Sustainable Composite Construction Materials

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X). This special issue belongs to the section "Composites Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 30656

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Guest Editor
Civil Engineering, The University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
Interests: cold-formed steel structures; application of artificial intelligence and machine learning for the structural prediction of steel structures; fire engineering; modular construction; sustainability and life cycle analysis of structures
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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600025, India
Interests: cold-formed steel structures; finite element analysis; steel–concrete composite structures; machine learning techniques; construction management; construction materials; sustainable construction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Often, a project's sustainability is centred on building services and energy, but we need to have a comprehensive view of how we integrate deeper sustainability. Traditionally, we have neglected embodied carbon generated during building construction, which has led to significant carbon emissions over the last few decades, causing global warming and other related problems. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect the results of research and practice experiences in sustainable building structures, made from steel, concrete, timber, and other composite materials. Dr Roy and Dr Ananthi warmly invite authors to submit their papers for potential inclusion in this Special Issue of “Sustainable construction using steel, concrete, timber, and other composite materials”, in the journal of Journal of Composites Science.

Dr. Krishanu Roy
Dr. G. Beulah Gnana Ananthi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Cold-formed steel composite structures
  • Analytical modelling for optimizing
  • Energy efficient buildings
  • Modular buildings
  • Prefabricated building systems
  • Hybrid construction
  • Pre-Engineered buildings
  • Managing the available facility
  • Composite cold-formed steel flooring systems using timber , concrete, light weight concrete
  • Flexural behaviour of composite beams made of cold-formed steel sections
  • Energy efficiency of hybrid cold formed steel sections
  • Light weight housing using cold formed composite sections
  • Efficiency of CFS composite connectors in floor system
  • Structural Performance of CFS composite structures under dynamic loadings
  • Quick construction techniques using CFS composite members
  • Behaviour of connectors between cfs composite floors or composite members
  • Alternative approach to pre-engineered CFS composite frames
  • Behaviour of composite columns of CFS members with different material infill

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue on Sustainable Composite Construction Materials
by Krishanu Roy and Beulah Gnana Ananthi Gurupatham
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(12), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7120491 - 28 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Sustainable composite construction materials play a crucial role in creating more environmental friendly and energy-efficient buildings [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)

Research

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22 pages, 10802 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study on Crack Detection in Concrete Walls Using Transfer Learning Techniques
by Remya Elizabeth Philip, A. Diana Andrushia, Anand Nammalvar, Beulah Gnana Ananthi Gurupatham and Krishanu Roy
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(4), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7040169 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2695
Abstract
Structural cracks have serious repercussions on the safety, adaptability, and longevity of structures. Therefore, assessing cracks is an important parameter when evaluating the quality of concrete construction. As numerous cutting-edge automated inspection systems that exploit cracks have been developed, the necessity for individual/personal [...] Read more.
Structural cracks have serious repercussions on the safety, adaptability, and longevity of structures. Therefore, assessing cracks is an important parameter when evaluating the quality of concrete construction. As numerous cutting-edge automated inspection systems that exploit cracks have been developed, the necessity for individual/personal onsite inspection has reduced exponentially. However, these methods need to be improved in terms of cost efficiency and accuracy. The deep-learning-based assessment approaches for structural systems have seen a significant development noticed by the structural health monitoring (SHM) community. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are vital in these deep learning methods. Technologies such as convolutional neural networks hold promise for precise and accurate condition evaluation. Moreover, transfer learning enables users to use CNNs without needing a comprehensive grasp of algorithms or the capability to modify pre-trained networks for particular purposes. Within the context of this study, a thorough analysis of well-known pre-trained networks for classifying the cracks in buildings made of concrete is conducted. The classification performance of convolutional neural network designs such as VGG16, VGG19, ResNet 50, MobileNet, and Xception is compared to one another with the concrete crack image dataset. It is identified that the ResNet50-based classifier provided accuracy scores of 99.91% for training and 99.88% for testing. Xception architecture delivered the least performance, with training and test accuracy of 99.64% and 98.82%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)
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19 pages, 6140 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on Flexural Behaviour of Sustainable Reinforced Concrete Beam with a Smart Mortar Layer
by Ramkumar Durairaj, Thirumurugan Varatharajan, Satyanarayanan Kachabeswara Srinivasan, Beulah Gnana Ananthi Gurupatham and Krishanu Roy
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7040132 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
This paper deals with an experimental study of the flexural behavior of sustainable reinforced cement concrete (RCC) beams with a smart mortar layer attached to the concrete mixture. In total, nine RCC beams were cast and tested. Two types of reinforced concrete beams [...] Read more.
This paper deals with an experimental study of the flexural behavior of sustainable reinforced cement concrete (RCC) beams with a smart mortar layer attached to the concrete mixture. In total, nine RCC beams were cast and tested. Two types of reinforced concrete beams were cast, and three different beams of sizes 1000 × 150 × 200 mm and six different beams of sizes 1500 × 100 × 250 mm were considered. The flexural behavior of these RCC beams was studied in detail. The electrical resistivity of these beams was also calculated, which was derived from the smart mortar layer. Research on the application of smart mortars within structural members is limited. The experimental results showed that the smart mortar layer could sense the damage in the RCC beams and infer the damage through the electrical measurement values, making the beam more sustainable. It was also observed that the relationship between the load and the fractional change in electrical resistance was linear. The fractional change in electrical resistivity was found to steadily increase with the increase in initial loading. A significant decrease in the fractional change in electrical resistivity was seen as the load approached failure. When a layer of mortar with brass fiber was added to the mortar paste, the ultimate load at failure was observed and compared with the reference beam specimen using Araldite paste. Compared to the hybrid brass-carbon fiber-added mortar layer, the brass fiber-added mortar layer increased the fractional change in the electrical resistivity values by 14–18%. Similarly, the ultimate load at failure was increased by 3–8% in the brass fiber-added mortar layer when compared to the hybrid brass-carbon fiber-added mortar layer. Failure of the beam was indicated by a sudden drop in the fractional change in electrical resistivity values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)
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17 pages, 3014 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Experimental Analysis of Bricks Using Recycled Plastics and Bitumen
by Naveen Kumar Koppula, Jens Schuster and Yousuf Pasha Shaik
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030111 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7285
Abstract
Plastic is being used increasingly in daily life. Most of it is not recyclable, and the remaining plastic cannot be used or decomposed. This causes increased plastic waste, contributing to global warming due to thermal recycling. The major objective of this research was [...] Read more.
Plastic is being used increasingly in daily life. Most of it is not recyclable, and the remaining plastic cannot be used or decomposed. This causes increased plastic waste, contributing to global warming due to thermal recycling. The major objective of this research was to utilise the maximum plastic waste possible to manufacture bricks that compete with the properties of conventional bricks without affecting the environment and the ecological balance. A balanced mixture of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), quartz sand, and some additive materials, such as bitumen, was used to produce these bricks. Various tests were performed to assess the bricks’ quality, such as compression, water absorption, and efflorescence tests. These bricks had a compression strength of 37.5 MPa, which is exceptionally strong compared to conventional bricks. The efflorescence and water absorption tests showed that the bricks were nearly devoid of alkalis and absorbed almost no water. The obtained bricks were light in weight and cost-effective compared to conventional bricks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)
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20 pages, 11483 KiB  
Article
Influence of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber Mesh on Plastic Hinge Length of RCC Beams under Monotonic Loading
by Pradeep Sivanantham, Deepak Pugazhlendi, Beulah Gnana Ananthi Gurupatham and Krishanu Roy
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120374 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
The most susceptible area of a structural member, where the most inelastic rotation would take place, is the plastic hinge. At this stage, flexural elements in particular achieve their maximal bending flexibility. This study uses finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental inquiry to [...] Read more.
The most susceptible area of a structural member, where the most inelastic rotation would take place, is the plastic hinge. At this stage, flexural elements in particular achieve their maximal bending flexibility. This study uses finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental inquiry to analyze and test the effects of carbon fiber mesh jacketing and steel fiber reinforcement at the concrete beam’s plastic hinge length subjected to a vertical monotonic load. The compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength tests are used to evaluate the mechanical qualities, such as compressive strength and tensile strength, of M25 grade concrete that is used to cast specimens. While conducting this analysis, seven different parameters are taken into account. After the conventional concrete beam has been cast, the steel-fiber reinforced beam is cast. Several empirical formulas drawn from Baker, Sawyer, Corley, Mattock, Paulay, Priestley, and Park’s methods were used to calculate the length of the beam’s plastic hinge. Finally, the steel fiber was inserted independently at 150 mm into the concrete beam’s plastic hinge length mechanism using the techniques described by Paulay and Priestley. The analytical and experimental results are compared. The results obtained from the investigations by applying monotonic loads to the beam show that fibers used at specific plastic hinge lengths show a 41 kN ultimate load with 11.63 mm displacement, which is similar to that of conventional beam displacement, and performance. Meanwhile, the carbon fiber mesh wrapped throughout the beam behaves better than other members, showing an ultimate load of 64 kN with a 15.95 mm deflection. The fibers provided at the plastic hinge length of the beam perform similarly to those of a conventional beam; eventually, they become economical without sacrificing strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)
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18 pages, 7196 KiB  
Article
Behavior of Pultruded Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Beam-Columns Infilled with Engineered Cementitious Composites under Cyclic Loading
by Yoganantham Chinnasamy, Philip Saratha Joanna, Karthikeyan Kothanda, Beulah Gnana Ananthi Gurupatham and Krishanu Roy
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(11), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6110338 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) is an advanced material that has superior corrosion resistance, a high strength-to-weight ratio, low thermal conductivity, high stiffness, high fatigue strength, and the ability to resist chemical and microbiological compounds. Despite their many advantages compared with traditional materials, GFRP sections [...] Read more.
Glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) is an advanced material that has superior corrosion resistance, a high strength-to-weight ratio, low thermal conductivity, high stiffness, high fatigue strength, and the ability to resist chemical and microbiological compounds. Despite their many advantages compared with traditional materials, GFRP sections exhibit brittle behavior when subjected to severe loading conditions such as earthquakes, which could be overcome by infilling the GFRP sections with concrete. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out on the cyclic response of a GFRP beam-column infilled with high-volume fly ash engineered cementitious composites (HVFA-ECC) consisting of 60%, 70%, and 80% fly ash as a replacement for cement. Finite element analysis was also conducted using robot structural analysis software, and the results were compared with the experimental results. The mechanical properties of GFRP sections presented are the compressive strength of ECC, the direct tensile strength of ECC determined using a dog-bone-shaped ECC specimen, the hysteresis behavior of the beam-column, and the energy dissipation characteristics. The lateral load-carrying capacity of beam-column GFRP infilled with HVFA-ECC consisting of 60%, 70%, and 80% fly ash was found to be, respectively, 43%, 31%, and 20% higher than the capacity of GFRP beam-columns without any infill. Hence the GFRP sections infilled with HVFA-ECC could be used as lightweight structural components in buildings to be constructed in earthquake-prone areas. Also in the structural components, as 70% of cement could be replaced with fly ash, it can potentially lead to sustainable construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)
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21 pages, 13191 KiB  
Article
Influence on the Flexural Behaviour of High-Volume Fly-Ash-Based Concrete Slab Reinforced with Sustainable Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Sheets
by Chinnasamy Samy Madan, Krithika Panchapakesan, Potlapalli Venkata Anil Reddy, Philip Saratha Joanna, Jessy Rooby, Beulah Gnana Ananthi Gurupatham and Krishanu Roy
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(6), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6060169 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Concrete structures provided with steel bars may undergo deterioration due to fatigue and corrosion, which leads to an increase in repair and maintenance costs. An innovative approach to eliminating these drawbacks lies in the utilisation of glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets as reinforcement in [...] Read more.
Concrete structures provided with steel bars may undergo deterioration due to fatigue and corrosion, which leads to an increase in repair and maintenance costs. An innovative approach to eliminating these drawbacks lies in the utilisation of glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets as reinforcement in concrete structures instead of steel bars. This article relates to the investigation of the flexural behaviour of ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete slabs and high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete slabs reinforced with bi-directional GFRP sheets. Slab specimens were cast with 60% fly ash as a replacement for cement and provided with a 1 mm-thick GFRP sheet in 2, 3 and 4 layers. The flexural behaviour of slabs reinforced with GFRP sheets was compared with that of the slabs reinforced with steel bars. Experiment results such as cracking behaviour, failure modes and load–deflection, load–strain and moment–curvature relationships of the slab specimens are presented. Subsequently, the nonlinear finite-element method (NLFEM) using ANSYS Workbench 2022-R1 was carried out and compared with the experimental results. The results obtained from the numerical investigation correlated with the experimental results. The experimental investigation showed that the HVFA concrete slabs reinforced with GFRP sheet provided a better alternative compared to the steel reinforcement, which led to sustainable construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)
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19 pages, 9085 KiB  
Article
Plastic Hinge Length Mechanism of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Slab under Repeated Loading
by Pradeep Sivanantham, Beulah Gnana Ananthi Gurupatham, Krishanu Roy, Karthikeyan Rajendiran and Deepak Pugazhlendi
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(6), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6060164 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2682
Abstract
The plastic hinge is the most critical damaging part of a structural element, where the highest inelastic rotation would occur. In particular, flexural members develop maximum bending abilities at that point. The current paper experimentally investigates the influence of steel fiber reinforcement at [...] Read more.
The plastic hinge is the most critical damaging part of a structural element, where the highest inelastic rotation would occur. In particular, flexural members develop maximum bending abilities at that point. The current paper experimentally investigates the influence of steel fiber reinforcement at the plastic hinge length of the concrete slab under repeated loading, something which has not been reported by any researcher. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength and tensile strength of M20-grade concrete that are used for casting specimens are tested through the compressive strength test and the split tensile strength test. Six different parameters are considered in the slab while carrying out this study. First, the conventional concrete slab and then the steel-fiber-reinforced slab were cast. The plastic hinge length of the slab was calculated through different empirical expressions taken from methods by Baker, Sawyer, Corley, Mattock, Paulay, Priestley and Park. Finally, the steel fiber was added as per methods detailed by Paulay, Priestley and Park in the plastic hinge length mechanism in the concrete slab at 70 mm and 150 mm separately. The results arrived through experimental investigation by applying repeated loads to the slab, indicating that steel fibers used at critical sections of plastic hinge length provide similar strength, displacement, and performance as that of the conventional RCC slab and fully steel-fiber-reinforced concrete slabs. Steel fiber at a plastic hinge length of slab has a better advantage over a conventional slab. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)
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17 pages, 8683 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Flexural Behavior of High-Volume Fly AshBased Concrete Slab Reinforced with GFRP Bars and Steel Bars
by Chinnasamy Samy Madan, Swetha Munuswamy, Philip Saratha Joanna, Beulah Gnana Ananthi Gurupatham and Krishanu Roy
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(6), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6060157 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rods are advanced composite materials with high strength, light weight, non-corrosive properties, and superior durability properties. Under severe environmental conditions, for concrete structures, the use of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods is a cost-effective alternative to traditional steel reinforcement. This study [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rods are advanced composite materials with high strength, light weight, non-corrosive properties, and superior durability properties. Under severe environmental conditions, for concrete structures, the use of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods is a cost-effective alternative to traditional steel reinforcement. This study compared the flexural behavior of an OPC concrete slab with a high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete slab reinforced with GFRP rods/steel rods. In the fly ash concrete slabs, 60% of the cement used for casting the slab elements was replaced with class F fly ash, which is emerging as an eco-friendly and inexpensive replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The data presented include the crack pattern, load–deflection behavior, load–strain behavior, moment–curvature behavior, and ductility of the slab specimens. Additionally, good agreement was obtained between the experimental and nonlinear finite element analysis results using ANSYS 2022-R1. The study also compared the experimental moment capacity with the most commonly used design standard ACI 440.1R-15. This investigation reveals that there is a huge potential for the utilization of GFRP rods as reinforcement in fly ash concrete slabs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)
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24 pages, 7917 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Multi-Physics Analysis and Experimental Testing for Hollow Brick Solutions with Lightweight and Eco-Sustainable Cement Mix
by Matteo Sambucci, Abbas Sibai, Luciano Fattore, Riccardo Martufi, Sabrina Lucibello and Marco Valente
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6040107 - 5 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2822
Abstract
Combining eco-sustainability and technological efficiency is one of the “hot” topics in the current construction and architectural sectors. In this work, recycled tire rubber aggregates and acoustically effective fractal cavities were combined in the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of lightweight concrete hollow [...] Read more.
Combining eco-sustainability and technological efficiency is one of the “hot” topics in the current construction and architectural sectors. In this work, recycled tire rubber aggregates and acoustically effective fractal cavities were combined in the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of lightweight concrete hollow bricks. After analyzing the structural and acoustic behavior of the brick models by finite element analysis as a function of the type of constituent concrete material (reference and rubberized cement mixes) and hollow inner geometry (circular- and fractal-shaped hollow designs), compressive tests and sound-absorption measurements were experimentally performed to evaluate the real performance of the developed prototypes. Compared to the traditional circular hollow pattern, fractal cavities improve the mechanical strength of the brick, its structural efficiency (strength-to-weight ratio), and the medium–high frequency noise damping. The use of ground waste tire rubber as a total concrete aggregate represents an eco-friendlier solution than the ordinary cementitious mix design, providing, at the same time, enhanced lightweight properties, mechanical ductility, and better sound attenuation. The near-compliance of rubber-concrete blocks with standard requirements and the value-added properties have demonstrated a good potential for incorporating waste rubber as aggregate for non-structural applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)
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Review

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19 pages, 2766 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Optimization of the Mechanical Properties of Sugarcane-Bagasse-Ash-Integrated Concretes
by Nisala Prabhath, Buddhika Sampath Kumara, Vimukkthi Vithanage, Amalka Indupama Samarathunga, Natasha Sewwandi, Kaveendra Maduwantha, Madawa Madusanka and Kaveenga Koswattage
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(10), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6100283 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3065
Abstract
Leading sugar-producing nations have been generating high volumes of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) as a by-product. SCBA has the potential to be used as a partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in concrete, from thereby, mitigating several adverse environmental effects of cement [...] Read more.
Leading sugar-producing nations have been generating high volumes of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) as a by-product. SCBA has the potential to be used as a partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in concrete, from thereby, mitigating several adverse environmental effects of cement while keeping the cost of concrete low. The majority of the microstructure of SCBA is composed of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 compounds, which can provide pozzolanic properties to SCBA. In this paper, literature on the enhancement of the mechanical properties of SCBA-incorporating concrete is analyzed. Corresponding process parameters of the SCBA production process and properties of SCBA are compared in order to identify relationships between the entities. Furthermore, methods, including sieving, post-heating, and grinding, can be used to improve pozzolanic properties of SCBA, through which the ideal SCBA material parameters for concrete can be identified. Evidence in the literature on the carbon footprint of the cement industry is utilized to discuss the possibility of reducing CO2 emissions by using SCBA, which could pave the way to a more sustainable approach in the construction industry. A review of the available research conducted on concrete with several partial replacement percentages of SCBA for OPC is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Composite Construction Materials)
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