Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 43039

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Manipal Acadey of Higher Education, Manipal, India
Interests: polymer composites; nanocomposites; biocomposites; polymer 3D printing; tribology of polymers; electrospinning; waste recycling; electromagnetic shielding
1. Curiouz TechLab Private Limited, Manipal Government of Karnataka Bio incubator, MAHE Advanced Research Centre Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India
2. Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India
Interests: materials; polymer composites; nanocomposites; nanomaterials; bio-based composites;3D printing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, College of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates
Interests: materials science and engineering; materials characterization; polymeric and composite materials; biomaterials and tissue engineering; biomechanics; durability and degradation of polymeric and composite materials; welding of metallic and polymeric materials; corrosion; fatigue and fracture mechanics; renewable energy; finite element method
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering School of Automobile, Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering, Manipal University Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Interests: stress analysis; finite element analysis; gear mechanics; basalt/carbon epoxy hybrid laminates; stability mechanism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Composite materials are widely used in various areas of science. The use of composite materials has seen a significant increase and application in various sectors. Accelerating the progress in materials science and engineering has necessitated a nexus for the study and development of composites and hybrid materials at the nanoscale. Polymer composites have gained popularity in a number of different industries as a result of the rising need for high-performance materials and structures. Aerospace, automotive, and infrastructure industries are all being challenged by the rising demand for greener and smarter structures, which necessitates the development of novel engineering technologies, digitalization, and materials with diverse capacities.

This Special Issue focuses on the investigation of revolutionary new composite material formulations, special treatments, recyclability, intelligent features, engineering phenomena, and novel manufacturing concepts that are ushering in new composite material trends in the aerospace, automotive, and all engineering sectors.

In this Special Issue of Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials, we would like to invite authors to submit original papers and reviews on the topic to disseminate findings from studies conducted on materials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers (plastics), composites, semiconductors, magnetic materials, biological and biomimetic materials, silica, carbon, and dot materials. Both academic and industry researchers are encouraged to submit their findings and new developments in this area for publication. Research works that focus on progressive materials and technologies, new characterization techniques to study the relationship between microstructure and structural properties, and also physical and numerical simulation studies are especially encouraged.

Dr. B. Shivamurthy
Nithesh Naik
Prof. Dr. Abdel-Hamid I. Mourad
Dr. Santosh Patil
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • polymers
  • nanocomposites
  • carbon nanotubes
  • nanoclay
  • thermal analysis
  • ceramic
  • metal matrix composites

Published Papers (24 papers)

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16 pages, 5497 KiB  
Article
Statistical and Artificial Neural Network Coupled Technique for Prediction of Tribo-Performance in Amine-Cured Bio-Based Epoxy/MMT Nanocomposites
by Nithesh Naik, Ritesh Bhat, B. Shivamurthy, Raviraj Shetty, Parikshith R. Parashar and Adithya Lokesh Hegde
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(9), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7090372 - 6 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
This study explores the effects of four independent variables—the nanoclay weight percentage, sliding velocity, load, and sliding distance—on the wear rate and frictional force of nanoclay-filled FormuLITETM amine-cured bio-based epoxy composites. An experimental design based on the Taguchi method revealed diverging optimal [...] Read more.
This study explores the effects of four independent variables—the nanoclay weight percentage, sliding velocity, load, and sliding distance—on the wear rate and frictional force of nanoclay-filled FormuLITETM amine-cured bio-based epoxy composites. An experimental design based on the Taguchi method revealed diverging optimal conditions for minimizing the wear and frictional force. These observations were further validated using a Back-propagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN) model, demonstrating its proficiency in predicting complex system behavior. Material characterization, conducted through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), illustrated the homogeneous distribution of the nanoclay within the FormuliteTM matrix, which is crucial for enhancing the load transfer and stress distribution. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis indicated that the incorporation of nanoclay increases the surface roughness and peak height, which are important determinants of the material performance. However, an increase in the nanoclay percentage decreased these attributes, suggesting an interaction saturation point. Due to their augmented mechanical properties, the present study underscores the potential of amine-cured bio-based epoxy systems in diverse applications, such as automotive, aerospace, and biomedical engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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20 pages, 5070 KiB  
Article
Failure Modes Behavior of Different Strengthening Types of RC Slabs Subjected to Low-Velocity Impact Loading: A Review
by Rayeh Nasr Al-Dala’ien, Agusril Syamsir, Mohd Supian Abu Bakar, Fathoni Usman and Mohammed Jalal Abdullah
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060246 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Concrete is brittle; hence, it is incredibly likely that concrete buildings may fail in both local and global ways under dynamic and impulsive stresses. An extensive review investigation was carried out to examine reinforced concrete (RC) slab behavior under low-velocity impact loading. Significant [...] Read more.
Concrete is brittle; hence, it is incredibly likely that concrete buildings may fail in both local and global ways under dynamic and impulsive stresses. An extensive review investigation was carried out to examine reinforced concrete (RC) slab behavior under low-velocity impact loading. Significant past research studies that dealt with experimental and numerical simulations and analytical modeling of the RC slabs under impact loading have been presented in this work. As a result, numerous attempts to define failure behavior and to assess concrete structures’ vulnerability to lateral impact loads have been made in the literature. Based on analytical, numerical, and experimental studies carried out in previous research, this article thoroughly reviewed the current state of the art regarding the responses and failure behaviors of various types of concrete structures and members subjected to low-velocity impact loading. The effects of different structural and load-related factors were examined regarding the impact strength and failure behavior of reinforced concrete slabs reinforced with various types of strengthening procedures and exposed to low-velocity impact loads. The reviews suggested that advanced composite materials, shear reinforcement, and hybrid techniques are promising for effectively strengthening concrete structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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24 pages, 7958 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Prediction of Process Parameters during Abrasive Water Jet Machining of Hybrid Rice Straw and Furcraea foetida Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite
by Abhishek Sadananda Madival, Deepak Doreswamy, Raviraj Shetty, Nithesh Naik and Prakash Rao Gurupur
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050189 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
In the last few decades, natural composite materials have been considered one of the highly sustainable ecological alternatives for reducing the consumption of synthetic materials. Today, research on natural fiber composites is the main thrust for their use in various industrial applications. Further, [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, natural composite materials have been considered one of the highly sustainable ecological alternatives for reducing the consumption of synthetic materials. Today, research on natural fiber composites is the main thrust for their use in various industrial applications. Further, continuous research works are being carried out to utilize natural composites as an alternative to synthetic materials. However, the inhomogeneity of composites, delamination, fiber pullout, higher surface roughness (SR) and dimensional inaccuracy under traditional machining have led the attention towards non-traditional machining, such as abrasive water jet machining, to achieve high-quality components. Hence, in this study, an experimental analysis based on the design of experiments is conducted on the machinability of a hybrid rice straw/Furcraea foetida composite under abrasive water jet machining (AWJM). Further, the concentration of the rice straw and the AWJ process parameters are varied, and their effects on the quality of machining is evaluated. The experimental trials are designed based on the Taguchi L27 orthogonal array, followed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). From extensive experimentations, the concentration of rice straw is observed to be the most contributing (93.5%) factor to the SR. The traverse speed (TS) shows the highest percentage contributions of 93.13%, 55.50 and 55.70% to the material removal rate (MRR) and the top (TKW) and bottom kerf widths (BKW), respectively. However, the interaction between the fiber concentration and traverse speed gives the maximum contribution (35.04%) to the kerf taper (KT). A second-order response surface model is generated to study the effects of the process parameters on the SR, MRR, TKW, BKW and KT in any experimental domain. Finally, the microstructural characteristics of the machined surfaces, such as micro-cracks, debonding, and fiber pullout, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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19 pages, 22536 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Property and Wear Behaviour of T6 Treated A356 Alloy with Minor Addition of Copper and Zinc
by Nithesh Kashimat, Sathyashankara Sharma, Rajesh Nayak, Karthik Birur Manjunathaiah, Manjunath Shettar and Gowrishankar Mandya Chennegowda
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7040149 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
The present study examines the effect of trace additions of copper (up to 1 wt.%) and zinc (0.5 wt.%) as the alloying elements on the microstructure, hardness, and wear behaviour of T6 treated A356 (Al-7Si) alloy. Wear tests were conducted using a pin-on-disc [...] Read more.
The present study examines the effect of trace additions of copper (up to 1 wt.%) and zinc (0.5 wt.%) as the alloying elements on the microstructure, hardness, and wear behaviour of T6 treated A356 (Al-7Si) alloy. Wear tests were conducted using a pin-on-disc tribometer under a constant sliding speed of 200 RPM, varying applied load (20–40 N), and sliding distance (0–3000 m) to determine the wear rate and the coefficient of friction. The results indicated a minimum of 1 wt.% of copper was required to form the Al2Cu intermetallic phase, resulting in a finer grain structure and improved hardness. However, the role of zinc as a trace element was not observed on the microstructure; the observed changes may be the combined effect of copper and zinc as a whole. The highest hardness of 107 VHN (98% increase) was achieved with 1 wt.% copper addition during peak aging at 100 °C. Also, wear tests showed that adding 1 wt.% copper to the A356 alloy and a 100 °C precipitation hardening (T6) treatment improved the wear resistance by 150–182% with a reduced coefficient of friction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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24 pages, 5338 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nanoparticles and Their Anisometry on Adhesion and Strength in Hybrid Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Nanocomposites
by Sergey O. Ilyin and Sergey V. Kotomin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7040147 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics are composite materials with record-high specific strength, which depends on the efficiency of stress redistribution between the reinforcing fibers by the polymer matrix. The problem is the accurate assessment of adhesion in the carbon fiber–polymer matrix system since it affects the [...] Read more.
Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics are composite materials with record-high specific strength, which depends on the efficiency of stress redistribution between the reinforcing fibers by the polymer matrix. The problem is the accurate assessment of adhesion in the carbon fiber–polymer matrix system since it affects the overall strength of the composite. This paper provides a novel electrochemical method for determining adhesion by estimating the critical length of carbon fibers that protrude above the fracture surface of the fiber-reinforced composite using their electrical conductivity and insulating properties of the polymer matrix. The method has been successfully applied to evaluate adhesion in carbon plastics having an epoxy matrix filled with nanoparticles of different anisometry: carbon nanotubes, organomodified montmorillonite, or detonation nanodiamonds. In addition to adhesion measurements, the effect of nanoparticles on the viscosity of epoxy binder, its impregnation efficiency of carbon fibers, curing, glass transition, and tensile strength of fiber-reinforced composites was estimated. Nanodiamonds at a mass fraction of 0.1% proved to be the most effective for improving the quality of epoxy carbon plastics, increasing fiber–matrix adhesion by 2.5 times, tensile strength by 17%, and not decreasing the glass transition temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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15 pages, 4976 KiB  
Article
Effect of Al2O3 and SiC Nano-Fillers on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites
by S.M. Shahabaz, Prakhar Mehrotra, Hridayneel Kalita, Sathyashankara Sharma, Nithesh Naik, Dilifa Jossley Noronha and Nagaraja Shetty
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7040133 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2481
Abstract
Polymeric nanocomposites are an emerging research topic, as they improve fiber-reinforced composites’ thermo-mechanical and tribological properties. Nanomaterials improve electrical and thermal conductivity and provide excellent wear and friction resistance to the polymer matrix material. In this research work, a systematic study was carried [...] Read more.
Polymeric nanocomposites are an emerging research topic, as they improve fiber-reinforced composites’ thermo-mechanical and tribological properties. Nanomaterials improve electrical and thermal conductivity and provide excellent wear and friction resistance to the polymer matrix material. In this research work, a systematic study was carried out to examine the tensile and hardness properties of a carbon fiber epoxy composite comprising nano-sized Al2O3 and SiC fillers. The study confirms that adding nano-fillers produces superior tensile and hardness properties for carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The amount of filler loading ranged from 1, 1.5, 1.75, and 2% by weight of the resin for Al2O3 and 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 2% for SiC fillers. The maximum tensile strength gain of 29.54% and modulus gain of 2.42% were noted for Al2O3 filled composite at 1.75 wt.% filler loading. Likewise, enhanced strength gain of 25.75% and 1.17% in modulus gain was obtained for SiC-filled composite at 1.25 wt.% filler loading, respectively. The hardness property of nano-filled composites improved with a hardness number of 47 for nano-Al2O3 and 43 for nano-SiC, respectively, at the same filler loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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23 pages, 9545 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Prediction of Thermal Conductivity and Electrical Conductivity of Vacuum Sintered Ti-6Al-4V-SiC(15 Wt.%) Using Soft Computing Techniques
by Adithya Hegde, Raviraj Shetty, Nithesh Naik, B. R. N. Murthy, Madhukar Nayak, Mohan Kumar and Deepika Shanubhogue
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030123 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2) is a novel composite material that has found a multitude of uses in the aerodynamics, automobile, and marine industries due to its excellent properties such as high strength and modulus, high thermal and electrical conductivity, [...] Read more.
Titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2) is a novel composite material that has found a multitude of uses in the aerodynamics, automobile, and marine industries due to its excellent properties such as high strength and modulus, high thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, excellent corrosion resistance, and high-temperature oxidation resistance. These properties are strongly associated with physical properties and microstructural features. Due to difficulties in the synthesis of this material, there have been very few investigations on the relationship between microstructure and physical characteristics of titanium silicon carbide composites processed through powder metallurgical process. However, the importance of thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity of titanium silicon carbide composites in various potential applications has led to keen attention from several researchers. Hence, in this paper, optimization, and prediction of process input parameters during processing under vacuum sintering for achieving maximum electrical and thermal conductivity of Ti-6Al-4V-SiC(15 Wt.%) has been presented. Using Taguchi’s L9 Orthogonal Array, it has been observed that aging temperature (1150 °C), aging time (four hours), heating rate (25 °C/min), and cooling rate (5 °C/min) result in optimum input parameters for achieving the highest electrical conductivity values during the processing of Ti-6Al-4V-SiCp composites. Further, for maximum thermal conductivity values during the processing of Ti-6Al-4V-SiCp composites, aging temperature (1150 °C), aging time (four hours), heating rate (5 °C/min), and cooling rate (5 °C/min) are preferred. A second-order response surface model generated can be effectively used for predicting the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity during the processing of Ti-6Al-4V-SiCp composites with an accuracy of 99.28% (electrical conductivity) and 99.14% (thermal conductivity). By comparing the experimental results along with the results of the mathematical model and the BPANN model results for nine trials, it was observed that the estimated value is accurate for all tests with an error of 0.39% (electrical conductivity) and 0.48% (thermal conductivity). Further, from X-ray diffraction studies and microstructural analysis, it has been observed that aging at 1150 °C for four hours resulted in the formation of a ternary carbide phase of titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2), which resulted in maximum electrical conductivity (4,260,000 Ω−1 m−1) and thermal conductivity (36.42 W/m·K) of the Ti-6Al-4V-SiC (15 Wt.%) composite specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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19 pages, 9771 KiB  
Article
Mechanical and Electrical Properties and Electromagnetic-Wave-Shielding Effectiveness of Graphene-Nanoplatelet-Reinforced Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Nanocomposites
by R. B. Jagadeesh Chandra, B. Shivamurthy, M. Sathish Kumar, Niranjan N. Prabhu and Devansh Sharma
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030117 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
Polymer nanocomposites have attracted global attention as a metal replacement for electrical and electronic applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are widely used as a nanoreinforcement to enhance the functional and structural properties of thermoset and thermoplastic polymers. In the present study, ABS nanocomposites were [...] Read more.
Polymer nanocomposites have attracted global attention as a metal replacement for electrical and electronic applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are widely used as a nanoreinforcement to enhance the functional and structural properties of thermoset and thermoplastic polymers. In the present study, ABS nanocomposites were prepared by reinforcing 3–15 wt.% GNPs in steps of 3 wt.%. The neat ABS and ABS+GNP nanocomposite specimens for the mechanical test were prepared using injection molding, followed by extrusion, as per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. It was found that the modulus of ABS improved due to the reinforcement of GNPs. Additionally, we noticed higher thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the faster heat-conducting path developed in the nanocomposites by the presence of GNPs. However, observed agglomeration of GNPs at higher concentrations and poor wetting with ABS led to the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, 350 µm thick nanocomposite films were manufactured by compression molding, followed by the extrusion method, and we investigated their electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, permittivity, and electromagnetic-wave-shielding effectiveness. The developed nanocomposites showed improved conductivity and effective electromagnetic wave shielding by absorption. The 15 wt.% GNP-reinforced ABS composite film showed a maximum shielding effectiveness of 30 dB in the X-band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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12 pages, 1244 KiB  
Article
A Comparison between the Results from Linear Analysis and Nonlinear Analysis in the Context of Simulation of Biological Materials
by Kirana Kumara P
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030109 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Surgical simulations require fast and accurate simulation of biological materials. In general, linear analysis is faster but less accurate, whereas nonlinear analysis is more accurate but slower. In this work, a kidney is simulated by using both linear analysis and nonlinear analysis, the [...] Read more.
Surgical simulations require fast and accurate simulation of biological materials. In general, linear analysis is faster but less accurate, whereas nonlinear analysis is more accurate but slower. In this work, a kidney is simulated by using both linear analysis and nonlinear analysis, the results are compared, and the errors quantified. The software package ANSYS is used for the purpose. This work presents detailed results and comparison of linear and nonlinear analysis in the context of simulation of a human kidney, which is not easily found in the literature. The results reinforce the idea that linear analysis is a useful tool for simulating biological materials when solution time is as much important as the accuracy of solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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17 pages, 4771 KiB  
Article
Performance of High-Strength Concrete with the Effects of Seashell Powder as Binder Replacement and Waste Glass Powder as Fine Aggregate
by Prathibha P. Shetty, Asha U. Rao, B. H. V. Pai and Muralidhar V. Kamath
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030092 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
Seashell powder (SSP) is a waste from aquatic life that is generally available near the coastal region. Due to its high calcium content, SSP can be utilized as a supplementary cementitious binder. SSP can be used as a sustainable binder to replace ordinary [...] Read more.
Seashell powder (SSP) is a waste from aquatic life that is generally available near the coastal region. Due to its high calcium content, SSP can be utilized as a supplementary cementitious binder. SSP can be used as a sustainable binder to replace ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and significantly reduce the carbon footprint. The present study investigates the effects of SSP and waste glass powder (WGP) on the fresh, mechanical, and microstructure properties of high-strength concrete (HSC). The SSP utilized in this research was varied, with 5%, 10%, and 15% cement replacement levels. The impact of WGP was also observed with two replacement levels, 5% and 10%, replacing natural sand. The slump flow of all the HSC mixes varied between 700 and 785 mm. A maximum compressive strength of 112.91 MPa was found for the C75SSP5 mix at 56 days. The split tensile strength values of all the HSC mixes were found in a range from 5.45 to 10.56 MPa. The modulus of elasticity values of all the HSC mixes were found to lie between 40.2 and 46.8 GPa. The lowest water absorption was observed in the mix containing 5% SSP. The SEM image of the HSC with increased SSP showed that it was denser and had fewer unreacted particles. XRD and EDS showed the presence of various gels, such as calcium silicate hydrates (CSHs), ettringite, calcium hydroxide (CH), and calcium carbonate (CC). The predicted equations for its split tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and water absorption were also carried out in the present research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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15 pages, 8560 KiB  
Article
Individual and Combined Effects of Reinforcements on Fractured Surface of Artificially Aged Al6061 Hybrid Composites
by Manjunath Shettar, Sathyashankara Sharma, Gowrishankar M C, Vishwanatha H M, Rakesh Ranjan and Srinivas Doddapaneni
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7030091 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
The present work mainly focuses on a comparative study of the individual and combined effect of reinforcements on tensile strength and fracture surface analysis of Al6061 alloy and its composites during artificial aging. SiC and B4C are the two reinforcements used [...] Read more.
The present work mainly focuses on a comparative study of the individual and combined effect of reinforcements on tensile strength and fracture surface analysis of Al6061 alloy and its composites during artificial aging. SiC and B4C are the two reinforcements used in the present work for the preparation of Al6061 composites by the stir casting process, and the reinforcement percentage from 2, 4, and 6 wt.% varied. Both Al6061 alloy and its composites are solution-treated at 558 °C/2 h and artificially aged at 100 and 200 °C for different time intervals to achieve peak aging. The results show substantial improvement in ultimate tensile strength during low temperature aging at 100 °C. Approximately 80–110% increase in UTS value is observed in both individual and hybrid composites compared to Al6061 alloy. The mechanism of failure governing the tensile strength for both alloy and its composites is thoroughly analyzed and discussed using a scanning electron microscope. The morphology of crack propagation is also studied to determine the mechanism of failure. Al6061 alloy shows ductile failure due to coarser dimples. Al6061-SiC composites show particle-matrix interface cracking and shear failure. Al6061-B4C composites show elongated dimple rupture mode of failure, whereas Al6061-SiC + B4C hybrid composites fail due to nucleation growth and mixed fracture mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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10 pages, 2939 KiB  
Article
Tension and Impact Analysis of Tungsten Inert Gas Welded Al6061-SiC Composite
by P. K. Jayashree, Sathyashankara Sharma, Sourabh Kumar, Bhagyalaxmi, Mithesh Bangera and Ritesh Bhat
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7020078 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1572
Abstract
An aluminum 6061 (Al6061) metal matrix composite (MMC) reinforced with silicon carbide was prepared by stir casting. Specimens of the required dimensions were welded using the tungsten inert gas (TIG) method. ER5356 (Al-5%Mg) was chosen as the appropriate filler material for TIG welding. [...] Read more.
An aluminum 6061 (Al6061) metal matrix composite (MMC) reinforced with silicon carbide was prepared by stir casting. Specimens of the required dimensions were welded using the tungsten inert gas (TIG) method. ER5356 (Al-5%Mg) was chosen as the appropriate filler material for TIG welding. The input current parameter was varied (150, 170 and 200nA) while maintaining the other welding parameters at constant values. An assessment of the mechanical (tensile and impact strength) and microstructure properties of the TIG-welded Al6061 MMC with 6 wt. % silicon carbide particles was accomplished. An 8.27% improvement was observed in ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for the 150 A TIG-welded sample. UTS and elasticity decreased linearly with an increase in welding current but exhibited higher values than in non-welded specimens. The microstructural analysis of the welded MMCs showed a mixed mode of failure, with equiaxial dimples being dominant in lower-weld-current specimens. Compared to non-welded specimens, a 40% increase in impact strength was observed for the 150 A TIG-welded specimens, which decreased with an increase in the welding current value. SEM analysis revealed ductile striations and continuous river patterns, resulting in mixed failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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15 pages, 3108 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Post-Cured Eggshell-Filled Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Composites
by Suhas Kowshik, Sathyashankara Sharma, Sathish Rao, Manjunath Shettar and Pavan Hiremath
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7020049 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1755
Abstract
Eggshells are a potentially polluting industrial waste that are disposed of as landfill which has proven to be hazardous to the environment. The usage of chicken eggshells as a biofiller for polymer matrix composites instead of its disposal as landfill has proven advantageous [...] Read more.
Eggshells are a potentially polluting industrial waste that are disposed of as landfill which has proven to be hazardous to the environment. The usage of chicken eggshells as a biofiller for polymer matrix composites instead of its disposal as landfill has proven advantageous in various studies. On the other hand, using eggshells as a filler material to replace inorganic calcium carbonate usage would be another environment friendly act. The present study is focused on studying the effects of eggshell filler addition and post-curing on polymer composites which could be utilised for domestic applications. Herein, uncarbonised and carbonised eggshell filler material were processed from waste eggshells. Hybridisation of the carbonised and uncarbonised eggshell filler was carried out. All three variants of eggshell fillers (10 wt.%) were used in the fabrication of composites. A hand lay-up technique was employed in the fabrication of unfilled composites along with three variants of filled composites, namely, uncarbonised, carbonised, and hybrid eggshell filled composites. The fabricated and cured composites were further subjected to post-curing at a temperature of 60 °C for a period of 2 h. All four variants of post-cured composites were then subjected to mechanical testing according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The tests revealed that all three variants of filled composites possess better mechanical properties in comparison with unfilled composites. Further, in comparison with unfilled composites, the carbonised eggshell filled composites showcased 42% and 49% improvement in flexural and tensile properties, respectively. The modes of failure of the specimens were observed and tabulated. SEM imaging revealed that the eggshell filler contributed to the strengths of the composites by means of arresting and deviating cracks. It was also observed that the post-cured specimens displayed improved properties when compared with our previous studies on non-post-cured specimens. In summary, the study showcased the benefits of eggshell filler addition and the post-curing of polymer composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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41 pages, 12182 KiB  
Article
Drilling Response of Carbon Fabric/Solid Lubricant Filler/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: An Experimental Investigation
by Yermal Shriraj Rao, Nanjangud Subbarao Mohan, Nagaraja Shetty and Subash Acharya
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7020046 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxy composite (CEC) has gained widespread acceptance as a structural material in various applications. Drilled holes are essential for assembling composite material components. Reducing drilling-induced damage and temperature effects is crucial for improved surface quality and integrity of the drilled composite. In [...] Read more.
Carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxy composite (CEC) has gained widespread acceptance as a structural material in various applications. Drilled holes are essential for assembling composite material components. Reducing drilling-induced damage and temperature effects is crucial for improved surface quality and integrity of the drilled composite. In the present work, drilling experiments were conducted on CEC, hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) dispersed CEC, and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) dispersed CEC at three different levels of spindle speed, feed, and drill diameter using solid carbide twist drills. The filler concentrations used in this study were 4, 6, and 8 wt%. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of input factors (feed, spindle speed, drill diameter, and filler concentration) on the drilling responses such as thrust force, temperature, arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra), and push-out delamination factor (DFexit). The average drilling temperature, Ra, and DFexit of MoS2 dispersed CEC were reduced by 24.7, 46.5, and 11.3%, respectively, when compared to neat CEC. In h-BN dispersed CEC, the average drilling temperature, Ra, and DFexit were reduced by 25.2, 40.9, and 13.2%, respectively, compared to neat CEC. The lubricating properties and high thermal conductivity of filler added to epoxy are responsible for the lower temperature and improved hole surface finish. The improved delamination resistance in filler-loaded CEC is due to the strengthening of the matrix and fiber–matrix interface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the morphology of the drilled composite surface. The spindle speed of 5500 rpm, feed of 0.03 mm.rev−1, and filler loading of 4 wt% produced the minimum Ra and DFexit. The response surface method (RSM) was applied to determine the input parameters based on multi-response optimum criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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19 pages, 21361 KiB  
Article
Influence of Thermal and Thermomechanical Stimuli on Dental Restoration Geometry and Material Properties of Cervical Restoration: A 3D Finite Element Analysis
by Rohan Sharma Uppangala, Swathi Pai, Vathsala Patil, Komal Smriti, Nithesh Naik, Raviraj Shetty, Pranesh Gunasekar, Amritanshu Jain, Jeswanthi Tirupathi, Pavan Hiremath, Santosh Patil and Rashmitha Rathnakar
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7010006 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Cervical restoration of a premolar tooth is a challenging task as it involves structural modification to ensure the functional integrity of the tooth. The lack of retention in the cervical area, with the cavity margins on dentin and the nonavailability of enamel, makes [...] Read more.
Cervical restoration of a premolar tooth is a challenging task as it involves structural modification to ensure the functional integrity of the tooth. The lack of retention in the cervical area, with the cavity margins on dentin and the nonavailability of enamel, makes it challenging for restoration. The high organic content of dentin, along with its tubular structure and outward flow of fluid, make dentin bonding difficult to attain. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of thermal and thermomechanical stimuli on the geometry of dental restorations in the cervical region. In the present study, a three-layered restorative material made of glass ionomer cement, hybrid layer, and composite resin is considered by varying the thickness of each layer. Group 1 of elliptical-shaped cavities generates von Mises stress of about 14.65 MPa (5 °C), 41.84 MPa (55 °C), 14.83 MPa (5 °C and 140 N), and 28.89 MPa (55 °C and 140 N), respectively, while the trapezoidal cavity showed higher stress of 36.27 MPa (5 °C), 74.44 MPa (55 °C), 34.14 MPa (5 °C and 140 N), and 75.57 MPa (55 °C and 140 N), which is comparable to the elliptical cavity. The result obtained from the analysis helps to identify the deformation and volume change that occurs due to various real-time conditions, such as temperature difference and thermal stress. The study provides insight into the behavior of novel restorative materials of varied thicknesses and temperature levels through simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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14 pages, 4968 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Magnetization, Magnetocalory, Magnetoresistance, and Electric Properties of Ni-Mn Based Heusler Alloy
by Sandeep Nambiar S., Murthy B. R. N., Karthik B. M., Sathyashankara Sharma and A. A. Prasanna
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7010005 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
The magnetic and electrical characteristics of Ni-Mn quinary Heusler alloys are studied in the current work. The results concern the materials’ magnetic and electrical behavior. The physical property measurement system (PPMS) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) were used at various magnetization levels [...] Read more.
The magnetic and electrical characteristics of Ni-Mn quinary Heusler alloys are studied in the current work. The results concern the materials’ magnetic and electrical behavior. The physical property measurement system (PPMS) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) were used at various magnetization levels to determine the results. The addition of Fe helps to form the alloy into a smart memory alloy with magnetocrystalline anisotropy, twin border mobility, and varied magnetic and martensite transition temperature characteristics. Character changes in the superparamagnetic (SPM) and paramagnetic (PM) alloys occur between 26 and 34 °C. The curves are supported by the alloy’s martensitic transition temperature change. A large refrigeration capacity is identified in the alloy. These properties are an indication of the alloys’ application prospects. Entropy change helps to detect the inverse magnetocaloric effect in the alloy, whereas adiabatic temperature change helps identify the origin and validity of reverse magnetic properties. The transition temperature changes occur when austenite’s sigma is larger than that of martensite, and as the magnetic field increases, the temperature declines. Isothermal magnetization curves, a large (MR)/B value at low and high magnetic fields, and temperatures near the transformation point suggest that small-crystal Heusler alloys have tremendous promise for low and high magnetic field magnetoresistance applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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15 pages, 3638 KiB  
Article
Martensitic Transformation and Magnetic Properties of Ni-Mn Quinary Heusler Alloy
by Sandeep Nambiar S., Murthy B. R. N., Sathyashankara Sharma and Prasanna A. A.
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Ni-Mn-based quinary Heusler alloys have seldom been investigated with respect to their martensitic transformation and mechanical properties for near room temperature transformation. In the current work, we identified and investigated martensitic transformation near room temperature, and the martensitic properties of Ni-Mn-Sn-Fe-In-based quinary Heusler [...] Read more.
Ni-Mn-based quinary Heusler alloys have seldom been investigated with respect to their martensitic transformation and mechanical properties for near room temperature transformation. In the current work, we identified and investigated martensitic transformation near room temperature, and the martensitic properties of Ni-Mn-Sn-Fe-In-based quinary Heusler alloys. Alloys prepared in an argon-rich vacuum arc melting furnace. During X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, it was identified that the L21 cubic structure austenite phase of the alloy transforms into L10 orthorhombic martensite phase in the case of alloys with greater Fe substitution. The martensitic transformation zone of the alloy is also shifted to the near-room-temperature range of 15–28 °C by changing the stoichiometry of the alloy composition. Magnetic measurements like field heating (FH), field cooling (FC) and zero field cooling (ZFC) indicate the presence of a dual magnetic phase in the alloy, while magnetic susceptibility testing also helped to establish claims regarding the magnetic measurement results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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21 pages, 7787 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Performance and Kerf Characteristics during Cryogenic-Assisted Suspension-Type Abrasive Water Jet Machining of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber
by Preeti Maurya, Gaddale Srinivas Vijay and Raghavendra Cholpadi Kamath
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120397 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
The need for soft polymer (such as acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (ABR)) components in mating applications is increasing in several sectors, viz. automobile, mining, and marine, due to their viscoelastic nature with improved surface quality and tighter geometric tolerances. Therefore, this paper aims to [...] Read more.
The need for soft polymer (such as acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (ABR)) components in mating applications is increasing in several sectors, viz. automobile, mining, and marine, due to their viscoelastic nature with improved surface quality and tighter geometric tolerances. Therefore, this paper aims to compare the effect of cryogenic conditions on the performance parameters of the suspension-type abrasive water jet (S-AWJ) machining and investigate the kerf characteristics of the top and bottom surface by comparing the waviness of the cut profiles and abrasive contamination of the top surface near the vicinity of the slot under conventional (room temperature) and cryogenic (liquid nitrogen (LN2)) conditions. The study found that the use of LN2 positively affected the performance parameters (Kerf taper ratio (KTR) and material removal rate (MRR)) due to a sudden increase in Young’s modulus and a decrease in elasticity of the machining zone. The cryogenic-assisted S-AWJ at the highest water jet pressure (WJP) (250 bar) produced better kerf characteristics through uniform and waviness-free top and bottom kerf profiles than the other experimental sequences. The use of LN2 resulted in the embrittlement of ABR, due to which less garnet abrasive particle contamination was observed during cryogenic-assisted S-AWJ machining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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17 pages, 9087 KiB  
Article
Effect of Alumina and Silicon Carbide Nanoparticle-Infused Polymer Matrix on Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
by S. M. Shahabaz, Pradeep Kumar Shetty, Nagaraja Shetty, Sathyashankara Sharma, S. Divakara Shetty and Nithesh Naik
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120381 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
Unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced polymer nanocomposites were developed by adding alumina (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles using ultrasonication and magnetic stirring. The uniform nanoparticle dispersions were examined with a field-emission scanning electron microscope. The nano-phase matrix was then utilized [...] Read more.
Unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced polymer nanocomposites were developed by adding alumina (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles using ultrasonication and magnetic stirring. The uniform nanoparticle dispersions were examined with a field-emission scanning electron microscope. The nano-phase matrix was then utilized to fabricate the hybrid carbon fiber-reinforced polymer nanocomposites by hand lay-up and compression molding. The weight fractions selected for Al2O3 and SiC nanoparticles were determined based on improvements in mechanical properties. Accordingly, the hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated at weight fractions of 1, 1.5, 1.75, and 2 wt.% for Al2O3. Likewise, the weight fractions selected for SiC were 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 2 wt.%. At 1.75 wt.% Al2O3 nanoparticle loading, the flexural strength modulus improved by 31.76% and 37.08%, respectively. Additionally, the interlaminar shear and impact strength enhanced by 40.95% and 47.51%, respectively. For SiC nanocomposites, improvements in flexural strength (12.79%) and flexural modulus (9.59%) were accomplished at 1.25 wt.% nanoparticle loading. Interlaminar shear strength was enhanced by 34.27%, and maximum impact strength was improved by 30.45%. Effective particle interactions with polymeric chains of epoxy, crack deflection, and crack arresting were the micromechanics accountable for enhancing the mechanical properties of nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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15 pages, 1962 KiB  
Article
Multi-Hole Drilling Tool Path Planning and Cost Management through Hybrid SFLA-ACO Algorithm for Composites and Hybrid Materials
by Nasir Mehmood, Muhammad Umer and Umer Asgher
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120364 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
In the process of drilling multiple holes in composites and hybrid materials, almost 70% of the time is consumed in tool traveling and tool changing. Recently, researchers have focused on this consumption of time for optimization of the tool path. A literature review [...] Read more.
In the process of drilling multiple holes in composites and hybrid materials, almost 70% of the time is consumed in tool traveling and tool changing. Recently, researchers have focused on this consumption of time for optimization of the tool path. A literature review revealed the following research gap: little work has been performed on the hybridization of metaheuristics. In the present study, the hybridization of SFLA and ACO metaheuristic algorithms is carried out, which is based on this research gap. The hybridization of SFLA and ACO metaheuristic algorithms provides originality and novelty in this study. The main objective of this study is to minimize the tool path in drilling problems. The proposed algorithm was applied to five benchmark multi-hole drilling problems and one industrial problem from the literature. The outcome of this work is evaluated with the results of dynamic programming (DP), ACO, an immune-based evolutionary approach (IA), and a modified SFLA for five benchmark problems. The accuracy of the results was improved by 2.27% using the proposed hybrid algorithm, indicating that the proposed algorithm is superior to DP, ACO, IA, and the modified SFLA. Additionally, the results of the proposed hybrid algorithm for an example industrial problem from the literature were compared with those of the SFLA and modified SFLA. The proposed algorithm reduced the total cost by 6.17% and 3.76% compared with the SFLA and modified SFLA, respectively. Thus, the efficacy of the proposed hybrid algorithm was confirmed, along with its applicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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9 pages, 3517 KiB  
Article
Modelling and Comparative Analysis of Epoxy-Fly-Ash Composite with Alloys for Bracket Application
by Abhijay B. Raghunandan, Dundesh S. Chiniwar, Shivashankar Hiremath, Pavankumar Sondar and H. M. Vishwanatha
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120358 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
The current study compares and analyses the fly-ash–epoxy composite structure with alloys for bracket applications. A dispersed reinforcement composite is created by combining epoxy and fly-ash. Three different prototypical brackets are modelled and analysed using the finite element method, and their results are [...] Read more.
The current study compares and analyses the fly-ash–epoxy composite structure with alloys for bracket applications. A dispersed reinforcement composite is created by combining epoxy and fly-ash. Three different prototypical brackets are modelled and analysed using the finite element method, and their results are compared to common alloys used in the manufacture of L-shaped brackets. The mechanical properties of the composite material are calculated using a rule of mixtures, and the properties of the composite material are modified by changing the percentage composition of fly-ash. Based on equivalent stress and total deformation, all geometrical models are analysed and compared. The analysis results appear to be appropriate for broadening the scope of the application of epoxy-based composites for small-scale and large-scale applications. The results also show that the composite material can be used to make a variety of structural elements with high design complexity, such as bulkheads and other structural components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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17 pages, 5674 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Prediction of Mechanical Characteristics on Vacuum Sintered Ti-6Al-4V-SiCp Composites Using Taguchi’s Design of Experiments, Response Surface Methodology and Random Forest Regression
by Adithya Lokesh Hegde, Raviraj Shetty, Dundesh S Chiniwar, Nithesh Naik and Madhukara Nayak
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(11), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6110339 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Today, among emerging materials, metal matrix composites, due to their excellent properties, have an increasing demand in the field of aerospace and automotive industries. However, the difficulties associated with the processing of these composites have been a challenge to manufacturing industries due to [...] Read more.
Today, among emerging materials, metal matrix composites, due to their excellent properties, have an increasing demand in the field of aerospace and automotive industries. However, the difficulties associated with the processing of these composites have been a challenge to manufacturing industries due to inhomogeneous mixing of the matrix with the reinforcement, oxidation, and microstructural phase transformation during processing. Hence, in this paper, Ti-6Al-4V reinforced with SiCp has been processed through a specially developed compression molding, followed by vacuum sintering. The main objective of this paper was to determine the favorable vacuum sintering conditions for Ti-6Al-4V reinforced with 15 Wt. % SiCp composites under a different aging temperature (°C), aging time (h), heating rate (°C/min), and cooling rate (°C /min) to improve the process output parameters such as the hardness, surface roughness, and to reduce the porosity using Taguchi’s Design of Experiments. Finally, the response surface methodology and random forest regression have been used to predict the optimum process output parameters. From the extensive experimentation and understanding gained from Taguchi’s Design of Experiments, the response surface methodology and random tree regression approach can be successfully used to predict the hardness, porosity, and surface roughness during the processing of Ti-6Al-4V-SiCp composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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21 pages, 13565 KiB  
Article
Processing, Mechanical Characterization, and Electric Discharge Machining of Stir Cast and Spray Forming-Based Al-Si Alloy Reinforced with ZrO2 Particulate Composites
by Raviraj Shetty, Prakash Rao Gurupur, Jamaluddin Hindi, Adithya Hegde, Nithesh Naik, Mohammed Sabraz Sabir Ali, Ishwargouda S. Patil and Madhukar Nayak
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(11), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6110323 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
High performance lightweight structures made of metal matrix composites (MMCs) are in demand for application in variety of industries such as aircraft, spacecraft, automobile, marine, sports equipment, etc. However, uniform distribution of the reinforcement phase to improve the mechanical properties and quality of [...] Read more.
High performance lightweight structures made of metal matrix composites (MMCs) are in demand for application in variety of industries such as aircraft, spacecraft, automobile, marine, sports equipment, etc. However, uniform distribution of the reinforcement phase to improve the mechanical properties and quality of MMCs has been the challenge for the manufacturing industries. Hence, researchers are focusing on the development of traditional low-cost method of producing metal matrix composites. In the view of above facts, an attempt is made to study the processing and characterization of Si-Al alloy reinforced with zirconium dioxide particulate composites in this paper. Hence, this paper concentrates on experimentally identifying the effect of stir cast and spray forming processing techniques followed by hot pressing on micro hardness, compressive strength, and tensile strength using Taguchi’s design of experiments for aluminum silicon matrix alloy reinforced with zirconium dioxide particulates. From the extensive experimentation on aluminum and silicon reinforced with the ZrO2 powder particulates, it was observed that there was an improvement in selected mechanical properties as the percentage of ZrO2 increased with 13 wt.% of silicon under spray forming processing technique compared to stir cast composites. This may be due to uniform distribution homogenous dispersion, larger work hardening rate, and structure of dislocation tangles around the ZrO2 particulates that occurred during spray forming processing technique. Further, results obtained from the interaction plot, contour plot, main effects plot, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) proved to be successful for identifying the optimum processing parameters for Si-Al alloy reinforced with zirconium dioxide particulate composites. Further, this paper also discusses wear study using pin on disc wear testing apparatus on spray forming processed aluminum and silicon (13.0 wt.%) alloy reinforced with the ZrO2 powder particulates based on Taguchi’s design of experiments followed by second order model generation for wear using response surface methodology. Finally, electrode wear study of spray forming processed aluminum and silicon alloy reinforced with the ZrO2 powder particulates using electric discharge machining by varying peak current (A), pulse on time (μs), and pulse off time (μs) using brass, copper, and graphite as electrode material based on L27orthogonal array. The understanding gained from the design of experiments in this paper can be used to develop future guidelines for processing and characterization of Si-Al alloy reinforced with zirconium dioxide particulate composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

15 pages, 3273 KiB  
Review
Processing and Mechanical Characterisation of Titanium Metal Matrix Composites: A Literature Review
by Raviraj Shetty, Adithya Hegde, Uday Kumar Shetty SV, Rajesh Nayak, Nithesh Naik and Madhukar Nayak
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120388 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
Today, Discontinuously Reinforced Particulate Titanium Matrix Composites (DRPTMCs) have been the most popular and challenging in consideration with development and heat treatment due to their significant weight-saving capacity, high specific strength, stiffness and oxidising nature compared with other metals and alloys. Owing to [...] Read more.
Today, Discontinuously Reinforced Particulate Titanium Matrix Composites (DRPTMCs) have been the most popular and challenging in consideration with development and heat treatment due to their significant weight-saving capacity, high specific strength, stiffness and oxidising nature compared with other metals and alloys. Owing to their excellent capabilities, DRPTMCs are widely used in aerospace, automobiles, biomedical and other industries. However, regardless of the reinforcements, such as continuous fibres or discontinuous particulates, the unique properties of DRPTMCs have dealt with these composites for widespread research and progress around the domain. Even though DRPTMCs are one of the most studied materials, expedient information about their properties, processing, characterisation and heat treatment is still scattered in the literature. Hence, this paper focuses on a literature review that covers important research work that has led to advances in DRPTMCs material systems. Further, this paper also deals with broad details about the particulates, manufacturing processes and heat treatment processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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