Enhancing Mechanical Ventilation and Lung Monitoring in Intensive Care Units: Strategies for Optimization

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Pulmonology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2024 | Viewed by 1047

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Interests: mechanical ventilation; lung monitoring; acute respiratory failure; intensive care
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Interests: mechanical ventilation; lung monitoring; acute respiratory failure; intensive care
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few years, many new ventilatory strategies have been suggested for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in ICUs. Moreover, new diagnostic, non-invasive tools have been developed, such as ultrasound or electrical impedance tomography. These have facilitated a better understanding of respiratory failure and provided opportunities to improve the clinical management of ICU-housed, ventilated patients.

In this Special Issue we would like to collect papers focusing on novel ways of implementing mechanical ventilation in ICUs, not only focusing on the ventilatory aspect (i.e., new ventilatory modes), but evaluating all the crucial procedures performed on ventilated patients (e.g., respiratory monitoring, sedation, secretion removal, VILI and P-SILI reduction, muscle monitoring, and respiratory physiotherapy).

Therefore, we invite you to submit original papers, commentaries, and meta-analyses in order to contribute to improve the management of ICU-housed, ventilated patients.

Dr. Gaetano Scaramuzzo
Dr. Savino Spadaro
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • acute respiratory failure
  • lung monitoring
  • electrical impedance tomography
  • mechanical ventilation

Published Papers (2 papers)

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12 pages, 1139 KiB  
Article
Oscillometry Longitudinal Data on COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Syndrome Treated with Non-Invasive Respiratory Support
by Chiara Torregiani, Elisa Baratella, Antonio Segalotti, Barbara Ruaro, Francesco Salton, Paola Confalonieri, Stefano Tavano, Giulia Lapadula, Chiara Bozzi, Marco Confalonieri, Raffaele L. Dellaca’ and Chiara Veneroni
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(7), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13071868 - 24 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Background: Oscillometry allows for the non-invasive measurements of lung mechanics. In COVID-19 ARDS patients treated with Non-Invasive Oxygen Support (NI-OS), we aimed to (1) observe lung mechanics at the patients’ admission and their subsequent changes, (2) compare lung mechanics with clinical and [...] Read more.
Background: Oscillometry allows for the non-invasive measurements of lung mechanics. In COVID-19 ARDS patients treated with Non-Invasive Oxygen Support (NI-OS), we aimed to (1) observe lung mechanics at the patients’ admission and their subsequent changes, (2) compare lung mechanics with clinical and imaging data, and (3) evaluate whether lung mechanics helps to predict clinical outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 37 consecutive patients with moderate–severe COVID-19 ARDS. Oscillometry was performed on their 1st, 4th, and 7th day of hospitalization. Resistance (R5), reactance (X5), within-breath reactance changes (ΔX5), and the frequency dependence of the resistance (R5–R19) were considered. Twenty-seven patients underwent computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA): collapsed, poorly aerated, and normally inflated areas were quantified. Adverse outcomes were defined as intubation or death. Results: Thirty-two patients were included in this study. At the first measurement, only 44% of them had an abnormal R5 or X5. In total, 23 patients had measurements performed on their 3rd day and 7 on their 7th day of hospitalization. In general, their R5, R5–R19, and ΔX decreased with time, while their X5 increased. Collapsed areas on the CTPA correlated with the X5 z-score (ρ = −0.38; p = 0.046), while poorly aerated areas did not. Seven patients had adverse outcomes but did not present different oscillometry parameters on their 1st day of hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study confirms the feasibility of oscillometry in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia undergoing NI-OS. The X5 z-scores indicates collapsed but not poorly aerated lung areas in COVID-19 pneumonia. Our data, which show a severe impairment of gas exchange despite normal reactance in most patients with COVID-19 ARDS, support the hypothesis of a composite COVID-19 ARDS physiopathology. Full article
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14 pages, 401 KiB  
Systematic Review
High-Flow Nasal Cannula System in Respiratory Failure Associated with Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis
by Raffaella Pagliaro, Luigi Aronne, Ramona Fomez, Vincenzo Ferri, Antonia Montella, Stefano Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Andrea Bianco and Fabio Perrotta
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(10), 2956; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13102956 - 17 May 2024
Abstract
Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy has emerged as a promising treatment modality for interstitial lung disease (ILD)-related respiratory failure. This systematic review aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HFNC therapy in patients with ILDs. Methods: A comprehensive literature search [...] Read more.
Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy has emerged as a promising treatment modality for interstitial lung disease (ILD)-related respiratory failure. This systematic review aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HFNC therapy in patients with ILDs. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using major electronic databases to identify relevant studies investigating the use of HFNC therapy in ILD patients with respiratory failure. Outcome measures of interest included improvements in oxygenation, dyspnea relief, respiratory rate control, hospital length of stay, and mortality. Results: Twelve studies were analyzed with an overall population of 715 patients included. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) was the most prevalent type of ILD. Evaluated clinical settings were acute (7 studies), chronic (2 studies), and end-stage (3 studies) ILDs. The HFNC as a support for acute respiratory failure seems not inferior to non-invasive ventilation while offering better comfort and patient’s perception. Poor data are available about use in chronic/long-term or rehabilitative settings. In end of life/palliative care, an HFNC might improve quality of life. Despite the promising results, further research is warranted to establish optimal HFNC protocols, identify patient subgroups most likely to benefit, and explore long-term outcomes. Conclusions: Overall, the HFNC appears to be a valuable therapeutic option for managing respiratory failure in ILD patients, offering potential improvements in oxygenation and symptom relief. Full article
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