 3220 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Various Aligner Materials and Attachments on Orthodontic Tooth Movement
by Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Bushra Kanwal, Abedalrahman Shqaidef, Haytham Jamil Alswairki, Ahmed Ali Alfawzan, Abdulilah Ibrahim Alabdullatif, Abdulaziz Naser Aalmunif, Sattam Hamad Aljrewey, Thamer Abdullah Alothman, Deepti Shrivastava and Kumar Chandan Srivastava
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14040209 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4075
Abstract
The majority of patients strongly favor the use of aligners in the present time, especially with the advancement in esthetic dentistry. Today’s market is flooded with aligner companies, many of which share the same therapeutic ethos. We therefore carried out a systematic review [...] Read more.
The majority of patients strongly favor the use of aligners in the present time, especially with the advancement in esthetic dentistry. Today’s market is flooded with aligner companies, many of which share the same therapeutic ethos. We therefore carried out a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate research that had looked at various aligner materials and attachments and their effect on orthodontic tooth movement in relevant studies. A total of 634 papers were discovered after a thorough search of online journals using keywords such as “Aligners”, “Orthodontics”, “Orthodontic attachments”, “Orthodontic tooth movement”, and “Polyethylene” across databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane. The authors individually and in parallel carried out the database investigation, removal of duplicate studies, data extraction, and bias risk. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the type of aligner material had a significant impact on orthodontic tooth movement. The low level of heterogeneity and significant overall effect further support this finding. However, there was little effect of attachment size or shape on tooth mobility. The examined materials were primarily concerned with influencing the physical/physicochemical characteristics of the appliances and not tooth movement directly. Invisalign (Inv) had a higher mean value than the other types of materials that were analyzed, which suggested a potentially greater impact on orthodontic tooth movement. However, its variance value indicated that there was also greater uncertainty associated with the estimate compared to some of the other plastics. These findings could have important implications for orthodontic treatment planning and aligner material selection. Registration: This review protocol was registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; registration number: CRD42022381466). Full article
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16 pages, 1451 KiB  
Review
Comparing the Long-Term Success Rates of Tooth Preservation and Dental Implants: A Critical Review
by Suelen Cristina Sartoretto, Jamil Awad Shibli, Kayvon Javid, Khalila Cotrim, Antonio Canabarro, Rafael Seabra Louro, Adam Lowenstein, Carlos Fernando Mourão and Vittorio Moraschini
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030142 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4428
Abstract
Implant therapy is considered a predictable, safe, and reliable rehabilitation method for edentulous patients in most clinical scenarios. Thus, there is a growing trend in the indications for implants, which seems attributable not only to their clinical success but also to arguments such [...] Read more.
Implant therapy is considered a predictable, safe, and reliable rehabilitation method for edentulous patients in most clinical scenarios. Thus, there is a growing trend in the indications for implants, which seems attributable not only to their clinical success but also to arguments such as a more “simplified approach” based on convenience or the belief that dental implants are as good as natural teeth. Therefore, the objective of this critical literature review of observational studies was to discuss the evidence concerning the long-term survival rates and treatment outcomes, comparing endodontically or periodontally treated teeth with dental implants. Altogether, the evidence suggests that the decision between keeping a tooth or replacing it with an implant should carefully consider the condition of the tooth (e.g., amount of remaining tooth and degree of attachment loss and mobility), systemic disorders, and patient preference. Although observational studies revealed high success rates and long-term survival of dental implants, failures and complications are common. For this reason, attempts should be made to first save maintainable teeth over the long-term, instead of immediately replacing teeth with dental implants. Full article
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Other

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14 pages, 1013 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Cytotoxic Effect of Thermoplastic Denture Base Resins: A Systematic Review
by Shankargouda Patil, Frank W. Licari, Shilpa Bhandi, Kamran H. Awan, Almir Badnjević, Valentina Belli, Gabriele Cervino and Giuseppe Minervini
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(8), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14080411 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
Partial or complete dentures are constructed from thermoplastic resins that are thermally processed and molded. This review examines the presently available evidence for the cytotoxicity of thermoplasticized denture base resins on human gingival epithelial cells, adipose cells, and fibroblasts; human amnion fibroblasts; and [...] Read more.
Partial or complete dentures are constructed from thermoplastic resins that are thermally processed and molded. This review examines the presently available evidence for the cytotoxicity of thermoplasticized denture base resins on human gingival epithelial cells, adipose cells, and fibroblasts; human amnion fibroblasts; and mouse fibroblasts. Electronic searches were performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant articles to be included in the review until September 2022. Clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies in English language were searched for. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Toxicological data Reliability Assessment tool (ToxRTool) developed by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre. GRADE assessment was used to evaluate the certainty of evidence. Seven in vitro studies were included in the review. The overall risk of bias was determined to be high, with the majority of studies assessed found to be reliable with restrictions or not reliable. Only two studies were considered reliable without restrictions based on ToxRTool assessment. The effect of thermoplastic denture base resins on viability and cell adherence of human gingival or amnion fibroblasts and mouse fibroblasts (L929s) is not significant. Conditioned media from unpolished specimens of resins were significantly more toxic to cultured cells than those from polished specimens. This may be of concern in cases of poor post-processing of dentures. Based on the limited evidence available, there is low-certainty evidence that thermoplastic denture base resins appear to be biocompatible and show insignificant cytotoxicity. Further well-designed trials adhering to standard reporting guidelines and using objective measures are necessary before outlining universal guidelines for best practice. Long-term in vivo and clinical assessment is necessary to corroborate laboratory findings with clinical outcomes. Denture base resins are in constant contact with oral tissues, and cytotoxic components released by the resins may irritate or inflame the tissues or provoke an allergic response. Full article
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13 pages, 1332 KiB  
Systematic Review
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Histological Findings for Socket Preservation Techniques Using Different Grafting Materials: A Systematic Review
by Marwa Madi, Ibrahim Almindil, Maria Alrassasi, Doha Alramadan, Osama Zakaria and Adel S Alagl
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(5), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14050282 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Objective: Socket preservation techniques have been used to maintain the ridge dimension following tooth extraction. The materials used influence the quality and quantity of newly formed bone. Therefore, the aim of this article was to systematically review the literature reporting both histological and [...] Read more.
Objective: Socket preservation techniques have been used to maintain the ridge dimension following tooth extraction. The materials used influence the quality and quantity of newly formed bone. Therefore, the aim of this article was to systematically review the literature reporting both histological and radiographic outcomes of socket preservation techniques after tooth extraction in human subjects. Material and method: A systematic electronic search was performed in the electronic databases. English language clinical studies that were published between 2017 and 2022 and included both histological and radiographic findings for the test and control groups. Our primary search produced 848 articles, and of these, 215 were duplicate studies. A total of 72 articles were then eligible for full-text reading. Results: The review included eight studies that met its inclusion criteria. Three outcomes were compared in the included studies. The percentage of newly formed bone ranged from 21.34 ± 9.14% to more than 50% of new bone formation. The materials that showed more than 50% of newly formed bone formation were demineralized dentin graft, platelet-rich fibrin, freeze-dried bone allograft, corticocancellous porcine, and autogenous bone. Four Studies did not report the percentage of the residual graft materials, while those who reported showed a variable range of a minimum 1.5% to more than 25%. One study did not report the changes in horizontal width at the follow-up period, while other studies ranged from 0.6 mm to 10 mm. Conclusion: Socket preservation represents an efficient technique to preserve the ridge contour with satisfactory newly formed bone in the augmented site and maintaining the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the ridge. Full article
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9 pages, 4247 KiB  
Case Report
An Innovative 3D Printed Tooth Reduction Guide for Precise Dental Ceramic Veneers
by Manuel Robles, Carlos A. Jurado, Francisco X. Azpiazu-Flores, Jose Villalobos-Tinoco, Kelvin I. Afrashtehfar and Nicholas G. Fischer
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(4), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14040216 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3734
Abstract
Tooth reduction guides allow clinicians to obtain the ideal space required for ceramic restorations. This case report describes a novel design (CAD) for an additive computer-aided manufactured (a-CAM) tooth reduction guide with channels that permitted access for the preparation and evaluation of the [...] Read more.
Tooth reduction guides allow clinicians to obtain the ideal space required for ceramic restorations. This case report describes a novel design (CAD) for an additive computer-aided manufactured (a-CAM) tooth reduction guide with channels that permitted access for the preparation and evaluation of the reduction with the same guide. The guide features innovative vertical and horizontal channels that permit comprehensive access for preparation and evaluation of the reduction with a periodontal probe, ensuring uniform tooth reduction and avoiding overpreparation. This approach was successfully applied to a female patient with non-carious lesions and white spot lesions, resulting in minimally invasive tooth preparations and hand-crafted laminate veneer restorations that met the patient’s aesthetic demands while preserving tooth structure. Compared to traditional silicone reduction guides, this novel design offers greater flexibility, enabling clinicians to evaluate tooth reduction in all directions and providing a more comprehensive assessment. Overall, this 3D printed tooth reduction guide represents a significant advancement in dental restoration technology, offering clinicians a useful tool for achieving optimal outcomes with minimal tooth reduction. Future work is warranted to compare tooth reductions and preparation time for this guide to other 3D printed guides. Full article
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13 pages, 4170 KiB  
Case Report
Full-Mouth Rehabilitation of a Patient with Sjogren’s Syndrome with Maxillary Titanium-Zirconia and Mandibular Monolithic Zirconia Implant Prostheses Fabricated with CAD/CAM Technology: A Clinical Report
by Francisco X. Azpiazu-Flores, Damian J. Lee, Carlos A. Jurado, Kelvin I. Afrashtehfar, Abdulaziz Alhotan and Akimasa Tsujimoto
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(4), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14040174 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
Dental implants have become a well-established treatment modality for the management of complete and partial edentulism. Recent advancements in dental implant systems and CAD/CAM technologies have revolutionized prosthodontic practice by allowing for the predictable, efficient, and faster management of complex dental scenarios. This [...] Read more.
Dental implants have become a well-established treatment modality for the management of complete and partial edentulism. Recent advancements in dental implant systems and CAD/CAM technologies have revolutionized prosthodontic practice by allowing for the predictable, efficient, and faster management of complex dental scenarios. This clinical report describes the interdisciplinary management of a patient with Sjogren’s syndrome and terminal dentition. The patient was rehabilitated using dental implants and zirconia-based prostheses in the maxillary and mandibular arches. These prostheses were fabricated using a combination of CAD/CAM and analog techniques. The successful outcomes for the patient demonstrate the importance of appropriate use of biomaterials and the implementation of interdisciplinary collaboration in treating complex dental cases. Full article
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