Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X). This special issue belongs to the section "Composites Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 12935

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
National Research Council, Institute of Advanced Technologies for Energy "Nicola Giordano", Via Santa Lucia sopra Contesse, 5 - 98126 Messina, Italy
Interests: materials for energy; thermal energy storage; waste and solar heat storage; composite materials for energy storage; development of renewable heating and cooling solutions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy storage systems are becoming crucial for using renewable energies in buildings and industry, in order to reduce the mismatching between solar energy supply and demand. In addition, this technology also reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, to build an efficient energy storage system, a high-performing material is necessary. In such a scenario, research studies on materials for thermal storage are a high priority. Composite materials seem to be good candidates for assuring high storage capacities per mass or volume. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect the best papers on the development, improvement, and enhancement of composite materials for energy storage.

Dr. Vincenza Brancato
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • energy storage
  • materials for thermochemical storage
  • composite material

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 1669 KiB  
Article
Thermal Balance of a Water Thermal Accumulator Based on Phase Change Materials
by Grigorii S. Bocharov, Alexey V. Dedov, Alexander V. Eletskii, Artem O. Vagin, Alexander V. Zacharenkov and Michail A. Zverev
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(9), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7090399 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 886
Abstract
The arrangement of a water thermal accumulator (WTA) containing phase change materials (PCM) is presented and analyzed. The hot or cool water is used as a working body. The accumulator contains two concentric cylindrical tubes. The inner tube is used for hot or [...] Read more.
The arrangement of a water thermal accumulator (WTA) containing phase change materials (PCM) is presented and analyzed. The hot or cool water is used as a working body. The accumulator contains two concentric cylindrical tubes. The inner tube is used for hot or cool water flowing, while the volume between the inner and outer tubes is filled with PCM. The thermal energy in the accumulator is stored as a result of flowing the hot water through the inner tube due to the phase transition in PCM. This accumulated energy can be extracted from PCM as a result of flowing the cool water through the inner tube. For the enhancement of the thermal conduction coefficient, the PCM is doped with the nanocarbon particles having a thermal conductivity coefficient exceeding that of PCM by 4–5 orders of magnitude. The thermal balance of the accumulator is calculated on the basis of the solution of the time-dependent heat conduction equation by taking into account the heat absorbed and released as a result of the phase transition as well as the convection thermal exchange in the melted PCM. The calculation results determine the interconnection between the thermal conductivity of PCM and the characteristic time of thermal exchange between PCM and the working body. The calculations indicate that the characteristic thermal exchange time decreases as the thermal conduction coefficient enhances, so that the dependence becomes close to saturation at the thermal conductivity coefficient of about 5 W/m K. Such a coefficient can be reached by doping the paraffin-based PCM with a reduced graphene oxide at a content of about 2% (weight). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
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11 pages, 1810 KiB  
Communication
Photocatalytic Biohydrogen Production Using ZnO from Aqueous Glycerol Solution with Aid of Simultaneous Cu Deposition
by Mahmudul Hassan Suhag, Ikki Tateishi, Mai Furukawa, Hideyuki Katsumata, Aklima Khatun and Satoshi Kaneco
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(9), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7090361 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Biodiesel has gained a great deal of attention as a new sustainable energy alternative to petroleum-based fuels. The subsequent increased biodiesel production requires new utilization of glycerol, which is a byproduct of biodiesel synthesis. Photocatalytic biohydrogen generation using ZnO with the aid of [...] Read more.
Biodiesel has gained a great deal of attention as a new sustainable energy alternative to petroleum-based fuels. The subsequent increased biodiesel production requires new utilization of glycerol, which is a byproduct of biodiesel synthesis. Photocatalytic biohydrogen generation using ZnO with the aid of simultaneous deposition of copper from an aqueous biomass-derivative glycerol solution was investigated. The effects of the concentration of glycerol solution, Cu ion concentration, and reaction temperature on biohydrogen generation were investigated. The photocatalytic biohydrogen production rate increased as the concentration of aqueous glycerol solution increased, and the observed data could be fitted to the Langmuire–Hinshelwood kinetic models. The photocatalytic H2 production efficiency with ZnO could be significantly improved by simultaneous Cu deposition. The photocatalytic biohydrogen production rate was dependent on temperature, and increased as the temperature increased. Under the optimal conditions, the photocatalytic H2 production rate was 72 µmol h−1 g−1 from the aqueous biomass-derivative glycerol solution. Possible mechanisms for the oxidation of glycerol solution and photocatalytic hydrogen generation were proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
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18 pages, 5656 KiB  
Article
Research on Improving Energy Storage Density and Efficiency of Dielectric Ceramic Ferroelectric Materials Based on BaTiO3 Doping with Multiple Elements
by Jiaxuan Sun and Yuanzhe Li
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060233 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
In order to promote the research of green energy in the situation of increasingly serious environmental pollution, dielectric ceramic energy storage materials, which have the advantages of an extremely fast charge and discharge cycle, high durability, and have a broad use in new [...] Read more.
In order to promote the research of green energy in the situation of increasingly serious environmental pollution, dielectric ceramic energy storage materials, which have the advantages of an extremely fast charge and discharge cycle, high durability, and have a broad use in new energy vehicles and pulse power, are being studied. However, the energy storage density of ordinary dielectric ceramic ferroelectric materials is low, so, in this paper, we have divided eight components based on BaTiO3 (BT). Through the traditional solid phase sintering method, AB positions were replaced with various elements of different proportions to improve their energy storage density and the energy storage efficiency of BT-based ferroelectric materials. In this paper, we studied the results of XRD, Raman, ferroelectric, dielectric, and impedance tests of doped samples, and the best components were determined. The (1−x)BT−xBi(Mg1/3Zn1/3Ta1/6Nb1/6)O3 series of ceramics are made by the incorporation of five elements, Bi3+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Ta5+, and Nb5+. With the rising electric hysteresis loop of the doping amount x thin, the saturation polarization strength and residual polarization strength decrease, and the energy storage density rises first and then decreases. The dielectric characteristic after x = 0.08 showed a flat dielectric peak, indicating that the ferroelectric relaxation had been formed. The energy storage density and efficiency of the best component x = 0.12 reached 1.75 J/cm3 and 75%, respectively, and the Curie temperature was about −20 °C, so it has the potential to be used at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
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15 pages, 4160 KiB  
Article
Simple Mixed-Acid-Treated Carbon Fiber Electrodes with Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups for Flexible Supercapacitors
by Yongbo Wang, Hui Li, Bowen Cui, Xiaodan Xu and Yanxiang Wang
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060231 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Flexible supercapacitors are demanded for energy storage of wearable electronics. In this paper, a simple strategy for preparing flexible carbon fibers (CFs) with good energy storage capacity using a mixed acid treatment process is reported. When the volume ratio of concentrated sulfuric acid [...] Read more.
Flexible supercapacitors are demanded for energy storage of wearable electronics. In this paper, a simple strategy for preparing flexible carbon fibers (CFs) with good energy storage capacity using a mixed acid treatment process is reported. When the volume ratio of concentrated sulfuric acid to concentrated nitric acid is 3:1, the carbon fiber electrodes have the best electrochemical performance with a high capacitance of 27.83 F g−1 at 15 mA g−1 and extremely high capacitance retention of 79.9% after 500 cycles at 100 mA g−1. Furthermore, their energy density can reach 3.86 Wh kg−1 with a power density of 7.5 W kg−1. Such an excellent electrochemical performance of carbon fiber electrodes is attributed to their surface rich oxygen-containing functional groups, rough surface, and a certain number of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Importantly, the all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor performs excellent bending stability performance with a capacitance retention of almost 100% after 500 times of bending at 180°, showing good prospects and applications in the field of flexible energy storage devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
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12 pages, 3214 KiB  
Article
Porous NiMoO4-NrGO as a Battery-Like Electrode Material for Aqueous Hybrid Supercapacitors
by Shahrzad Arshadi-Rastabi, Rasoul Sarraf-Mamoory, Ghadir Razaz, Nicklas Blomquist, Jonas Örtegren and Håkan Olin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060217 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Recently, much research has investigated nanocomposites and their properties for the development of energy storage systems. Supercapacitor performance is usually enhanced by the use of porous electrode structures, which produce a larger surface area for reaction. In this work, a biocompatible polymer of [...] Read more.
Recently, much research has investigated nanocomposites and their properties for the development of energy storage systems. Supercapacitor performance is usually enhanced by the use of porous electrode structures, which produce a larger surface area for reaction. In this work, a biocompatible polymer of starch medium was used to create the porous nanostructure. Two powders, i.e., Nickel molybdate/reduced graphene oxide (NiMoO4-rGO) and Nickel molybdate/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NiMoO4-NrGO), were synthesized using the deposition method in a medium containing starch, nickel nitrate salts, sodium molybdate, and graphene oxide powder. In terms of electrochemical performance, the NiMoO4-NrGO electrode displayed a higher specific capacitance, i.e., 932 Fg−1 (466 Cg−1), than the NiMoO4-rGO electrode, i.e., 884 Fg−1 (442 Cg−1), at a current density of 1 Ag−1. In fact, graphene oxide sheets could lose more oxygen groups in the presence of ammonia, resulting in increased electrical conductivity. For the asymmetric supercapacitor of NiMoO4-NrGO//AC, the specific capacitance at 1 Ag−1, energy density, and power density were 101.2 Fg−1 (111.32 Cg−1), 17 Wh kg−1, and 174.4 kW kg−1, respectively. In addition, this supercapacitor material displayed a good cycling stability of over 82%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
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11 pages, 2517 KiB  
Article
Fast Charging of a Thermal Accumulator Based on Paraffin with the Addition of 0.3 wt. % rGO
by Sergey A. Baskakov, Yulia V. Baskakova, Eugene N. Kabachkov, Elizaveta V. Dvoretskaya, Victor N. Vasilets, Zhi Li and Yury M. Shulga
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050193 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 1326
Abstract
The composite of paraffin with reduced graphene oxide (paraffin/rGO) was obtained at 70 °C by the mechanical mixing of the components followed by ultrasonic dispersion. The introduction of only 0.3 wt.% rGO stained the paraffin black. It has been shown that thermal batteries [...] Read more.
The composite of paraffin with reduced graphene oxide (paraffin/rGO) was obtained at 70 °C by the mechanical mixing of the components followed by ultrasonic dispersion. The introduction of only 0.3 wt.% rGO stained the paraffin black. It has been shown that thermal batteries made from 160 grams of pure paraffin and 160 grams of the composite are equally slow at charging when placed in boiling water. However, two minutes of microwave heating increases the temperature of the pure paraffin battery to only 32 °C, while the temperature of the paraffin/rGO composite battery rises to 74 °C, which is above the paraffin solid–liquid phase transition temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
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11 pages, 3366 KiB  
Communication
Application of Rh/TiO2 Nanotube Array in Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid Solution
by Mahmudul Hassan Suhag, Ikki Tateishi, Mai Furukawa, Hideyuki Katsumata, Aklima Khatun and Satoshi Kaneco
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(11), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6110327 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) were fabricated via electrochemical anodization process. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from formic acid solution was investigated using TNTs with simultaneous Rh deposition. The effects of calcination temperature and time for TNTs on hydrogen generation were studied. The maximum hydrogen generation [...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) were fabricated via electrochemical anodization process. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from formic acid solution was investigated using TNTs with simultaneous Rh deposition. The effects of calcination temperature and time for TNTs on hydrogen generation were studied. The maximum hydrogen generation (54 µmol) was observed when using TNTs with a 500 °C calcination temperature and 10 h calcination time under 5 h of black light (352 nm) irradiation. The reusability tests indicated that the TNTs with photodeposited Rh metal (Rh/TNT) had excellent stability up to the fifth cycle for hydrogen generation from formic acid solution. The TNTs were characterized before and after photodeposition of Rh metal via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). XRD revealed the presence of optimal anatase–rutile phase ratios in TNTs at 500 °C and 300 °C calcination temperatures. XRD and SEM revealed the deposition of Rh metal on the TNT surface at 300 °C and 500 °C calcination temperatures. It was observed that the light absorption ability of TNTs calcined at 500 °C was greater than that of TNTs calcined at 300 °C. The reaction mechanisms for the formation of TNTs and photocatalytic hydrogen production from formic acid solutions by TNTs with simultaneous Rh deposition were also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
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14 pages, 5212 KiB  
Article
Dielectric Properties and Energy Storage of Hybrid/Boron Nitride/Titanium Carbide/Epoxy Nanocomposites
by Chryssanthi Blatsi, Anastasios C. Patsidis and Georgios C. Psarras
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(9), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6090259 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
In this study, hybrid boron nitride (BN)/titanium carbide (TiC)/epoxy resin composite nanodielectrics were manufactured and characterized. Their morphological and structural characterization was conducted via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, whereas the dielectric behavior was studied by means of [...] Read more.
In this study, hybrid boron nitride (BN)/titanium carbide (TiC)/epoxy resin composite nanodielectrics were manufactured and characterized. Their morphological and structural characterization was conducted via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, whereas the dielectric behavior was studied by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS). Dielectric measurements were carried out from 30 to 160 °C and from 10−1 to 106 Hz, respectively. The dielectric results revealed the existence of three relaxation mechanisms, which from high to low frequencies, at constant temperature, refer to re-arrangement of polar-side groups (β-relaxation) of the macromolecular chains, transition from glassy to rubbery state of the amorphous polymer matrix (α-relaxation) and interfacial polarization (IP) between the polymer matrix and the nanofillers. It was found that, in general, nanodielectrics exhibited enhanced dielectric properties mainly due to the high dielectric permittivity of TiC and the fine dispersion of the fillers, confirmed also by the SEM images. Dynamic analysis conducted for the α-relaxation showed a Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann dependence on temperature. The ability of energy storing of the nanocomposites was examined via their energy density. Optimum performance is exhibited by the 5 phr TiC/1 phr BN/epoxy nanocomposite, reaching an energy storing ability nine times greater than the unfilled matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
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Review

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17 pages, 7237 KiB  
Review
Treatment of Biowaste for Electrodes in Energy Storage Applications: A Brief Review
by Samuel Ebenezer Kayode and Francisco J. González
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030127 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Proper and innovative waste management methods still pose a major concern in our present world. Continuous accumulation of biowaste from bio-processing industries, household, organic residues and so on makes the environment polluted and endangers the health of man and other animals. The common [...] Read more.
Proper and innovative waste management methods still pose a major concern in our present world. Continuous accumulation of biowaste from bio-processing industries, household, organic residues and so on makes the environment polluted and endangers the health of man and other animals. The common waste management methods which include direct dumping into water bodies, open-air combustion, and as land fillers are obsolete and are the major causes of environmental pollution. Conversion of biowastes into valuable materials aids proper waste management, and helps to attain a cleaner environment, in addition to the fact that wastes are turned into wealth. Biowastes are rich in carbon and can serve as excellent precursors for the synthesis of important carbon materials such as activated carbon, graphene, carbon nanotubes etc. Three important methods of converting biowastes into carbon materials are discussed in this review. The electrochemical, adsorption, and electrocatalytic properties of the materials and the applications in electrochemical energy storage devices are also discussed in brief. This review focuses on the synthesis of carbon materials from biowaste residues and their use in developing electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors. Future perspectives on the need to exploit greener technology for the conversion of biowastes into important carbon materials should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
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