Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X). This special issue belongs to the section "Composites Manufacturing and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 21440

Special Issue Editor

School of System Design and Intelligent Manufacturing (SDIM), Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
Interests: additive manufacturing; composites; modelling; design optimisation; metamaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced composites, e.g., continuous, or discontinuous fibre reinforced composites, nanocomposites, etc., are attracting increasing attention in industrial applications due to excellent performance, i.e., high mechanical properties in terms of stiffness- and strength-to-weight ratios, when compared to their counterparts. As such, the development of advanced composites can fulfil many special but important engineering missions, such as the safety improvement, weight reduction, energy-absorption enhancement, and so forth.

Meanwhile, additive manufacturing or 3D printing has undergone massive development, opening new horizons for manufacturing small-scale and complex composite structural parts that cannot be appropriately made using conventional techniques. In recent years, big advances have been witnessed in additive manufacture of advanced composites with novel design, fabrication, and analysis methods, indicating a huge potential and a promising future for 3D printed advanced composites.

With these significant aims, this Special Issue is dedicated to the field of novel and engineering solutions in additive manufacturing of advanced composite materials and structures. Briefly, the Special Issue has a particular focus on but not limited to 3D printed composites with respect to advanced design, manufacture, characterisation for high-performance composite products by 3D printing.

Some particular subjects are mentioned here for reference and submission, e.g.,

  • The 3D printing technology for composites (especially intelligent additive manufacturing);
  • Novel design methods (theoretical, computational, etc.);
  • Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites by 3D printing (such as reinforcement with continuous or discontinuous carbon fibres, etc.);
  • Processing and characterisation of 3D printed composites (new experimental methods or results);
  • Life-cycle assessment of 3D printed composite parts (e.g., fatigue, corrosion resistance and durability analysis);
  • Structural health monitoring of 3D printed composites (e.g., non-destructive testing, computational prediction, repair);
  • Advanced engineering applications (aerospace, automotive, etc.).

In this Special Issue, research-, development-, and application-related submissions sharing promising techniques and strategies on the topic of advanced design, manufacturing, and analysis of advanced composites by 3D printing, and all other related domains are welcomed.

Dr. Yuan Chen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Composites Science is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • additive manufacturing/3D printing
  • fused filament fabrication (FFF)
  • fibre reinforced polymer (FRP)
  • thermoplastic composites
  • advanced manufacturing
  • modelling and design
  • characterisation
  • structure-property performance

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2928 KiB  
Article
Effects of Infill Density and Pattern on the Tensile Mechanical Behavior of 3D-Printed Glycolyzed Polyethylene Terephthalate Reinforced with Carbon-Fiber Composites by the FDM Process
by Mohamed Daly, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Mountasar Bouali and Amine Bendarma
J. Compos. Sci. 2024, 8(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs8040115 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The impacts of infill patterns and densities on the mechanical characteristics of items created by material extrusion additive manufacturing systems were investigated in this study. It is crucial to comprehend how these variables impact a printed object’s mechanical characteristics. This work examined two [...] Read more.
The impacts of infill patterns and densities on the mechanical characteristics of items created by material extrusion additive manufacturing systems were investigated in this study. It is crucial to comprehend how these variables impact a printed object’s mechanical characteristics. This work examined two infill patterns and four densities of 3D-printed polyethylene terephthalate reinforced with carbon-fiber specimens for their tensile characteristics. Rectilinear and honeycomb infill designs were compared at 100%, while each had the following three infill densities: 20%, 50%, and 75%. As predicted, the findings revealed that as the infill densities increased, all analyzed infill patterns’ tensile strengths and Young’s moduli also increased. The design with a 75% honeycomb and 100% infill density has the highest Young’s modulus and tensile strength. The honeycomb was the ideal infill pattern, with 75% and 100% densities, providing significant strength and stiffness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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20 pages, 6328 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Characterisation of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Processed by Additive Manufacturing (AM): Bending and Tensile Tests
by Mariana P. Salgueiro, Fábio A. M. Pereira, Carlos L. Faria, Eduardo B. Pereira, João A. P. P. Almeida, Teresa D. Campos, Chaari Fakher, Andrea Zille, Quyền Nguyễn and Nuno Dourado
J. Compos. Sci. 2024, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs8020055 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
In additive manufacturing (AM), one of the most popular procedures is material extrusion (MEX). The materials and manufacturing parameters used in this process have a significant impact on a printed product’s quality. The purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of [...] Read more.
In additive manufacturing (AM), one of the most popular procedures is material extrusion (MEX). The materials and manufacturing parameters used in this process have a significant impact on a printed product’s quality. The purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of infill percentage and filament orientation on the mechanical properties of printed structures. For this reason, the characterisation of polylactic acid (PLA) was done numerically using the finite element method and experimentally through mechanical tests. The experiments involved three-point bending and tensile tests. The results showed that mechanical performance is highly dependent on these processing parameters mainly when the infill percentage is less than 100%. The highest elastic modulus was exhibited for structures with filament align at 0° and 100% infill, while the lowest one was verified for specimen filament aligned at 0° and 30% infill. The results demonstrated that the process parameters have a significant impact on mechanical performance, particularly when the infill percentage is less than 100%. Structures with filament aligned at 0° and 100% infill showed the maximum elastic modulus, whereas specimens with filament oriented at 0° and 30% infill showed the lowest. The obtained numerical agreement indicated that an inverse method based only on the load–displacement curve can yield an accurate value for this material’s elastic modulus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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14 pages, 13185 KiB  
Article
Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Sustainable Wood Fiber-Reinforced Green Composites
by Christopher Billings, Ridwan Siddique, Benjamin Sherwood, Joshua Hall and Yingtao Liu
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(12), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7120489 - 26 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
Enhancing mechanical properties of environmentally friendly and renewable polymers by the introduction of natural fibers not only paves the way for developing sustainable composites but also enables new opportunities in advanced additive manufacturing (AM). In this paper, wood fibers, as a versatile renewable [...] Read more.
Enhancing mechanical properties of environmentally friendly and renewable polymers by the introduction of natural fibers not only paves the way for developing sustainable composites but also enables new opportunities in advanced additive manufacturing (AM). In this paper, wood fibers, as a versatile renewable resource of cellulose, are integrated within bio-based polylactic acid (PLA) polymer for the development and 3D printing of sustainable and recycle green composites using fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology. The 3D-printed composites are comprehensively characterized to understand critical materials properties, including density, porosity, microstructures, tensile modulus, and ultimate strength. Non-contact digital image correlation (DIC) technology is employed to understand local stress and strain concentration during mechanical testing. The validated FDB-based AM process is employed to print honeycombs, woven bowls, and frame bins to demonstrate the manufacturing capability. The performance of 3D-printed honeycombs is tested under compressive loads with DIC to fully evaluate the mechanical performance and failure mechanism of ultra-light honeycomb structures. The research outcomes can be used to guide the design and optimization of AM-processed composite structures in a broad range of engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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12 pages, 4593 KiB  
Article
Additively Manufactured Multifunctional Composite Parts with the Help of Coextrusion Continuous Carbon Fiber: Study of Feasibility to Print Self-Sensing without Doped Raw Material
by Anthonin Demarbaix, Imi Ochana, Julien Levrie, Isaque Coutinho, Sebastião Simões Cunha, Jr. and Marc Moonens
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(9), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7090355 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Nowadays, the additive manufacturing of multifunctional materials is booming. The fused deposition modeling (FDM) process is widely used thanks to the ease with which multimaterial parts can be printed. The main limitation of this process is the mechanical properties of the parts obtained. [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the additive manufacturing of multifunctional materials is booming. The fused deposition modeling (FDM) process is widely used thanks to the ease with which multimaterial parts can be printed. The main limitation of this process is the mechanical properties of the parts obtained. New continuous-fiber FDM printers significantly improve mechanical properties. Another limitation is the repeatability of the process. This paper proposes to explore the feasibility of printing parts in continuous carbon fiber and using this fiber as an indicator thanks to the electrical properties of the carbon fiber. The placement of the fiber in the part is based on the paths of a strain gauge. The results show that the resistivity evolves linearly during the elastic period. The gauge factor (GF) increases when the number of passes in the manufacturing plane is low, but repeatability is impacted. However, no correlation is possible during the plastic deformation of the sample. For an equivalent length of carbon fiber, it is preferable to have a strategy of superimposing layers of carbon fiber rather than a single-plane strategy. The mechanical properties remain equivalent but the variation in the electrical signal is greater when the layers are superimposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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14 pages, 6017 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Strength and Toughness of Aluminum Laminated Composites through Hybrid Reinforcement Using Dispersion Engineering
by Behzad Sadeghi, Pasquale Cavaliere and Behzad Sadeghian
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(8), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7080332 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
In this work, we propose a hybrid approach to solve the challenge of balancing strength and ductility in aluminum (Al) matrix composites. While some elements of our approach have been used in previous studies, such as in situ synthesis and ex situ augmentation, [...] Read more.
In this work, we propose a hybrid approach to solve the challenge of balancing strength and ductility in aluminum (Al) matrix composites. While some elements of our approach have been used in previous studies, such as in situ synthesis and ex situ augmentation, our work is innovative as it combines these techniques with specialized equipment to achieve success. We synthesized nanoscale Al3BC particles in situ using ultra-fine particles by incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into elemental powder mixtures, followed by mechanical activation and annealing, to obtain granular (UFG) Al. The resulting in situ nanoscale Al3BC particles are uniformly dispersed within the UFG Al particles, resulting in improved strength and strain hardening. By innovating the unique combination of nanoscale Al3BC particles synthesized in situ in UFG Al, we enabled better integration with the matrix and a strong interface. This combination provides a balance of strength and flexibility, which represents a major breakthrough in the study of composites. (Al3BC, CNT)/UFG Al composites exhibit simultaneous increases in strength (394 MPa) and total elongation (19.7%), indicating increased strength and suggesting that there are promising strengthening effects of in situ/ex situ reinforcement that benefit from the uniform dispersion and the strong interface with the matrix. Potential applications include lightweight and high-strength components for use in aerospace and automotive industries, as well as structural materials for use in advanced mechanical systems that require both high strength and toughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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16 pages, 4716 KiB  
Article
Extrusion-Based Additively Manufactured PAEK and PAEK/CF Polymer Composites Performance: Role of Process Parameters on Strength, Toughness and Deflection at Failure
by S. Sharafi, M. H. Santare, J. Gerdes and S. G. Advani
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7040157 - 11 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Poly aryl-ether-ketone (PAEK) belongs to a family of high-performance semicrystalline polymers exhibiting outstanding material properties at high temperatures, making them suitable candidates for metallic part replacement in different industries such as aviation, oil and gas, chemical, and biomedical. Fused filament fabrication is an [...] Read more.
Poly aryl-ether-ketone (PAEK) belongs to a family of high-performance semicrystalline polymers exhibiting outstanding material properties at high temperatures, making them suitable candidates for metallic part replacement in different industries such as aviation, oil and gas, chemical, and biomedical. Fused filament fabrication is an additive manufacturing (AM) method that can be used to produce intricate PAEK and PAEK composite parts and to tailor their mechanical properties such as stiffness, strength and deflection at failure. In this work, we present a methodology to identify the layer design and process parameters that will have the highest potential to affect the mechanical properties of additively manufactured parts, using our previously developed multiscale modeling framework. Five samples for each of the ten identified process conditions were fabricated using a Roboze-Argo 500 version 2 with heated chamber and dual extruder nozzle. The manufactured PAEK and PAEK/carbon fiber samples were tested until failure in an Instron, using a video extensometer system. Each sample was prepared with a speckle pattern for post analysis using digital image correlation (DIC) to measure the strain and displacement over its entire surface. The raster angle and the presence of fibers had the largest influence on the mechanical properties of the AM manufactured parts, and the resulting properties were comparable to the mechanical properties of injection molded parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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22 pages, 2114 KiB  
Article
A Systematic Approach to Determine the Cutting Parameters of AM Green Zirconia in Finish Milling
by Laurent Spitaels, Hugo Dantinne, Julien Bossu, Edouard Rivière-Lorphèvre and François Ducobu
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030112 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) opens new possibilities of obtaining ceramic green parts with a tailored complex design at low cost. Meeting the requirements of highly demanding industries (aeronautical and biomedical, for example) is still challenging, even for machining. Hybrid machines can solve this problem [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) opens new possibilities of obtaining ceramic green parts with a tailored complex design at low cost. Meeting the requirements of highly demanding industries (aeronautical and biomedical, for example) is still challenging, even for machining. Hybrid machines can solve this problem by combining the advantages of both additive and subtractive processes. However, little information is currently available to determine the milling parameters of additively fabricated ceramic green parts. This article proposes a systematic approach to experimentally determine the cutting parameters of green AM zirconia parts. Three tools, one dedicated to thermoplastics, one to composites, and a universal tool, were tested. The tool–material couple standard (NF E 66-520-5) was followed. The lower cost and repeatable generation of smooth surfaces (Ra < 1.6 µm) without material pull-out were the main goals of the study. The universal tool showed few repeatable working points without material pull-out, while the two other tools gave satisfying results. The thermoplastic tool ensured repeatable results of Ra < 0.8 µm at a four times lower cost than the composite tool. Moreover, it exhibited a larger chip thickness range (from 0.003 mm to 0.036 mm). Nevertheless, it generated an uncut zone that must be considered when planning the milling operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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11 pages, 2037 KiB  
Article
Temperature-Dependent Deformation Behavior of “γ-austenite/δ-ferrite” Composite Obtained through Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing with Austenitic Stainless-Steel Wire
by Elena Astafurova, Galina Maier, Evgenii Melnikov, Sergey Astafurov, Marina Panchenko, Kseniya Reunova, Andrey Luchin and Evgenii Kolubaev
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7020045 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Temperature dependence of tensile deformation behavior and mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and an elongation-to-failure) of the dual-phase (γ-austenite/δ-ferrite) specimens, obtained through electron-beam additive manufacturing, has been explored for the first time in a wide temperature range T = (77–300) K. [...] Read more.
Temperature dependence of tensile deformation behavior and mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and an elongation-to-failure) of the dual-phase (γ-austenite/δ-ferrite) specimens, obtained through electron-beam additive manufacturing, has been explored for the first time in a wide temperature range T = (77–300) K. The dual-phase structures with a dendritic morphology of δ-ferrite (γ + 14%δ) and with a coarse globular δ-phase (γ + 6%δ) are typical of the as-built specimens and those subjected to a post-production solid–solution treatment, respectively. In material with lower δ-ferrite content, the lower values of the yield strength in the whole temperature range and the higher elongation of the specimens at T > 250 K have been revealed. Tensile strength and stages of plastic flow of the materials do not depend on the δ-ferrite fraction and its morphology, but the characteristics of strain-induced γ→α′ and γ→ε→α′ martensitic transformations and strain-hardening values are different for two types of the specimens. A new approach has been applied for the analysis of deformation behavior of additively fabricated Cr-Ni steels. Mechanical properties and plastic deformation of the dual-phase (γ + δ) steels produced through electron beam additive manufacturing have been described from the point of view of composite materials. Both types of the δ-ferrite inclusions, dendritic lamellae and globular coarse particles, change the stress distribution in the bulk of the materials during tensile testing, assist the defect accumulation and partially suppress strain-induced martensitic transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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17 pages, 5094 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of PLA Specimens Obtained by Additive Manufacturing Process Reinforced with Flax Fibers
by Ana Paulo, Jorge Santos, João da Rocha, Rui Lima and João Ribeiro
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7010027 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Although polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most used materials in additive manufacturing, its mechanical properties are quite limiting for its practical application, therefore, to improve these properties it is frequent to add fibers and, in this way, create a more resistant [...] Read more.
Although polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most used materials in additive manufacturing, its mechanical properties are quite limiting for its practical application, therefore, to improve these properties it is frequent to add fibers and, in this way, create a more resistant composite material. In this paper, the authors developed PLA composites reinforced with flax fibers to evaluate the improvement of tensile and flexural strength. The experimental design of experiments was based on the L18 Taguchi array where the control factors were the extruder temperature (three levels), number of strands (three levels), infill percentage of the specimens (three levels), and whether the flax fiber had surface chemical treatment. The tensile and flexural specimens were made on a 3D printing machine and was a mold was developed to fix and align the fiber strands during the printing process. The tensile and flexural experimental tests were performed in agreement with ASTM D638.14 and ISO 14125 standards, respectively. Analyzing the results, it was verified that the surface chemical treatment (NaOH) of the fiber did not show any influence in the mechanical properties of the composites; in contrast, the infill density demonstrated a huge influence for the improvement of mechanical strength. The maximum values of tensile and bending stress were 50 MPa and 73 MPa, respectively. The natural fiber reinforcement can improve the mechanical properties of the PLA composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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14 pages, 4415 KiB  
Article
Fabrication Temperature-Related Porosity Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured CFRP Composites
by Olusanmi Adeniran, Norman Osa-uwagboe, Weilong Cong and Monsuru Ramoni
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7010012 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
The use of additive manufacturing in fabricating composite components has been gaining traction in the past decade. However, some issues with mechanical performance still need to be resolved. The issue of material porosity remains a pertinent one which needs more understanding to be [...] Read more.
The use of additive manufacturing in fabricating composite components has been gaining traction in the past decade. However, some issues with mechanical performance still need to be resolved. The issue of material porosity remains a pertinent one which needs more understanding to be able to come up with more viable solutions. Different researchers have examined the subject; however, more research to quantitatively determine fabrication temperatures effects at the micro-scale are still needed. This study employed micro-CT scan analysis to quantitatively compare fabrication temperatures effect at 230 °C, 250 °C, 270 °C, and 290 °C on the mechanical properties of AM fabricated carbon-fiber-reinforces plastic (CFRP) composites, testing carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide (CF-PA) and carbon fiber-reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (CF-ABS) samples. This micro-CT examination followed an SEM evaluation, which was used to determine temperature effects on interlayer and intralayer porosity generation. The porosity volume was related to the mechanical properties, in which it was determined how temperatures influence porosity volumes. It was also determined that fabrication temperature generally affects semicrystalline composites more than amorphous composites. The overall porosity volumes from the interlayer and intralayer voids were determined, with the interlayer voids being more influential in influencing the mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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14 pages, 8608 KiB  
Article
Additive Manufacturing of C/C-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites by Automated Fiber Placement of Continuous Fiber Tow in Polymer with Pyrolysis and Reactive Silicon Melt Infiltration
by Corson L. Cramer, Bola Yoon, Michael J. Lance, Ercan Cakmak, Quinn A. Campbell and David J. Mitchell
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120359 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2583
Abstract
An additive manufacturing process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites has been developed based on the C/C-SiC system. Automated fiber placement of the continuous carbon fibers in a polyether ether ketone matrix was performed to consolidate the carbon fibers into a printed preform. Pyrolysis [...] Read more.
An additive manufacturing process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites has been developed based on the C/C-SiC system. Automated fiber placement of the continuous carbon fibers in a polyether ether ketone matrix was performed to consolidate the carbon fibers into a printed preform. Pyrolysis was performed to convert the polymer matrix to porous carbon, and then Si was introduced by reactive melt infiltration to convert a portion of the carbon matrix to silicon carbide. The densities and microstructures were characterized after each step during the processing, and the mechanical properties were measured. The C/C-SiC composites exhibited a porosity of 10–20%, characteristic flexural strength of 234.91 MPa, and Weibull modulus of 3.21. The composites displayed toughness via a significant displacement to failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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11 pages, 2760 KiB  
Article
Design and Construction of a Low-Cost-High-Accessibility 3D Printing Machine for Producing Plastic Components
by Kajogbola R. Ajao, Segun E. Ibitoye, Adedire D. Adesiji and Esther T. Akinlabi
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(9), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6090265 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2971
Abstract
The additive manufacturing process creates objects directly by stacking layers of material on each other until the required product is obtained. The application of additive manufacturing technology for teaching and research purposes is still limited and unpopular in developing countries, due to costs [...] Read more.
The additive manufacturing process creates objects directly by stacking layers of material on each other until the required product is obtained. The application of additive manufacturing technology for teaching and research purposes is still limited and unpopular in developing countries, due to costs and lack of accessibility. In this study, an extruding-based 3D printing additive manufacturing technology was employed to design and construct a low-cost-high-accessibility 3D printing machine to manufacture plastic objects. The machine was designed using SolidWorks 2020 version with a 10 × 10 × 10 cm3 build volume. The fabrication was carried out using locally available materials, such as PVC pipes for the frame, plywood for the bed, and Zinc Oxide plaster for the bed surface. Repetier firmware was the operating environment for devices running on the computer operating system. Cura was used as the slicing software. The fabricated machine was tested, and the printer produced 3D components with desired structural dimensions. The fabricated 3D printer was used to manufacture some plastic objects using PLA filament. The recommended distance between the nozzle tip and the bed is 0.1 mm. The constructed 3D printer is affordable and accessible, especially in developing nations where 3D printing applications are limited and unpopular. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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Review

Jump to: Research

33 pages, 31416 KiB  
Review
The Three-Dimensional Printing of Composites: A Review of the Finite Element/Finite Volume Modelling of the Process
by Theodor Florian Zach and Mircea Cristian Dudescu
J. Compos. Sci. 2024, 8(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs8040146 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Composite materials represent the evolution of material science and technology, maximizing the properties for high-end industry applications. The fields concerned include aerospace and defense, automotive, or naval industries. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are increasingly growing in market shares due to the elimination of [...] Read more.
Composite materials represent the evolution of material science and technology, maximizing the properties for high-end industry applications. The fields concerned include aerospace and defense, automotive, or naval industries. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are increasingly growing in market shares due to the elimination of shape barriers, a plethora of available materials, and the reduced costs. The AM technologies of composite materials combine the two growing trends in manufacturing, combining the advantages of both, with a specific enhancement being the elimination of the need for mold manufacturing for composites, or even post-curing treatments. The challenge of AM composites is to compete with their conventional counterparts. The aim of the current paper is to present the additive manufacturing process across different spectrums of finite element analyses (FEA). The first outcomes are building definition (support definition) and the optimization of deposition trajectories. In addition, the multi-physics of melting/solidification using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are performed to predict the fiber orientation and extrusion profiles. The process modelling continues with the displacement/temperature distribution, which influences porosity, warping, and residual stresses that influence characteristics of the component. This leads to the tuning of the technological parameters, thus improving the manufacturing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Composites)
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