Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X). This special issue belongs to the section "Composites Manufacturing and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 51272

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-654 Tehran, Iran
Interests: polymer blends; polymer composites; polymer nanocomposites; biopolymers; thermal analysis of polymer systems; thermoset composites; cure index; cure kinetics; coatings; bio-based resins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Polymer Processing, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran, Iran
Interests: rubber blends; rubber composites; rubber nanocomposites; thermoplastic elastomers; polymer processing; tire manufacturing

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Guest Editor
Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, G. Narutowicza Str. 11/12, Gdańsk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
Interests: plastics and rubber recycling; reactive processing; composites; polymer blends and composites compatibilization; bitumen modification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymer science recently celebrated its 100th birthday. For over a century, diverse polymers have been synthesized, characterized, and materialized to develop different kinds of goods and products ranging from general-purpose to engineering polymers. At the same time, the development of polymer blends and composites, followed by that of polymer nanocomposites, has paved the way to innovation and engineering materials and systems for advanced applications. Elastomers are the “parents” of numerous polymer composites born throughout the century that polymer science has existed. Thanks to their high elasticity, low Young’s modulus, and high yield strain compared to those of thermoplastics, elastomers are known as amorphous polymers at ambient temperature, which is well above their glass transition temperature. Elastomers are mainly thermosets requiring vulcanization to be cross-linked. Nevertheless, thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) have also found themselves at the center of attention in past decades, and recycling of thermoset elastomers has also become of importance in tackling environmental issues caused by cross-linked elastomer networks. For over 80 years, a great amount of energy has been spent by researchers and engineers alike to reinforce rubbers and elastomers via blending them together or via the addition of additives, fillers, and nanofillers. In this regard, a variety of elastomer blends and composites have been developed to rely on as high-performance materials. This Special Issue shall collect papers from experts on recent progress in the knowledge, application, and technology of rubber blends and composites. Original research papers (4000–6000 words), reviews, either short or mini-reviews (2000–3000 words) or comprehensive reviews (8000–12,000 words), short communications (1500–2500 words), and notes (1000–1500 words) are all possible types of papers this Special Issue will consider, all of which will be reviewed by experts in the field.

The followings areas are some but not all of the potential topics manuscripts may focus on:

  • Blending of elastomers;
  • Additive selection for elastomers;
  • Compatibilization of rubber blends;
  • Thermal and rheological properties of polymer blends;
  • Mechanical properties of polymer blends;
  • Structure–property relationship in rubber blends;
  • Development of rubber composites and nanocomposites;
  • Compatibilization of rubber composites and nanocomposites;
  • Structure–property relationship in rubber composites and nanocomposites;
  • Recycling of rubber blends;
  • Recycling of rubber composites and nanocomposites;
  • Green elastomer blends;
  • Green rubber composites and nanocomposites;
  • Flame-retardant properties of elastomer blends;
  • Flame-retardant properties of rubber composites and nanocomposites;
  • Modeling properties of elastomer blends;
  • Modeling properties of rubber composites and nanocomposites;
  • Recent advances in rubber blend technology;
  • Recent advances in rubber composites and nanocomposites.

Dr. Mohammad Reza Saeb
Prof. Ghasem Naderi
Dr. Krzysztof Formela
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Composites Science is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Elastomers and rubbers
  • Compounding
  • Composites and nanocomposites
  • Compatibilization
  • Modification
  • Additives
  • Green components in rubber technology
  • Recycling
  • Modeling
  • Structure–property relationship

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 7600 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Rubberized Concrete
by Ashraf A. M. Fadiel, Nuria S. Mohammed, Taher Abu-Lebdeh, Iulian Sorin Munteanu, Elisabeta Niculae and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030129 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Most metropolitan areas in the world are facing major solid-waste-disposal problems. The solid-waste problem is considered one of the major environmental problems that countries and environmental organizations are paying increasing attention to at present, not only due to its negative effects on public [...] Read more.
Most metropolitan areas in the world are facing major solid-waste-disposal problems. The solid-waste problem is considered one of the major environmental problems that countries and environmental organizations are paying increasing attention to at present, not only due to its negative effects on public health and the environment, but also due to the dangers it may cause to the nearby residential communities. One of the visible solutions is to reuse solid waste as a partial replacement of concrete constituents. In this investigation, fine aggregate was replaced with crumb rubber at four different volumetric percentages, ranging from 5 to 20% with a 5% step size. A novel treatment technique based on a combination of chemical and thermal treatments of a crumb rubber surface was adopted. A superplasticizer was added to improve both the workability and the strength of the concrete mixtures. The mixtures were assessed in fresh and hardened phases and compared with a control mix. In the fresh phase, the mixtures were evaluated regarding workability and wet density; and in the hardened phase, compressive strength after 180 days, tensile and flexural strength after 90 days, dry density, and absorption were investigated. Additionally, the mixes were assessed using non-destructive tests, namely, the ultrasonic pulse velocity test, rebound hammer test, and core test. The results showed that the addition of rubber particles to concrete decreased the compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength in comparison with control concrete. An empirical equation based on combined analysis with R2 = 0.95 was derived. At the age of 180 days, the compressive strength of rubberized concrete varied from 34 to 42 MPa. From a structural point of view, its strength is regarded as acceptable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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25 pages, 9197 KiB  
Article
Mesoscale Analysis of Rubber Particle Effect on Indirect Tensile and Flexural Tensile Strength of Crumb Rubber Mortar
by Huailiang Chen, Danda Li, Xing Ma, Zheng Zhong and El-Sayed Abd-Elaal
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7010016 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
This paper presents a mesoscale model to study the influence of rubber particles on the mechanical performance of crumb rubber mortar (CRM). The indirect tensile and flexural behaviors of CRM with different rubber replacement rates, shapes, and sizes were investigated. Rubber mortar is [...] Read more.
This paper presents a mesoscale model to study the influence of rubber particles on the mechanical performance of crumb rubber mortar (CRM). The indirect tensile and flexural behaviors of CRM with different rubber replacement rates, shapes, and sizes were investigated. Rubber mortar is assumed to be a three-phase material composed of rubber aggregate, a mortar matrix, and an interface transition zone (ITZ). Numerical analysis showed that rubber content was the governing factor affecting the reduction rate of indirect tensile and flexural strength. The effect of the ITZ on the tensile strength of CRM was within one percent, which could be ignored. The influence of rubber particle size was investigated by analyzing CRM models containing five different rubber sizes from 0.86 mm to 7 mm. For each size, six different models with randomly distributed rubber particles were set up. CRM models presented a similar average strength even with different rubber particle sizes. However, the strength variation among the random models became higher when the rubber particle size increased. Numerical results also proved that treating rubber particles as pores in modeling led to negligible errors. Then, a prediction formula after considering the increase in air content is provided. Finally, the accuracy of numerical simulations was verified through a series of experimental studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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12 pages, 5964 KiB  
Article
Natural Rubber Composites Reinforced with Green Silica from Rice Husk: Effect of Filler Loading on Mechanical Properties
by Nicha Choophun, Nattapat Chaiammart, Kantavee Sukthavon, Chatchai Veranitisagul, Apirat Laobuthee, Anyarat Watthanaphanit and Gasidit Panomsuwan
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120369 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
Natural rubber (NR) composites filled with silica are typically used for tire tread applications owing to their low energy consumption and low rolling resistance. Tire tread properties vary broadly depending on the compound formulation and curing conditions. Silica loading is recognized as a [...] Read more.
Natural rubber (NR) composites filled with silica are typically used for tire tread applications owing to their low energy consumption and low rolling resistance. Tire tread properties vary broadly depending on the compound formulation and curing conditions. Silica loading is recognized as a critical factor influencing the mechanical properties of the composites. In this work, we aim to investigate the effect of silica loading (10–50 phr) on the mechanical properties of NR composites. Silica was prepared from rice husk waste via chemical treatment and subsequent calcination at 600 °C. Prior to the compound mixing process, silica was modified by a silane coupling agent to improve compatibility with the NR matrix. The NR compounds reinforced with silane-modified silica from rice husk were prepared using a two-roll mill machine. The scorch and cure times increased as the silica loading increased. The mechanical properties of the NR composites, including tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus, hardness, and abrasion loss, were examined as a function of silica loading. Tensile strength increased and reached the maximum value at 20 phr but decreased at high loading owing to the agglomeration of silica in the NR matrix. With increasing silica loading, hardness and modulus increased, whereas elongation at break and abrasion resistance decreased slightly. These results indicate that NR composites filled with silica are stiffer and harder at a higher silica loading due to the strong interaction between silica and the NR matrix, inhibiting the segmental mobility of rubber chains. We anticipate that the compound formulation presented in this work could potentially be adapted to tire tread applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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25 pages, 25614 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Analysis for Nonlinear Unbonded Circular Fiber-Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings
by Pablo Castillo Ruano and Alfred Strauss
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(7), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5070170 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
In recent years, interest in low-cost seismic isolation systems has increased. The replacement of the steel reinforcement in conventional elastomeric bearings for a carbon fiber reinforcement is a possible solution and has garnered increasing attention. To investigate the response of fiber-reinforced elastomeric bearings [...] Read more.
In recent years, interest in low-cost seismic isolation systems has increased. The replacement of the steel reinforcement in conventional elastomeric bearings for a carbon fiber reinforcement is a possible solution and has garnered increasing attention. To investigate the response of fiber-reinforced elastomeric bearings (FREBs) under seismic loads, it is fundamental to understand its mechanical behavior under combined vertical and horizontal loads. An experimental investigation of the components presents complexities due to the high loads and displacements tested. The use of a finite element analysis can save time and resources by avoiding partially expensive experimental campaigns and by extending the number of geometries and topologies to be analyzed. In this work, a numerical model for carbon fiber-reinforced bearings is implemented, calibrated, and validated and a set of virtual experiments is designed to investigate the behavior of the bearings under combined compressive and lateral loading. Special focus is paid to detailed modeling of the constituent materials. The elastomeric matrix is modeled using a phenomenological rheological model based on the hyperelastic formulation developed by Yeoh and nonlinear viscoelasticity. The model aims to account for the hysteretic nonlinear hyper-viscoelastic behavior using a rheological formulation that takes into consideration hyperelasticity and nonlinear viscoelasticity and is calibrated using a series of experiments, including uniaxial tension tests, planar tests, and relaxation tests. Special interest is paid to capturing the energy dissipated in the unbonded fiber-reinforced elastomeric bearing in an accurate manner. The agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data is assessed, and the influence of parameters such as shape factor, aspect ratio, vertical pressure, and fiber reinforcement orientation on stress distribution in the bearings as well as in the mechanical properties is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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17 pages, 10845 KiB  
Article
Practical Rubber Pre-Treatment Approch for Concrete Use—An Experimental Study
by Rajeev Roychand, Rebecca J. Gravina, Yan Zhuge, Xing Ma, Julie E. Mills and Osama Youssf
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(6), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5060143 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 3816
Abstract
There is a lot of ongoing active research all over the world looking for various applications of used tyre rubber, to increase its utilisation rate. One of the common research applications is to incorporate rubber into concrete as a partial replacement for conventional [...] Read more.
There is a lot of ongoing active research all over the world looking for various applications of used tyre rubber, to increase its utilisation rate. One of the common research applications is to incorporate rubber into concrete as a partial replacement for conventional aggregates. However, due to its poor bonding performance with cement paste, the utilisation of rubber in concrete has been hindered to date. A cost-effective and time-saving rubber pre-treatment method is of great interest, especially for the concrete industry. Out of all the various pre-treatment methods, soaking rubber particles in water is the most cost-effective and least complex method. In addition, sodium sulphate accelerates the hydration reaction of the cement composites. This study looks at the effect of soaking crumb rubber in tap water for short (2 h) and long (24 h) durations, and the optimised duration was then compared with soaking the crumb rubber in a 5% concentration of sodium sulphate solution. Compressive strength, bond behaviour, and rubber/cement interfacial transition zone (ITZ) were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The results demonstrate that a soaking duration of 2 h provides much better performance in both the strength and bond properties compared to 24-h soaking. A further improvement in the 7-day strength was achieved with the rubber soaked in 5% sodium sulphate solution for 2 h, providing a more practical and economical rubber pre-treatment method for concrete industry use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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17 pages, 3354 KiB  
Article
A Self-Healing System Based on Ester Crosslinks for Carbon Black-Filled Rubber Compounds
by Bashir Algaily, Wisut Kaewsakul, Siti Salina Sarkawi and Ekwipoo Kalkornsurapranee
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030070 - 4 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
Carbon black-reinforced rubber compounds based on the blends of natural rubber (NR) and butadiene rubber (BR) for tire sidewall applications were formulated to investigate the self-healing efficacy of a modifier called EMZ. This modifier is based on epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) modified with [...] Read more.
Carbon black-reinforced rubber compounds based on the blends of natural rubber (NR) and butadiene rubber (BR) for tire sidewall applications were formulated to investigate the self-healing efficacy of a modifier called EMZ. This modifier is based on epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) modified with hydrolyzed maleic anhydride (HMA) as the ester crosslinking agent plus zinc acetate dihydrate (ZAD) as the transesterification catalyst. The influence of EMZ modifier content in sidewall compounds on processing characteristics, reinforcement, mechanical and fatigue properties, as well as property retentions, was investigated. Increasing the content of EMZ, the dump temperatures and Mooney viscosities of the compounds slightly increase, attributed to the presence of extra polymer networks and filler–rubber interactions. The bound rubber content and Payne effect show a good correction that essentially supports that the EMZ modifier gives enhanced filler–rubber interaction and reduced filler–filler interaction, reflecting the improved homogeneity of the composites. This is the key contribution to a better flex cracking resistance and a high fatigue-to-failure resistance when utilizing the EMZ modifier. To validate the property retentions, molecular damages were introduced to vulcanizates using a tensile stress–strain cyclic test following the Mullins effect concept. The property retentions are significantly enhanced with increasing EMZ content because the EMZ self-healing modifier provides reversible or dynamic ester linkages that potentially enable a bond-interchange mechanism of the crosslinks, leading to the intermolecular reparation of the rubber network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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19 pages, 5075 KiB  
Article
On the Use of Mechano-Chemically Modified Ground Tire Rubber (GTR) as Recycled and Sustainable Filler in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Composites
by Javier Araujo-Morera, Reyes Verdugo-Manzanares, Sergio González, Raquel Verdejo, Miguel Angel Lopez-Manchado and Marianella Hernández Santana
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030068 - 3 Mar 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3879
Abstract
The management of end-of-life tires (ELTs) is one of the main environmental issues that society faces nowadays. Recycling of ELTs appears as one feasible option for tackling the problem, although their incorporation as ground tire rubber (GTR) in other rubber matrices is limited [...] Read more.
The management of end-of-life tires (ELTs) is one of the main environmental issues that society faces nowadays. Recycling of ELTs appears as one feasible option for tackling the problem, although their incorporation as ground tire rubber (GTR) in other rubber matrices is limited due to poor compatibility. In this research, we report a successful combination of a cryo-grinding process with a chemical treatment for modifying the surface of GTR. Various cryo-grinding protocols were studied until a particle size of 100–150 µm was achieved. Chemical treatments with different acids were also analyzed, resulting in the optimal modification with sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Modified GTR was added to a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix. The incorporation of 10 phr of this filler resulted in a composite with improved mechanical performance, with increments of 115% and 761% in tensile strength and elongation at break, respectively. These results validate the use of a recycled material from tire waste as sustainable filler in rubber composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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11 pages, 3365 KiB  
Article
Coppiced Biochars as Partial Replacement of Carbon Black Filler in Polybutadiene/Natural Rubber Composites
by Steven C. Peterson
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4040147 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2838
Abstract
Although carbon black has been the dominant filler material for rubber composites for over a century, it is a finite, fossil fuel-based product that is sensitive to geopolitical issues and economics. Renewable sources of carbon need to be developed to replace carbon black [...] Read more.
Although carbon black has been the dominant filler material for rubber composites for over a century, it is a finite, fossil fuel-based product that is sensitive to geopolitical issues and economics. Renewable sources of carbon need to be developed to replace carbon black in order to reduce dependence on petroleum. Biochar is the solid material left over after the anaerobic treatment of biomass at high temperature. In this work, two biochars made from coppiced hardwoods, Paulownia elongata and Populus tremuloides were used to partially replace carbon black in rubber composites using a 50/50 blend of butadiene rubber and natural rubber. Rubber composite samples using these biochars were able to replace 30% of the carbon black with virtually no loss in tensile strength, and improved elongation and toughness compared to the reference sample containing 100% carbon black. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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16 pages, 5912 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Mechanical Analysis of Rubber-Cement Composites Suitable for Additive Process Construction
by Matteo Sambucci, Danilo Marini, Abbas Sibai and Marco Valente
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4030120 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3472
Abstract
Additive manufacturing for cementitious materials represents the most attractive frontier in the modern context of Construction 4.0. In addition to the technological progress of printing systems, the development of functional and low environmental impact printable mixtures is one of the current challenges of [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing for cementitious materials represents the most attractive frontier in the modern context of Construction 4.0. In addition to the technological progress of printing systems, the development of functional and low environmental impact printable mixtures is one of the current challenges of digital fabrication in building and architectural fields. This paper proposes a preliminary physical-mechanical analysis on environmentally friendly mortars, compatible with the extrusion-based printing process, made up of recycling rubber aggregates deriving from end-of-life tires. In this study, two groups of rubber particle samples (0–1 mm rubber powder and 2–4 mm rubber granules) were used to partially/totally replace the mineral fraction of the reference printable mixture. Four tire rubber powder-granules proportions were investigated and control mortar (100% sand) was also prepared to compare its properties with those of the rubber-cement samples in terms of printability properties, mechanical strength, ductility, and structural isotropy. Based on the experimental results, the rubber aggregates increase the mixture fluidity, promoting better inter-layer adhesion than the neat mix. This leads to greater mechanical isotropy. As already investigated in other research works on Rubber-Concrete technology, the addition of rubber particles increases the ductility of the material but reduces its mechanical strength. However, by correctly balancing the fine and coarse rubber fraction, promising physical-mechanical performances were demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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19 pages, 5878 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effect of Calcium Carbonate and Biobased Particles for Rubber Reinforcement and Comparison to Silica Reinforced Rubber
by Lei Jong
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4030113 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3110
Abstract
Silica is a standard commercial filler to reduce rolling resistance of tires. The co-filler of nano-size calcium carbonate and bio-based particles also produce reinforced rubber with similar tensile properties and rolling resistance as silica reinforced rubber. A synergistic effect between calcium carbonate and [...] Read more.
Silica is a standard commercial filler to reduce rolling resistance of tires. The co-filler of nano-size calcium carbonate and bio-based particles also produce reinforced rubber with similar tensile properties and rolling resistance as silica reinforced rubber. A synergistic effect between calcium carbonate and soy protein nanoparticles was observed to produce reinforced rubber with good tensile properties and low rolling resistance. The protein increases the effective crosslink density and moduli of calcium carbonate reinforced rubber. Stearic acid coated calcium carbonate particles have a greater reinforcement effect than the uncoated calcium carbonate particles. Mechanical properties of the composites can be adjusted through the complimentary effect of these two fillers. The composite that contains 60% protein and 40% coated calcium carbonate has mechanical properties comparable to that of the silica reinforced rubber. The temperature and strain dependent dynamic mechanical properties, as well as the stress relaxation behaviors of these rubbers, reveal synergistic effect between the co-fillers. This development demonstrates an economical method to produce useful reinforced rubbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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16 pages, 4687 KiB  
Article
Nonisothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Polylactic Acid under the Influence of Polyolefin Elastomers
by Azadeh Khosravi, Abdolhossein Fereidoon, Mohammad Mehdi Khorasani, Vincent Berthe, Henri Vahabi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Paran, Ghasem Naderi and Mohammad Reza Saeb
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4020065 - 2 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
Crystallization kinetics of various blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/polyolefin elastomer (POE) was studied through nonisothermal experimental investigations and theoretical approaches. The PLA/POE blends were prepared in a melt mixing process by using two types of POEs and compatibilizers. The rubber phases used were [...] Read more.
Crystallization kinetics of various blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/polyolefin elastomer (POE) was studied through nonisothermal experimental investigations and theoretical approaches. The PLA/POE blends were prepared in a melt mixing process by using two types of POEs and compatibilizers. The rubber phases used were adopted on the basis of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) type olefin elastomers. The effects of two kinds of compatibilizers containing ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and ethylene acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate terpolymer (EGMA) on the morphology and various parameters of crystallization of PLA were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements, respectively. The morphology investigations on PLA blends containing PP based olefin elastomers showed that the introduction of EGMA compatibilizer into the matrix led to a more than 100% reduction in the size of the rubber droplets. The experimental measurements of crystallization behavior of various PLA/POE blends showed that the POEs and compatibilizers could cause a fall in the initial crystallization temperature more than 13 °C. The theoretical approaches used for studying the kinetics of crystallization of PLA in the presence of various POEs and compatibilizers indicated a decrease in the crystallinity of PLA and a 64% reduction in the activation energy compared to the neat PLA. The results suggest that the largest variation in the crystallization kinetic parameters of PLA was resulted from the PP based olefin elastomer and EGMA compatibilizer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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Review

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43 pages, 10329 KiB  
Review
Recycling Waste Tires into Ground Tire Rubber (GTR)/Rubber Compounds: A Review
by Ali Fazli and Denis Rodrigue
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4030103 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 112 | Viewed by 20543
Abstract
Recycling and recovery of waste tires is a serious environmental problem since vulcanized rubbers require several years to degrade naturally and remain for long periods of time in the environment. This is associated to a complex three dimensional (3D) crosslinked structure and the [...] Read more.
Recycling and recovery of waste tires is a serious environmental problem since vulcanized rubbers require several years to degrade naturally and remain for long periods of time in the environment. This is associated to a complex three dimensional (3D) crosslinked structure and the presence of a high number of different additives inside a tire formulation. Most end-of-life tires are discarded as waste in landfills taking space or incinerated for energy recovery, especially for highly degraded rubber wastes. All these options are no longer acceptable for the environment and circular economy. However, a great deal of progress has been made on the sustainability of waste tires via recycling as this material has high potential being a source of valuable raw materials. Extensive researches were performed on using these end-of-life tires as fillers in civil engineering applications (concrete and asphalt), as well as blending with polymeric matrices (thermoplastics, thermosets or virgin rubber). Several grinding technologies, such as ambient, wet or cryogenic processes, are widely used for downsizing waste tires and converting them into ground tire rubber (GTR) with a larger specific surface area. Here, a focus is made on the use of GTR as a partial replacement in virgin rubber compounds. The paper also presents a review of the possible physical and chemical surface treatments to improve the GTR adhesion and interaction with different matrices, including rubber regeneration processes such as thermomechanical, microwave, ultrasonic and thermochemical producing regenerated tire rubber (RTR). This review also includes a detailed discussion on the effect of GTR/RTR particle size, concentration and crosslinking level on the curing, rheological, mechanical, aging, thermal, dynamic mechanical and swelling properties of rubber compounds. Finally, a conclusion on the current situation is provided with openings for future works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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