Composites for Construction Industry

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X). This special issue belongs to the section "Composites Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (7 December 2023) | Viewed by 26570

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Polytechnic Institute, Far Eastern Federal University, 690922 Vladivostok, Russia
Interests: composites; supplementary cementitious materials; aggregates; recycled

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, exciting developments have taken place in various fields of materials science and the gradual transformation of scientific progress into new technologies, which, as a rule, not only have significantly improved characteristics, but are also safe for human health and the environment. The field of heritage conservation, with all its traditionalism and versatility, has also benefited from this development. However, the specificity of this area has led to a significant scatter in the literature and a lack of mutual information between all relevant subjects.

This special issue should help overcome these problems. This provides an opportunity to create a compendium of new methods that will not only contribute to further scientific progress, but also provide scientists and engineers with a useful literature review. It focuses on cutting-edge solutions to the fundamental problems of composite materials, the understanding of which often far outstrips their solutions.

I cordially invite you to submit your contributions to this issue, the topics of which include, but are not limited to:

  • Cleaning that is efficient, selective and also considerate of the composite being processed.
  • Combining a number of materials
  • Long-term protection of building structures made of composite materials
  • Protection of composite structures from biological wear in an environmental context
  • Methods suitable for the preservation of durable structural composite structures in areas with extreme atmospheric conditions.
  • How to resist the destruction of composite structures
  • Preservation of composite structures and environmental protection.

Prof. Dr. Roman Fediuk
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Composites Science is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • supplementary cementitious materials
  • aggregates
  • cleaner production
  • eco-friendly technology
  • concrete
  • waste recycling

Published Papers (18 papers)

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19 pages, 3584 KiB  
Article
Deterioration of Cementitious Materials in Wastewater Treatment Plants’ Pumping Stations and Sand-Trap Structures
by Nedson T. Kashaija, Viktória Gável, Krett Gergely, Kovago Akos, Miklós Kürthy, Csaba Szabó, Erika Tóth and Zsuzsanna Szabó-Krausz
J. Compos. Sci. 2024, 8(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs8020060 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are critical infrastructures for wastewater management, and their durability is crucial. Due to their excellent water tightness and strength, cementitious materials are used to build WWTPs. However, the performance of these materials is affected by aggressive environments. There are [...] Read more.
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are critical infrastructures for wastewater management, and their durability is crucial. Due to their excellent water tightness and strength, cementitious materials are used to build WWTPs. However, the performance of these materials is affected by aggressive environments. There are few in situ experiments in the literature regarding the deterioration of cementitious materials in WWTPs. This paper investigates their deterioration mechanisms in a sewage pumping station and a sand-trap structure of a WWTP. In situ experiment was conducted by exposing cement specimens in both locations for 1, 2, 3 and 7 months. The physical and morphological changes of the specimens were examined using stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas the mineralogical/solid phase changes were examined using X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the specimens from the pumping station formed colored surface products, which were confirmed to be secondary minerals (i.e., gypsum and ettringite), whereas there were no colored surface products in the sand-trap structure. The results demonstrated that cementitious materials subjected to wastewater vapors (in a pumping station) had higher deterioration effects than those subjected to wastewater liquid (in a sand-trap structure), suggesting that the wastewater vapors are more aggressive toward cementitious materials than wastewater liquids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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12 pages, 3997 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Aggressive Environmental Conditions on the Adhesion of Applied Crystalline Materials
by Martin Mottl, Pavel Reiterman and Jiří Pazderka
J. Compos. Sci. 2024, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs8010005 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Crystalline coatings are waterproofing systems used for additional protection against increased moisture and subsurface water ingress. Even though these crystalline materials are commonly used in moisture-protective systems, they have not yet been sufficiently scientifically described. The weakest link in the chain of interaction [...] Read more.
Crystalline coatings are waterproofing systems used for additional protection against increased moisture and subsurface water ingress. Even though these crystalline materials are commonly used in moisture-protective systems, they have not yet been sufficiently scientifically described. The weakest link in the chain of interaction between crystalline coatings and underlying concrete is the transition zone. To increase knowledge of the interaction between these materials, a series of experiments was prepared using a specially formulated protective mortar as the final surface layer, with the function of additionally waterproofing the structure. An experimental study of the adhesion of surface layers based on secondary crystallization to provide additional protection to concrete structures loaded with moisture or ground water exposure is presented in this paper. The series of experiments carried out consisted of an analysis of protective crystalline mortar adhesion to concrete samples of identical composition. A set of experimental measurements under the influence of various boundary conditions was carried out to determine the bond strength between two different materials. For the experimental measurements, the materials were exposed to aggressive environments for which durability verification had not yet been performed. A modified protective mortar with crystalline admixture was used as an overlayed material. This mortar worked similarly to a crystalline coating after application. Over time, there was penetration of the underlaying concrete and a secondary hydration of the cement matrix which resulted in the waterproofing of the structure. The test samples were exposed to aggressive environmental conditions in the form of freezing–thawing cycles and a carbonation process. Pull-off tests were carried out on every test sample to determine the strength of the surface layers. The penetration of the crystalline agent into the base concrete was confirmed with an SEM observation. The results of the experimental program showed that exposure to the aggressive environment further reduced the strength of the modified mortar containing the crystalline admixture. However, the bond strength between the concrete and the modified mortar exceeded the tensile strength of the concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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15 pages, 3699 KiB  
Article
Dearsenation of Gold-Bearing Composite Concentrates without Forced Displacement in a Sublimator
by Sergey Trebukhov, Valeriy Volodin, Alina Nitsenko, Xeniya Linnik, Erkebulan Kilibayev, Olga Kolesnikova and Yury Liseitsev
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(9), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7090378 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
The primary devices for extracting volatile components from dispersed materials in a vacuum are devices with the movement of raw materials by directed vibrations. During the analysis of the operation of such installations, some shortcomings were identified, due to the supply of heat [...] Read more.
The primary devices for extracting volatile components from dispersed materials in a vacuum are devices with the movement of raw materials by directed vibrations. During the analysis of the operation of such installations, some shortcomings were identified, due to the supply of heat flow to the processed raw material and the requirements for the choice of structural materials. In this article, the authors tested a heating method and a design of a sublimator with the supply of heat flow to the dispersed material by radiation from the heater. The sublimation zone is made in the form of a shaft formed by simple-shaped plates, the design and material of which involve the use of refractory and ceramic materials that are inert with respect to an aggressive vaporous sulfide medium. The movement of bulk material through the volume of the sublimator occurs due to rheological properties: sliding along inclined plates. Technological tests on the sublimation of arsenic sulfides from gravity and flotation composite concentrates of the Bakyrchik deposit (Kazakhstan) have shown the possibility of a high degree of sublimation of arsenic (more than 96–99%) while preserving precious metal composites in the sublimation residue and stable operation of equipment. Sublimation residues containing 0.14–0.30% As can be processed by known methods. The possibility of sufficiently complete removal of arsenic and its compounds from composite concentrates at a reduced pressure with the removal of the latter in the most environmentally friendly sulfide form has been established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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25 pages, 7432 KiB  
Article
Modal Parameter Identification and Comfort Assessment of GFRP Lightweight Footbridges in Relation to Human–Structure Interaction
by Jordi Uyttersprot, Wouter De Corte and Wim Van Paepegem
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(9), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7090348 - 22 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
With the emergence of slimmer footbridges and the introduction of lighter materials, the challenge of vibrational comfort assessment becomes more and more relevant. Previous studies have shown that each pedestrian will act both as an inducer and a damper, referred to as human–structure [...] Read more.
With the emergence of slimmer footbridges and the introduction of lighter materials, the challenge of vibrational comfort assessment becomes more and more relevant. Previous studies have shown that each pedestrian will act both as an inducer and a damper, referred to as human–structure interaction. However, this interaction is currently not implemented in design guidelines, which leads to a poor comfort estimation for small lightweight footbridges. Derived from smartphone-based vibration measurements, this paper provides an overview of the modal parameters at various pedestrian densities and a comfort assessment of a selection of simply supported GFRP and steel lightweight footbridges in Flanders. The results indicate that the initial structural damping ratios for GFRP bridges exceed the values set in design guidelines and that they increase with an increasing pedestrian density. Further, it is shown that the measured accelerations do not relate proportionally to the pedestrian density. From both results the relevance of human–structure interaction is confirmed. Finally, while the first natural frequency is analytically predicted accurately, the vertical accelerations are substantially overestimated. Here, a better estimation can be made based on the experimentally measured damping ratios. The results contribute to a better understanding of human–structure interaction and the vibration assessment of lightweight footbridges. Practical applications include optimizing footbridge design, focussing on better performance and improving safety and user experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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31 pages, 7860 KiB  
Article
Resilience of Medium-to-High-Rise Ductile Coupled Shear Walls Located in Canadian Seismic Zones and Strengthened with Externally Bonded Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite: Nonlinear Time History Assessment
by Ali Abbaszadeh and Omar Chaallal
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(8), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7080317 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Coupled shear walls (CSWs) are structural elements used in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings to provide lateral stability and resistance against seismic and wind forces. When subjected to high levels of seismic loading, CSWs exhibit nonlinear deformation through cracking and crushing in concrete and [...] Read more.
Coupled shear walls (CSWs) are structural elements used in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings to provide lateral stability and resistance against seismic and wind forces. When subjected to high levels of seismic loading, CSWs exhibit nonlinear deformation through cracking and crushing in concrete and yielding in reinforcements, thereby dissipating a significant amount of energy, leading to their permanent deformation. Externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (EB-FRP) sheets have proven to be effective in strengthening RC structures against various loading and environmental conditions. In addition, their high strength-to-weight ratio makes them an attractive solution as they can be easily applied without significantly increasing the structure’s weight. This study investigates the effectiveness of using EB-FRP sheets to reduce residual displacement in CSWs during severe earthquake loadings. Two series of 15-story and 20-story CSWs in Western and Eastern Canadian seismic zones, which serve as representative models for medium- and high-rise structures, were evaluated through nonlinear time history analysis. The numerical simulation of all CSWs and strengthened elements was carried out using the RUAUMOKO 2D software. The findings of this study provided evidence of the effectiveness of EB-FRP sheets in reducing residual deformation in CSWs. Additionally, significant reductions in the rotation of the coupling beams (CBs) and the inter-story drift ratio were observed. The results also revealed that bonding vertical FRP sheets to boundary elements and confining enhancement by wrapping CBs and wall piers is a very effective configuration in mitigating residual deformations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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16 pages, 4008 KiB  
Article
Research on the Production of Pigments Based on Composite Pellets in the Recycling of Industrial Waste
by Bakhriddin Turakulov, Kurmanbek Zhantasov, Alexandr Kolesnikov, Bakyt Smailov and Yury Liseitsev
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070289 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
This article presents the complex processing of low-grade and substandard chromium ores, as well as sludge tailings, with the production of composite chromium-containing materials and pigments, while improving environmental performance in the Republic of Kazakhstan through the utilization and processing of technogenic raw [...] Read more.
This article presents the complex processing of low-grade and substandard chromium ores, as well as sludge tailings, with the production of composite chromium-containing materials and pigments, while improving environmental performance in the Republic of Kazakhstan through the utilization and processing of technogenic raw materials. In this work, to study the physicochemical properties of the starting materials, modern analytical, thermodynamic, chemical, granulometric, as well as computational, mathematical, laboratory, and experimental methods were used. In particular, studies of a method for producing composite pellets for chromite pigments based on industrial technogenic waste of the Republic of Kazakhstan are presented. Based on the results of the experimental studies, composite pellets were obtained, having a compressive strength of 150–220 kg/pellet and containing 49.7% of chromium oxide and 0.5–1.0% of carbon in its composition. The resulting chromite pigment based on the composite pellets is a modification of chromium oxohydroxide with the formula γ-CrOOH. The density of the resulting pigment is 3.4 kg/m3. The chromite pigment based on the composite pellets is recommended for use in various coloring compositions, including using it for printing on cotton and mixed fabrics intended for sewing outerwear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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12 pages, 16537 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Cenospheres from Ash and Their Application
by Sandugash K. Tanirbergenova, Balaussa K. Dinistanova, Nurzhamal K. Zhylybayeva, Dildara A. Tugelbayeva, Gulya M. Moldazhanova, Aizat Aitugan, Kairat Taju and Meruyert Nazhipkyzy
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070276 - 04 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
The possibility of improving the strength properties of concrete materials based on ash/slag waste from thermal power plants of Almaty (Kazakhstan) by adjusting their chemical composition is considered. An X-ray phase analysis, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis, infrared analysis (IR), and elemental determination [...] Read more.
The possibility of improving the strength properties of concrete materials based on ash/slag waste from thermal power plants of Almaty (Kazakhstan) by adjusting their chemical composition is considered. An X-ray phase analysis, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis, infrared analysis (IR), and elemental determination analysis (EDAX) of ash and slag wastes were carried out, and additives to correct their chemical composition were selected. The analysis of the conducted studies shows that the addition of polypropylene fiber leads to an increase in the compressive crack resistance compared to the composition of the mixture in which ash is present. The highest compressive strength in which cenospheres increase in strength characteristics is observed on samples modified with 7% cenospheres. It was found that the strength of the concrete with the addition of cenospheres increased by more than two times in comparison with a sample without additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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21 pages, 9510 KiB  
Article
Sawdust-Based Concrete Composite-Filled Steel Tube Beams: An Experimental and Analytical Investigation
by Ammar N. Hanoon, Mahir M. Hason, Amjad Ali K. Sharba, Ali A. Abdulhameed, Mugahed Amran, Siva Avudaiappan and Erick Saavedra Flores
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060256 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Incorporating waste byproducts into concrete is an innovative and promising way to minimize the environmental impact of waste material while maintaining and/or improving concrete’s mechanical characteristics and strength. The proper application of sawdust as a pozzolan in the building industry remains a significant [...] Read more.
Incorporating waste byproducts into concrete is an innovative and promising way to minimize the environmental impact of waste material while maintaining and/or improving concrete’s mechanical characteristics and strength. The proper application of sawdust as a pozzolan in the building industry remains a significant challenge. Consequently, this study conducted an experimental evaluation of sawdust as a fill material. In particular, sawdust as a fine aggregate in concrete offers a realistic structural and economical possibility for the construction of lightweight structural systems. Failure under four-point loads was investigated for six concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) specimens. The results indicated that recycled lightweight concrete performed similarly to conventional concrete when used as a filler material in composite steel tube beams. The structural effects of sawdust substitution on ultimate load and initial stiffness were less substantial than the relative changes in the material properties, and the ultimate capacity of the tested samples decreased moderately as the substitution percentage of sawdust increased. Moreover, the maximum load capacity was observed to decrease by 6.43–30.71% for sawdust replacement levels between 5% and 45.1% across all tested samples. Additionally, when using lightweight concrete with 5% sawdust, the moment value of the CFST sample was reduced by 6.4%. Notably, the sawdust CFST samples exhibited a flexural behavior that was relatively comparable to that of the standard CFST samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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20 pages, 4837 KiB  
Article
Bulk Glass Reinforced Composite Columns: Physical Testing Results, Analysis, and Discussion
by John Cotter and Rasim Guldiken
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060241 - 11 Jun 2023
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Glass-reinforced composite columns (GRCCs) may provide an economical alternative to conventional construction materials due to the superior cost to strength provided by bulk glass. Prior to this study, no GRCCs had been physically tested, having previously relied on simulation to predict the behavior [...] Read more.
Glass-reinforced composite columns (GRCCs) may provide an economical alternative to conventional construction materials due to the superior cost to strength provided by bulk glass. Prior to this study, no GRCCs had been physically tested, having previously relied on simulation to predict the behavior of the columns. This study utilizes polyurethane resin bonds in place of sizing agents for adherence between materials, a key requirement for the development of the structural system of the columns. The unreinforced control column failed at a load of 11.2 kN while the maximum GRCC load was 30.8 kN. This indicates that glass can be loaded to 123 MPa before the onset of delamination failure of the GRCCs. Maximum shear stress of 53 MPa was reached, exceeding the 11 MPa required for practical GRCCs. Buckling of the columns occurred at 30.8 kN, below the theoretical maximum of 64.4 kN. Through gradual delamination, the column slowly transferred to an unbonded condition, causing buckling failure. Delamination is unlikely to occur in practical GRCCs due to the lower required shear strengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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15 pages, 3833 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical Study of the Possibility of Utilization of Coal Ash by Processing as Secondary Raw Materials to Obtain a Composite Cement Clinker
by Bekkeldi Muratov, Alexandr Kolesnikov, Shermakhan Shapalov, Samal Syrlybekkyzy, Irina Volokitina, Dana Zhunisbekova, Gulchehra Takibayeva, Farida Nurbaeva, Taslima Aubakirova, Lazzat Nurshakhanova, Akmaral Koishina, Leila Seidaliyeva, Andrey Volokitin, Aizhan Izbassar and Igor Panarin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060234 - 06 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
A significant amount of energy waste has accumulated in the world, in particular, large-tonnage fine ash from central heating stations (coal ash), which can negatively affect the natural environment and the health of the population. However, at the same time, due to its [...] Read more.
A significant amount of energy waste has accumulated in the world, in particular, large-tonnage fine ash from central heating stations (coal ash), which can negatively affect the natural environment and the health of the population. However, at the same time, due to its chemical composition, this waste can be disposed of by complex processing as a secondary mineral component, thus reducing the anthropogenic load on the natural environment. This article presents a physico-chemical study of coal ash for its further use as a secondary mineral component, in particular, a component of a raw mixture with limestone to produce a composite Portland cement clinker. Coal ash and limestone were subjected to granulometric, chemical, differential thermal, scanning electron microscopy, elemental chemical and X-ray structural analyses, as well as modeling to assess the possibility of optimizing the raw material and mineralogical composition of the composite Portland cement clinker. During the research, the chemical and elemental compositions of the coal ash and limestone were determined and SEM images of the coal ash were obtained; it was found that 68.04% of the coal ash was represented by the fraction with granules <0.16 mm. Using X-ray diffraction analysis, the main limestone minerals were identified, which were represented by calcite and silica. Based on the results of mathematical modeling of the utilization of coal ash from a thermal power plant by processing with limestone, a two-component raw material mixture containing 23.66% fly ash and 76.34% limestone was optimized and the optimal mineralogical composition of the composite Portland cement clinker was determined. Utilization of coal ash by processing as a secondary raw material can be carried out at almost any ash storage facility anywhere in the world, taking into account the chemical composition of the processed ash. It was found that the replacement of natural raw materials with man-made raw materials in the form of coal ash contributed to a reduction in fuel consumption for firing (kg of conventional fuel) by 13.76% and a decrease in the thermal effect of clinker formation by 5.063%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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14 pages, 4556 KiB  
Article
Studies of Utilization of Technogenic Raw Materials in the Synthesis of Cement Clinker from It and Further Production of Portland Cement
by Nurgali Zhanikulov, Bayan Sapargaliyeva, Aktolkyn Agabekova, Yana Alfereva, Aidin Baidibekova, Samal Syrlybekkyzy, Lazzat Nurshakhanova, Farida Nurbayeva, Gulzhan Sabyrbaeva, Yergazy Zhatkanbayev, Pavel Kozlov, Aizhan Izbassar and Olga Kolesnikova
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060226 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Four series of experiments were carried out to study the possibility of replacing clay and an iron-containing component with tefritobasalt and lead slag as part of the initial charge for Portland cement. The experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure and a temperature [...] Read more.
Four series of experiments were carried out to study the possibility of replacing clay and an iron-containing component with tefritobasalt and lead slag as part of the initial charge for Portland cement. The experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 1350 °C. It was shown that the replacement of clay and an iron-containing component with tefritobasalt and lead slag as part of the initial charge in the cement industry will lead to a decrease in temperature by 100 °C in the technological scheme of production and a reduction in energy consumption, since the theoretical specific consumption of raw materials is 1.481 t/t of clinker, which is approximately 70 kg lower than in traditional mixtures. The content of non-traditional components in total was 24.69%. In addition, tefritobasalts improved clinker formation processes, contributed to a decrease in the firing temperature, and intensified the clinker firing process. A small amount of lead slag (5.06%) introduced into the mixture changed the structure of the clinker and improved the process of mineral formation while also improving roasting and reducing the anthropogenic impact on the environment through the disposal of man-made waste. The strength of the experimental composite cements was tested after 7 and 28 days on small samples measuring 2 × 2 × 2 cm. The physicomechanical characteristics and structure of composite cements were studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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16 pages, 4646 KiB  
Article
Innovative Use of Single-Use Face Mask Fibers for the Production of a Sustainable Cement Mortar
by Siva Avudaiappan, Patricio Cendoya, Krishna Prakash Arunachalam, Nelson Maureira-Carsalade, Cristian Canales, Mugahed Amran and Pablo F. Parra
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060214 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, biomedical waste management has overwhelmed both developed and developing nations. It is now a critical issue that has to be addressed with minimal possible adverse impact on the environment. This study introduced a technique of recycling face masks [...] Read more.
Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, biomedical waste management has overwhelmed both developed and developing nations. It is now a critical issue that has to be addressed with minimal possible adverse impact on the environment. This study introduced a technique of recycling face masks into polypropylene fibers for use in concrete. This proposed recycling process provides complete disinfection of contaminated clinical waste and offers the opportunity to transform the characteristics of an end product. Microfibers manufactured from recycled medical masks were subjected to testing. According to the results, polypropylene is the primary component of this research program. Two batches of concrete were made, one with the inclusion of masks as polypropylene fibers and another that performed as a control mix. The modified mortar was compared to the control mix in split tensile, flexure, compressive strength, and water absorption. Compressive strength was found to be improved by about 17%, and tensile strength to be increased by around 22% when mask fibers were incorporated. This research introduced a novel approach for disposing of waste masks and established the preliminary viability of upcycling trash face masks towards mortar concrete production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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21 pages, 5545 KiB  
Article
Strong Structure Formation of Ceramic Composites Based on Coal Mining Overburden Rocks
by Galiya Rakhimova, Andrey Stolboushkin, Olga Vyshar, Victor Stanevich, Murat Rakhimov and Pavel Kozlov
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050209 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Currently, the amount of man-made waste worldwide is steadily increasing. It is, therefore, necessary to constantly look for effective ways of utilization and recycling. It is also necessary to reduce the use of non-renewable resources and reduce the impact on the environment. The [...] Read more.
Currently, the amount of man-made waste worldwide is steadily increasing. It is, therefore, necessary to constantly look for effective ways of utilization and recycling. It is also necessary to reduce the use of non-renewable resources and reduce the impact on the environment. The use of coal industry waste is currently quite insignificant, amounting to some 10% of the total volume. The work aimed to study the properties of raw materials and study the processes of structure formation during the forming, drying, and firing of composite ceramic produced using overburden rock and additives. The work’s relevance lies in the need to solve environmental, economic, and technological problems related to the utilization of coal mining waste. Experiments of the past prove the possibility of using the waste coal industry as additives in the production of building materials. The article presents the results of studies of the chemical, mineralogical, and granulometric composition of overburden rock in coal mining. Peculiarities of structure formation during the forming, drying, and firing of ceramic composites based on optimal fractional compositions from coal-mine overburden were revealed. Organic and chemical additives were used for the correction of technological properties and improvement of the quality of finished composite products. The physical and mechanical indices of the obtained composite ceramic samples were determined, the analysis of which revealed that the use of highly mineralized carbonaceous rocks as solid additives provided a 2–2.5-fold increase in the strength of the product, 5.6% reduction in water absorption, and an increase in the product frost resistance by 20–25 cycles. The aluminum oxychloride influence on the physical and mechanical indices of the obtained composite articles was reflected in a reduction in their water absorption from 8.2 to 7.0%, a 10–12% increase in strength in compression, and an increase in freeze–thaw resistance by 30–35 cycles. Research results proved that the composition and properties of coal-mine overburden rock are close to those of conventional clays. With special technological preparation, they can be used for the production of composite ceramic products. This will significantly reduce the cost of bricks, to make up for the shortage of high-grade clay raw materials and improve the environmental situation. Nevertheless, further research into the use of coal-mine overburdens in the composite ceramic material technology is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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16 pages, 5297 KiB  
Article
Influence of Calcined Clay Pozzolan and Aggregate Size on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Pervious Concrete
by Kwabena Boakye and Morteza Khorami
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050182 - 01 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Pervious concrete has been reported as a viable solution to reduce stormwater run-off, the heat-island effect, road noise, and pavement flooding. Previous researchers have focused on analysing the structural properties and functionality of pervious concrete. However, relatively few studies have been conducted into [...] Read more.
Pervious concrete has been reported as a viable solution to reduce stormwater run-off, the heat-island effect, road noise, and pavement flooding. Previous researchers have focused on analysing the structural properties and functionality of pervious concrete. However, relatively few studies have been conducted into the addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as calcined clay, in pervious concrete and its effect on long-term durability. This paper has studied the effect of calcined clay pozzolan as a partial substitute for Portland cement in pervious concrete, together with the influence of coarse aggregate size. A water–binder ratio of 0.4 and aggregate–binder ratio of 4.0, as well as a superplasticiser content of 0.95%, were maintained for all mixes. Two sizes of coarse aggregates were used for this study: 9.5 mm and 20 mm. CEM-I cement was partly substituted with calcined clay in dosages of 0 to 30% in replacement intervals of 5%. The mechanical tests conducted included the split tensile test, compressive strength test, and flexural strength test. Durability measurements such as the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT), thermal conductivity and sulphate resistance tests were also carried out. The mechanical properties of the pervious concrete followed a similar trend. The results showed that at 20% replacement with calcined clay, the compressive strength increased by 12.7% and 16% for 9.5 mm and 20 mm aggregates, respectively. The flexural strength improved by 13.5% and 11.5%, whereas the splitting tensile strength increased by 35.4% and 35.7%, respectively, as compared to the reference concrete. Beyond 20% replacement, the tested strengths declined. The optimum calcined clay replacement was found to be 20% by weight. Generally, pervious concrete prepared with 9.5 mm obtained improved mechanical and durability properties, as compared to those of 20 mm aggregates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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20 pages, 8511 KiB  
Article
Impact of Temperature and Radiation Factors on Special Concretes Used for NPP Construction
by Anton A. Fiskov, Igor A. Magola, Alexander A. Ditts, Natalia A. Mitina and Sergey E. Vinokurov
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7040134 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1404
Abstract
The core catcher is arranged in an unattended, unventilated sub-reactor space. It is designed to receive molten corium in emergencies, and thus the concrete used in the core catcher must be resistant to high temperatures without significant loss of strength. During nuclear power [...] Read more.
The core catcher is arranged in an unattended, unventilated sub-reactor space. It is designed to receive molten corium in emergencies, and thus the concrete used in the core catcher must be resistant to high temperatures without significant loss of strength. During nuclear power plant (NPP) operation, these concretes are subjected to considerable radiation exposure, which may also affect their physical–chemical properties. Concrete mixes based on Portland cement and alumina cement with iron and corundum aggregate were investigated. Model samples of concrete were subjected to temperature exposure in the temperature range of 100 to 1000 °C and to radiation exposure in the field of mixed and neutron irradiation in the reactor cell at a load of at least 1 × 107 Gy. Concrete heating over 200 °C leads to a decrease in strength characteristics from 25.1 MPa to 2.6 MPa in Portland cement-based concretes and from 40 MPa to 12 MPa in alumina cement-based concretes. The decrease in concrete strength at high temperatures is due to dehydration of hardening phases, polymorphic transitions of aggregate and chemical interaction between concrete components. Radiation exposure of Portland cement-based concrete samples leads to an increase in their strength. Alumina cement-based concretes are less resistant to radiation exposure, and their strength decreases as a result of radiation exposure-induced processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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11 pages, 1881 KiB  
Article
Man-Made Raw Materials for the Production of Composite Silicate Materials Using Energy-Saving Technology
by Sultan Auyesbek, Nuraly Sarsenbayev, Aisulu Abduova, Bakhytzhan Sarsenbayev, Saken Uderbayev, Zhambyl Aimenov, Gulmira Kenzhaliyeva, Uzakbai Akishev, Taslima Aubakirova, Gaukhar Sauganova, Eldar Amanov, Olga Kolesnikova and Igor Panarin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030124 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
This paper presents the development of composite silicate mass compositions based on man-made waste for the production of autoclave hardening products, as well as the results of physico-chemical studies of hydration products of silicate materials. The possibility, expediency and efficiency of using multi-tonnage [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of composite silicate mass compositions based on man-made waste for the production of autoclave hardening products, as well as the results of physico-chemical studies of hydration products of silicate materials. The possibility, expediency and efficiency of using multi-tonnage technogenic waste of Kazakhstan in the industry of composite building materials is shown. Based on the results of the conducted research, the composition of a composite silicate mass based on burnt carbonate-barium tailings (8–12%), electrothermophosphoric slags (82–90%) or sand and dust from cement kiln electrofilters (2–5%) for the production of autoclave hardening products was developed. It was found that the cementing substance in composite silicate materials is represented by CSH(B) calcium silicate hydrates, tobermorite and serpentine. The simultaneous presence of fibrous and crystalline calcium and magnesium silicate hydrates in hydration products leads to the creation of composite products with a maximum strength of 41–49 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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Review

Jump to: Research

13 pages, 1673 KiB  
Review
Multilayer External Enclosing Wall Structures with Air Gaps or Channels
by Nurlan Zhangabay, Askhat Tagybayev, Islambek Baidilla, Bayan Sapargaliyeva, Bekbulat Shakeshev, Kanat Baibolov, Bolat Duissenbekov, Akmaral Utelbayeva, Alexandr Kolesnikov, Aizhan Izbassar and Pavel Kozlov
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050195 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Precise meanings of thermophysical processes taking place in air gaps have decisive importance in composite cladding structure systems’ calculation and modeling. The climatic load conditions in Kazakhstan can significantly affect the microclimate of premises in general. In this work, a review study is [...] Read more.
Precise meanings of thermophysical processes taking place in air gaps have decisive importance in composite cladding structure systems’ calculation and modeling. The climatic load conditions in Kazakhstan can significantly affect the microclimate of premises in general. In this work, a review study is carried out to obtain the relevant scientific literature on enclosing structures with air gaps under various climatic conditions. The review mainly covers research institutes from Sweden, Norway, France, Saudi Arabia, Russia, and China. On the issue of the air gap parameter’s influence on thermophysical processes, 16 papers were analyzed, and on the issue of air infiltration, 12 papers were analyzed. However, the review shows a lack of research in this area under various climatic conditions. At the same time, experience has shown that the principle of multilayer protection from climatic influences creates a favorable microclimate in buildings, but due to a possible temperature drop, wall structures made of composite building materials can be quite favorable under some conditions, and under others they may be less favorable. Therefore, working out a new energy-saving design with air gaps for climatic conditions with large temperature fluctuations during summer and winter is an urgent task. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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33 pages, 5043 KiB  
Review
Recent Trends in Treatment and Fabrication of Plant-Based Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite: A Review
by Abdullahi Haruna Birniwa, Shehu Sa’ad Abdullahi, Mujahid Ali, Rania Edrees Adam Mohammad, Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba, Mugahed Amran, Siva Avudaiappan, Nelson Maureira-Carsalade and Erick I. Saavedra Flores
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030120 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 4261
Abstract
Natural fiber (NF) is one of the many resources that nature has provided. NFs decompose quickly and are biodegradable, renewable, and cost-effective. It may be scavenged from a variety of plant and animal sources. They are employed as reinforcing materials in polymers for [...] Read more.
Natural fiber (NF) is one of the many resources that nature has provided. NFs decompose quickly and are biodegradable, renewable, and cost-effective. It may be scavenged from a variety of plant and animal sources. They are employed as reinforcing materials in polymers for NF composite development. Because of its environmental friendliness and long-term survivability, NF is growing in appeal among academics and researchers for usage in polymer composites. This study aims to offer a thorough evaluation of the most suitable and widely utilized natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites (NFPCs), along with their manufacture, processing, and applications. It also defines several external treatments of NF and their influence on the characteristics of NFPCs. The characteristics of NFPCs are affected by fiber supply, fiber type, and fiber structure. Numerous physical and chemical treatments were tested to see how they affected the thermal and strength properties of natural fiber-reinforced thermoplastic and thermosetting composites. Several polymer composite fabrication techniques were also studied. NFPCs have several disadvantages, notably low fire protection, poor strength properties, and greater moisture absorption, which have prevented their application. It is shown how NFPCs are employed in a variety of industries, particularly automotive and research industries. The review discovered that intentionally changing the regular fiber enhanced the thermochemical and physico-mechanical properties of the NFPCs by means of improving the grip between the fiber surface and the polymer framework. This study aims to provide important and fundamental facts on NF and their composites, which will aid in new investigations, the creation of a creative framework for polymer composite types, and the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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