Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Brain Injury".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 December 2023) | Viewed by 34281

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Waldweg 37A, 37073 Goettingen, Germany
Interests: traumatic brain injury; community integration; return to work; cognitive neuroscience; neuropsychology
Institute of Psychology, University of Innsbruck, Universitätsstrasse 15, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Interests: outcomes after adult and pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); psychometrics; translation and linguistic validation of questionnaires; reference values and normative data; methods in TBI (outcome) research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Multidimensional outcome evaluation and treatment in children and adults after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) remains relatively scarce. The (multidimensional) prediction of outcomes is also under development. This is important to ameliorate and personalize diagnosis, therapy, and rehabilitation.

In the adult setting, recent international multicenter studies with large numbers of participants contributed to these goals by focusing on improving the classification and characterization of TBI and the subsequent outcome assessment in Europe, Israel, and the U.S. In children and adolescents, these comprehensive international studies are still underrepresented.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a broad scope of current research from clinical studies to systematic reviews and meta-analyses identifying the actual situation, knowledge gaps, and opportunities for future tailored research concerning the field of adult and pediatric TBI. Original research, review research and communication are of especially interest.

Prof. Dr. Nicole von Steinbüchel
Dr. Marina Zeldovich
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • traumatic brain injury
  • pediatric traumatic brain injury
  • outcome assessment

Published Papers (20 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 3181 KiB  
Article
Adverse Outcome Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Is Associated with Microstructure Alterations at the Gray and White Matter Boundary
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(16), 5415; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12165415 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
The gray matter/white matter (GM/WM) boundary of the brain is vulnerable to shear strain associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). It is, however, unknown whether GM/WM microstructure is associated with long-term outcomes following mTBI. The diffusion and structural MRI data of 278 [...] Read more.
The gray matter/white matter (GM/WM) boundary of the brain is vulnerable to shear strain associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). It is, however, unknown whether GM/WM microstructure is associated with long-term outcomes following mTBI. The diffusion and structural MRI data of 278 participants between 18 and 65 years of age with and without military background from the Department of Defense INTRuST study were analyzed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted at the GM/WM boundary across the brain and for each lobe. Additionally, two conventional analytic approaches were used: whole-brain deep WM FA (TBSS) and whole-brain cortical thickness (FreeSurfer). ANCOVAs were applied to assess differences between the mTBI cohort (n = 147) and the comparison cohort (n = 131). Associations between imaging features and post-concussive symptom severity, and functional and cognitive impairment were investigated using partial correlations while controlling for mental health comorbidities that are particularly common among military cohorts and were present in both the mTBI and comparison group. Findings revealed significantly lower whole-brain and lobe-specific GM/WM boundary FA (p < 0.011), and deep WM FA (p = 0.001) in the mTBI cohort. Whole-brain and lobe-specific GM/WM boundary FA was significantly negatively correlated with post-concussive symptoms (p < 0.039), functional (p < 0.016), and cognitive impairment (p < 0.049). Deep WM FA was associated with functional impairment (p = 0.002). Finally, no significant difference was observed in cortical thickness, nor between cortical thickness and outcome (p > 0.05). Findings from this study suggest that microstructural alterations at the GM/WM boundary may be sensitive markers of adverse long-term outcomes following mTBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 888 KiB  
Article
Quality of Life after Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents (QOLIBRI-KID/ADO)—The First Disease-Specific Self-Report Questionnaire after Traumatic Brain Injury
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 4898; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12154898 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
The subjective impact of the consequences of pediatric traumatic brain injury (pTBI) on different life dimensions should be assessed multidimensionally and as sensitively as possible using a disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. The development and psychometrics of the first such self-report [...] Read more.
The subjective impact of the consequences of pediatric traumatic brain injury (pTBI) on different life dimensions should be assessed multidimensionally and as sensitively as possible using a disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. The development and psychometrics of the first such self-report questionnaire for children and adolescents after TBI are reported here. Focus group interviews with children, adolescents, and their parents, cognitive debriefing, item pool generation and reduction using Delphi expert panels were performed. The resulting version was psychometrically tested on 300 individuals aged 8–17 years. After item reduction based on factor analyses, differential item functioning, reliability, and validity were investigated. The final 35 items were associated with six scales (Cognition, Self, Daily Life and Autonomy, Social Relationships, Emotions, Physical Problems). Internal consistency and construct validity were satisfactory. Health-related Quality of life (HRQoL) was significantly lower in older and in female participants, as well as those with cognitive disabilities, anxiety, depression and post-concussion symptoms, than in comparative groups. The new QOLIBRI-KID/ADO is a comprehensive, multidimensional, reliable, and valid instrument, comparable in content and items to the QOLIBRI adult version. Therefore, disease-specific HRQoL can now be measured across the lifespan and may support the amelioration of treatment, care, rehabilitation, and daily life of children and adolescents after TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure A1

21 pages, 1496 KiB  
Article
A Multidimensional Approach to Assessing Factors Impacting Health-Related Quality of Life after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(12), 3895; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12123895 - 07 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
In the field of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), relationships between pre-injury and injury-related characteristics and post-TBI outcomes (functional recovery, post-concussion depression, anxiety) and their impact on disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are under-investigated. Here, a multidimensional conceptual model was tested using [...] Read more.
In the field of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), relationships between pre-injury and injury-related characteristics and post-TBI outcomes (functional recovery, post-concussion depression, anxiety) and their impact on disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are under-investigated. Here, a multidimensional conceptual model was tested using a structural equation model (SEM). The final SEM evaluates the associations between these four latent variables. We retrospectively investigated 152 children (8–12 years) and 148 adolescents (13–17 years) after TBI at the recruiting clinics or online. The final SEM displayed a fair goodness-of-fit (SRMR = 0.09, RMSEA = 0.08 with 90% CI [0.068, 0.085], GFI = 0.87, CFI = 0.83), explaining 39% of the variance across the four latent variables and 45% of the variance in HRQoL in particular. The relationships between pre-injury and post-injury outcomes and between post-injury outcomes and TBI-specific HRQoL were moderately strong. Especially, pre-injury characteristics (children’s age, sensory, cognitive, or physical impairments, neurological and chronic diseases, and parental education) may aggravate post-injury outcomes, which in turn may influence TBI-specific HRQoL negatively. Thus, the SEM comprises potential risk factors for developing negative post-injury outcomes, impacting TBI-specific HRQoL. Our findings may assist healthcare providers and parents in the management, therapy, rehabilitation, and care of pediatric individuals after TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

26 pages, 1430 KiB  
Article
Influence of Sociodemographic, Premorbid, and Injury-Related Factors on Post-Traumatic Stress, Anxiety, and Depression after Traumatic Brain Injury
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(12), 3873; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12123873 - 06 Jun 2023
Viewed by 900
Abstract
Psychopathological symptoms are common sequelae after traumatic brain injury (TBI), leading to increased personal and societal burden. Previous studies on factors influencing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) after TBI have produced inconclusive results, partly due [...] Read more.
Psychopathological symptoms are common sequelae after traumatic brain injury (TBI), leading to increased personal and societal burden. Previous studies on factors influencing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) after TBI have produced inconclusive results, partly due to methodological limitations. The current study investigated the influence of commonly proposed factors on the clinical impairment, occurrence, frequency, and intensity of symptoms of PTSD, GAD, and MDD after TBI. The study sample comprised 2069 individuals (65% males). Associations between psychopathological outcomes and sociodemographic, premorbid, and injury-related factors were analyzed using logistic regression, standard, and zero-inflated negative binomial models. Overall, individuals experienced moderate levels of PTSD, GAD, and MDD. Outcomes correlated with early psychiatric assessments across domains. The clinical impairment, occurrence, frequency, and intensity of all outcomes were associated with the educational level, premorbid psychiatric history, injury cause, and functional recovery. Distinct associations were found for injury severity, LOC, and clinical care pathways with PTSD; age and LOC:sex with GAD; and living situation with MDD, respectively. The use of suitable statistical models supported the identification of factors associated with the multifactorial etiology of psychopathology after TBI. Future research may apply these models to reduce personal and societal burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1699 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties of the German Version of the Quality of Life after Brain Injury Scale for Kids and Adolescents (QOLIBRI-KID/ADO) Using Item Response Theory Framework: Results from the Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(11), 3716; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12113716 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important indicator for recovery after pediatric TBI. To date, there are a few questionnaires available for assessing generic HRQOL in children and adolescents, but there are not yet any TBI-specific measures of HRQOL that are applicable [...] Read more.
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important indicator for recovery after pediatric TBI. To date, there are a few questionnaires available for assessing generic HRQOL in children and adolescents, but there are not yet any TBI-specific measures of HRQOL that are applicable to pediatric populations. The aim of the present study was to examine psychometric characteristics of the newly developed Quality of Life After Brain Injury Scale for Kids and Adolescents (QOLIBRI-KID/ADO) questionnaire capturing TBI-specific HRQOL in children and adolescents using an item response theory (IRT) framework. Children (8–12 years; n = 152) and adolescents (13–17 years; n = 148) participated in the study. The final version of the QOLIBRI-KID/ADO, comprising 35 items forming 6 scales, was investigated using the partial credit model (PCM). A scale-wise examination for unidimensionality, monotonicity, item infit and outfit, person homogeneity, and local independency was conducted. The questionnaire widely fulfilled the predefined assumptions, with a few restrictions. The newly developed QOLIBRI-KID/ADO instrument shows at least satisfactory psychometric properties according to the results of both classical test theoretical and IRT analyses. Further evidence of its applicability should be explored in the ongoing validation study by performing multidimensional IRT analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 1565 KiB  
Article
A Biopsychosocial Evaluation of Post-Acute Outcome of Patients with Severe Brain Lesions Recovering from Coma: An Exploratory Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(10), 3572; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12103572 - 20 May 2023
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Currently, very little is known about the holistic outcome of patients recovering from coma. The aim of this retrospective exploratory study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients recovering from coma after care in an acute neurorehabilitation unit with particular focus on their [...] Read more.
Currently, very little is known about the holistic outcome of patients recovering from coma. The aim of this retrospective exploratory study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients recovering from coma after care in an acute neurorehabilitation unit with particular focus on their biopsychosocial and spiritual needs in the post-acute phase of recovery. We included 12 patients and evaluated clinical outcome evolution by comparing standard neurobehavioral scores from patient files measured in the acute and post-acute phases. We assessed patient needs using the Quality of Life after Brain Injury scale (QOLIBRI) and classified self-reported complaints mentioned in patient files according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework (ICF). Mean patient evolution was a Level of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LCF)-r increase of 3.33 levels (range = 2); a Disability Rating Scale score (DRS) of −3.27 points (SD = 3.78); a Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC) scale score of 1.83 (range = 5); and a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) median = 0 (Interquartile range = 1). Main patient complaints concerned mental functioning (n = 7), sensory functioning and pain (n = 6), neuromusculoskeletal and movement problems (n = 5), and major life areas (n = 5). To conclude, a significant handicap that affects their daily life was present in the post-acute phase in most patients. Complaints involved biopsychosocial and spiritual elements. The neurobehavioral scale results do not necessarily correlate with the subjective representations patients had of their condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 2708 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Internal Validity of the Quality of Life after Brain Injury: Response Shift and Responsiveness
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3197; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12093197 - 29 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
The Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QoLIBRI) questionnaire was developed and validated to assess disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals after TBI. The present study aims to determine its longitudinal validity by assessing its responsiveness and response shift from 3 [...] Read more.
The Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QoLIBRI) questionnaire was developed and validated to assess disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals after TBI. The present study aims to determine its longitudinal validity by assessing its responsiveness and response shift from 3 to 6 months post-injury. Analyses were based on data from the European longitudinal observational cohort Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury study. A total of 1659 individuals recovering from TBI were included in the analyses. Response shift was assessed using longitudinal measurement invariance testing within the confirmatory factor analyses framework. Responsiveness was analyzed using linear regression models that compared changes in functional recovery as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended (GOSE) with changes in the QoLIBRI scales from 3 to 6 months post-injury. Longitudinal tests of measurement invariance and analyses of discrepancies in practical significance indicated the absence of response shift. Changes in functional recovery status from three to six months were significantly associated with the responsiveness of the QoLIBRI scales over the same time period. The QoLIBRI can be used in longitudinal studies and is responsive to changes in an individual’s functional recovery during the first 6 months after TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

45 pages, 5129 KiB  
Article
Impact of Sociodemographic, Premorbid, and Injury-Related Factors on Patient-Reported Outcome Trajectories after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(6), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12062246 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. To better understand its impact on various outcome domains, this study pursues the following: (1) longitudinal outcome assessments at three, six, and twelve months post-injury; (2) an evaluation [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. To better understand its impact on various outcome domains, this study pursues the following: (1) longitudinal outcome assessments at three, six, and twelve months post-injury; (2) an evaluation of sociodemographic, premorbid, and injury-related factors, and functional recovery contributing to worsening or improving outcomes after TBI. Using patient-reported outcome measures, recuperation trends after TBI were identified by applying Multivariate Latent Class Mixed Models (MLCMM). Instruments were grouped into TBI-specific and generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL; QOLIBRI-OS, SF-12v2), and psychological and post-concussion symptoms (GAD-7, PHQ-9, PCL-5, RPQ). Multinomial logistic regressions were carried out to identify contributing factors. For both outcome sets, the four-class solution provided the best match between goodness of fit indices and meaningful clinical interpretability. Both models revealed similar trajectory classes: stable good health status (HRQoL: n = 1944; symptoms: n = 1963), persistent health impairments (HRQoL: n = 442; symptoms: n = 179), improving health status (HRQoL: n = 83; symptoms: n = 243), and deteriorating health status (HRQoL: n = 86; symptoms: n = 170). Compared to individuals with stable good health status, the other groups were more likely to have a lower functional recovery status at three months after TBI (i.e., the GOSE), psychological problems, and a lower educational attainment. Outcome trajectories after TBI show clearly distinguishable patterns which are reproducible across different measures. Individuals characterized by persistent health impairments and deterioration require special attention and long-term clinical monitoring and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1375 KiB  
Article
Sleep Quality Disturbances Are Associated with White Matter Alterations in Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(5), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12052079 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1975
Abstract
Sleep disturbances are strongly associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD and mTBI have been linked to alterations in white matter (WM) microstructure, but whether poor sleep quality has a compounding effect on WM remains largely unknown. [...] Read more.
Sleep disturbances are strongly associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD and mTBI have been linked to alterations in white matter (WM) microstructure, but whether poor sleep quality has a compounding effect on WM remains largely unknown. We evaluated sleep and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data from 180 male post-9/11 veterans diagnosed with (1) PTSD (n = 38), (2) mTBI (n = 25), (3) comorbid PTSD+mTBI (n = 94), and (4) a control group with neither PTSD nor mTBI (n = 23). We compared sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) between groups using ANCOVAs and calculated regression and mediation models to assess associations between PTSD, mTBI, sleep quality, and WM. Veterans with PTSD and comorbid PTSD+mTBI reported poorer sleep quality than those with mTBI or no history of PTSD or mTBI (p = 0.012 to <0.001). Poor sleep quality was associated with abnormal WM microstructure in veterans with comorbid PTSD+mTBI (p < 0.001). Most importantly, poor sleep quality fully mediated the association between greater PTSD symptom severity and impaired WM microstructure (p < 0.001). Our findings highlight the significant impact of sleep disturbances on brain health in veterans with PTSD+mTBI, calling for sleep-targeted interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 947 KiB  
Article
Reference Values of the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) from a General Population Sample in Italy
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(2), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12020491 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect the lives of the individuals concerned and their relatives negatively in many dimensions. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a comprehensive and complex concept that can assess one’s satisfaction with a broad range of areas of life [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect the lives of the individuals concerned and their relatives negatively in many dimensions. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a comprehensive and complex concept that can assess one’s satisfaction with a broad range of areas of life and health. The Quality of Life after Traumatic Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) questionnaire is a TBI-specific measure for HRQoL which is used in research and health services worldwide. When evaluating self-reported HRQoL after TBI, reference values from a general population are helpful to perform clinically relevant evaluations and decisions about the condition of an affected person by comparing the patient scores with reference values. Despite the widespread use of the QOLIBRI, reference values have until now only been available for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to validate the QOLIBRI for the general population in Italy and to provide reference values. An adapted form of the QOLIBRI was administered to 3298 Italians from a healthy general population using an online survey. Their scores were compared with those of 298 individuals post-TBI recruited within the international longitudinal observational cohort CENTER-TBI study in Italian hospitals, who completed the original questionnaire. The psychometric characteristics and the measurement invariance of the QOLIBRI were assessed. A regression analysis was performed to identify predictors relevant for HRQoL in the general population. Reference values were provided using percentiles. Measurement invariance analysis showed that the QOLIBRI captures the same HRQoL constructs in an Italian general population and Italian TBI sample from the observational Center-TBI study. Higher age, higher education and the absence of a chronic health condition were associated with higher QOLIBRI scores, suggesting better HRQoL. Reference values were provided for a general Italian population adjusted for age, sex, education and presence of chronic health conditions. We recommend using these for a better interpretation of the QOLIBRI score in clinical practice and research in Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 611 KiB  
Article
Community Integration and Associated Factors 10 Years after Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(2), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12020405 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
This study evaluated the impact of baseline injury characteristics and one-year functional level on the 10-year community integration outcomes for working-age patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients aged 16–55 and diagnosed with moderate-to-severe TBI within 24 h of injury were eligible [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the impact of baseline injury characteristics and one-year functional level on the 10-year community integration outcomes for working-age patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients aged 16–55 and diagnosed with moderate-to-severe TBI within 24 h of injury were eligible for the study. Multivariable hierarchical linear regression was utilized to assess the impact of baseline characteristics and one-year functional measures on the mean Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) scores 10 years after injury. Of 133 original study participants, 97 survived 10 years, and 75 were available for this study. The mean total CIQ score changed positively from one to 10 years post-injury, from 18.7 (±5.5) to 19.8 (±4.8) (p = 0.04). The results suggested that age (β = −0.260, p = 0.013), FIM-Cognitive subscale (β = 0.608, p = 0.002), and the bodily pain subscale (BP) (β = 0.277, p = 0.017) of the SF-36 were significantly associated with the mean CIQ scores. In conclusion, this study demonstrated improved community integration from one to 10 years in a sample of working-age patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. The findings also showed that age, cognitive function, and bodily pain were significant predictors of long-term community integration, suggesting post-acute rehabilitation should focus on factors related to long-term risk and protective factors to improve long-term outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1674 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties of the German Version of the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire in Adolescents after Traumatic Brain Injury and Their Proxies
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(1), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12010319 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
The Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) assesses post-concussion symptoms (PCS) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study examines the applicability of self-report and proxy versions of the German RPQ in adolescents (13–17 years) after TBI. We investigated reliability and validity on the [...] Read more.
The Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) assesses post-concussion symptoms (PCS) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study examines the applicability of self-report and proxy versions of the German RPQ in adolescents (13–17 years) after TBI. We investigated reliability and validity on the total and scale score level. Construct validity was investigated by correlations with the Post-Concussion Symptoms Inventory (PCSI-SR13), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale 7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and by hypothesis testing regarding individuals’ characteristics. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) assessed adolescent–proxy agreement. In total, 148 adolescents after TBI and 147 proxies completed the RPQ. Cronbach’s α (0.81–0.91) and McDonald’s ω (0.84–0.95) indicated good internal consistency. The three-factor structure outperformed the unidimensional model. The RPQ was strongly correlated with the PCSI-SR13 (self-report: r = 0.80; proxy: r = 0.75) and moderately–strongly with GAD-7 and PHQ-9 (self-report: r = 0.36, r = 0.35; proxy: r = 0.53, r = 0.62). Adolescent–proxy agreement was fair (ICC [2,1] = 0.44, CI95% [0.41, 0.47]). Overall, both self-report and proxy assessment forms of the German RPQ are suitable for application in adolescents after TBI. As proxy ratings tend to underestimate PCS, self-reports are preferable for evaluations. Only if a patient is unable to answer, a proxy should be used as a surrogate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1098 KiB  
Article
Association of Depressive and Somatic Symptoms with Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12010104 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Depressive and somatic symptoms are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Depression after TBI can relate to worsened cognitive functioning, functional impairment, higher rates of suicide attempts, and larger health care costs. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents the activity of the autonomic nervous [...] Read more.
Depressive and somatic symptoms are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Depression after TBI can relate to worsened cognitive functioning, functional impairment, higher rates of suicide attempts, and larger health care costs. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which regulates almost all vascular, visceral, and metabolic functions. Several studies show a correlation between HRV, depression, and somatic symptoms in other diseases. However, studies on autonomic dysfunction, depression, and somatic symptoms in TBI patients are lacking. This study investigated the association between reduced ANS function, depression, and somatic symptoms in TBI patients. We retrospectively recruited 136 TBI patients who underwent 24 h ambulatory Holter electrocardiography to measure autonomic dysfunction within 1 month of onset. Patients who used BDI and PHQ-15 to evaluate depressive and somatic symptoms were included. Using Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple linear regression, the association between HRV parameters and BDI and PHQ-15 was determined. The HRV parameters and BDI and PHQ-15 showed statistical significance. In addition, HRV was shown to be a significantly associated factor of BDI and PHQ-15. HRV was associated with depressive and somatic symptom severity in TBI patients. Additionally, autonomic dysfunction may serve as an associated factor of depressive and somatic symptoms in patients with TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Traumatic Brain Injury during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemics in Slovenia: A Single Center Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(23), 7017; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11237017 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
(1) Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a significant impact on the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of TBI patients before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.; (2) Methods: We analyzed depicted data from existing [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a significant impact on the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of TBI patients before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.; (2) Methods: We analyzed depicted data from existing medical records on sex, age, mechanism of injury, clinical performance at admission and discharge, neuroimaging, laboratory values at admission, mortality, duration of hospitalization, and referrals after discharge from the traumatology department for all adult patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and a year before. Variables were compared using the Chi-square or t-test between both groups.; (3) Results: Most patients had mild (n = 477), followed by moderate (11) and severe (11) TBI. Mild TBI was less frequent during the SARS-CoV-2 period (n = 174 vs. n = 303). The incidence of high falls increased during the SARS-CoV-2 period (14.5% vs. 24.7%; p < 0.05) in the group with mild TBI. Patients had similar mean Glasgow Coma Scales (GCS), Glasgow Outcome Scales-Extended (GOSE), and glucose levels at admission before and during the pandemic. Serum ethanol levels were significantly lower during the SARS-CoV-2 period (1.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L vs. 0.7 ± 1.2 mmol/L; p < 0.001). At discharge, the mean GCS was significantly lower (14.7 ± 1.8 vs. 14.1 ± 0.5; p < 0.05) for patients treated during the SARS-CoV-2 period than before the SARS-CoV-2 period. There were no differences in GOSE; (4) Conclusions: our results demonstrated a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the frequency, mechanism, and consequences of TBI, and may help improve care for our patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
16 pages, 1133 KiB  
Article
Health-Related Quality of Life after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Qualitative Comparison of Perspectives of Children and Adolescents after TBI and a Comparison Group without a History of TBI
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(22), 6783; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11226783 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Background: The assessment of the impact of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the children and adolescents affected can be ameliorated by a disease-specific instrument. Such an instrument does not yet exist. This qualitative study investigates [...] Read more.
Background: The assessment of the impact of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the children and adolescents affected can be ameliorated by a disease-specific instrument. Such an instrument does not yet exist. This qualitative study investigates how children and adolescents after TBI subjectively perceive their HRQoL and whether and how this differs from the perspective of individuals without a history of TBI. Methods: Eight problem-centered interviews were conducted with 11 children and adolescents around four years after mild TBI and with eight children and adolescents around three years after moderate to severe TBI. Nine problem-centered interviews were conducted with 25 participants without a history of TBI. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The statements were assigned to inductively and deductively derived categories relevant to the HRQoL of children and adolescents after TBI and compared with those of individuals without a history of TBI. Results: The HRQoL of children and adolescents after TBI tended to display both structural and content-related differences, independently of TBI severity, on several HRQoL dimensions, in contrast to the comparison group. For example, participants after TBI reported a broader range of negative emotions (such as worry, sadness, shame, and guilt), permanent physical impairments, felt that they were treated differently from others, and perceived cognitive limitations. Conclusions: The results of this qualitative study identified HRQoL dimensions that are relevant to children and adolescents after TBI and underlined the need for the development of a disease-specific instrument. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 1351 KiB  
Article
Reference Values for the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) from General Population Samples in the United Kingdom, Italy, and The Netherlands
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(16), 4658; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11164658 - 09 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), individuals may experience short- or long-term health burdens, often referred to as post-concussion symptoms (PCS). The Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) is one of the commonly used instruments to assess self-reported PCS. To date, no reference values for [...] Read more.
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), individuals may experience short- or long-term health burdens, often referred to as post-concussion symptoms (PCS). The Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) is one of the commonly used instruments to assess self-reported PCS. To date, no reference values for RPQ have been provided, although they are crucial for clinical practice when evaluating a patient’s health status relative to a comparable healthy population. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide reference values for the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Italy. A total of 11,759 individuals (50.3% women) from representative general population samples participated in an online survey (4646 individuals from the UK, 3564 from the Netherlands, and 3549 from Italy). The factorial structure of the RPQ was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and results from the general population samples were compared with those from respective TBI samples recruited within the international CENTER-TBI study using multigroup CFA. Reference values were stratified by sex, health status, age, and education using percentiles. The three-factorial model outperformed the one-factorial structure. The general population samples were largely comparable to the corresponding TBI samples, except for items such as dizziness, vision, and sensory sensitivity, which can be considered more TBI-specific. Because of the significant differences between the general population samples, we provided reference values for the total score and for the somatic, emotional, and cognitive scales for each country separately. The reference values provided can now be used in clinical practice and research. Future studies should obtain stratified reference values for other countries and languages to improve accuracy in the diagnosis and treatment of symptom burden after TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

17 pages, 2951 KiB  
Review
Acute Haemostatic Depletion and Failure in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Pathophysiological and Clinical Considerations
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(8), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12082809 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Background: Because of the aging population, the number of low falls in elderly people with pre-existing anticoagulation is rising, often leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI) with a social and economic burden. Hemostatic disorders and disbalances seem to play a pivotal role in [...] Read more.
Background: Because of the aging population, the number of low falls in elderly people with pre-existing anticoagulation is rising, often leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI) with a social and economic burden. Hemostatic disorders and disbalances seem to play a pivotal role in bleeding progression. Interrelationships between anticoagulatoric medication, coagulopathy, and bleeding progression seem to be a promising aim of therapy. Methods: We conducted a selective search of the literature in databases like Medline (Pubmed), Cochrane Library and current European treatment recommendations using relevant terms or their combination. Results: Patients with isolated TBI are at risk for developing coagulopathy in the clinical course. Pre-injury intake of anticoagulants is leading to a significant increase in coagulopathy, so every third patient with TBI in this population suffers from coagulopathy, leading to hemorrhagic progression and delayed traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. In an assessment of coagulopathy, viscoelastic tests such as TEG or ROTEM seem to be more beneficial than conventional coagulation assays alone, especially because of their timely and more specific gain of information about coagulopathy. Furthermore, results of point-of-care diagnostic make rapid “goal-directed therapy” possible with promising results in subgroups of patients with TBI. Conclusions: The use of innovative technologies such as viscoelastic tests in the assessment of hemostatic disorders and implementation of treatment algorithms seem to be beneficial in patients with TBI, but further studies are needed to evaluate their impact on secondary brain injury and mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1427 KiB  
Review
Challenges of the Effectiveness of Traumatic Brain Injuries Biomarkers in the Sports-Related Context
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(7), 2563; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12072563 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury affects 69 million people every year. One of the main limitations in managing TBI patients is the lack of univocal diagnostic criteria, including the absence of standardized assessment methods and guidelines. Computerized axial tomography is the first-choice examination, despite the [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury affects 69 million people every year. One of the main limitations in managing TBI patients is the lack of univocal diagnostic criteria, including the absence of standardized assessment methods and guidelines. Computerized axial tomography is the first-choice examination, despite the limited prevalence of positivity; moreover, its performance is undesirable due to the risk of radiological exposure, prolonged stay in emergency departments, inefficient use of resources, high cost, and complexity. Furthermore, immediacy and accuracy in diagnosis and management of TBIs are critically unmet medical needs. Especially in the context of sports-associated TBI, there is a strong need for prognostic indicators to help diagnose and identify at-risk subjects to avoid their returning to play while the brain is still highly vulnerable. Fluid biomarkers may emerge as new prognostic indicators to develop more accurate prediction models, improving risk stratification and clinical decision making. This review describes the current understanding of the cellular sources, temporal profile, and potential utility of leading and emerging blood-based protein biomarkers of TBI; its focus is on biomarkers that could improve the management of mild TBI cases and can be measured readily and directly in the field, as in the case of sports-related contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

31 pages, 567 KiB  
Review
Multi-Mechanistic Approaches to the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(6), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12062179 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3723
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, the majority of trialed monotherapies to date have failed to demonstrate significant benefit. It has been suggested that this is due to the complex pathophysiology of [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, the majority of trialed monotherapies to date have failed to demonstrate significant benefit. It has been suggested that this is due to the complex pathophysiology of TBI, which may possibly be addressed by a combination of therapeutic interventions. In this article, we have reviewed combinations of different pharmacologic treatments, combinations of non-pharmacologic interventions, and combined pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for TBI. Both preclinical and clinical studies have been included. While promising results have been found in animal models, clinical trials of combination therapies have not yet shown clear benefit. This may possibly be due to their application without consideration of the evolving pathophysiology of TBI. Improvements of this paradigm may come from novel interventions guided by multimodal neuromonitoring and multimodal imaging techniques, as well as the application of multi-targeted non-pharmacologic and endogenous therapies. There also needs to be a greater representation of female subjects in preclinical and clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

33 pages, 8371 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Treatments of Post-Concussion Symptoms
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(20), 6224; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11206224 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3779
Abstract
Approximately 10–20% of patients who have sustained a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) show persistent post-concussion symptoms (PCS). This review aims to summarize the level of evidence concerning interventions for PCS. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review regarding interventions for [...] Read more.
Approximately 10–20% of patients who have sustained a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) show persistent post-concussion symptoms (PCS). This review aims to summarize the level of evidence concerning interventions for PCS. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review regarding interventions for PCS post-mTBI until August 2021 using the Medline, Cochrane, and Embase databases. Inclusion criteria were the following: (1) intervention focusing on PCS after mTBI, (2) presence of a control group, and (3) adult patients (≥18 y.o). Quality assessment was determined using the Incog recommendation level, and the risk of bias was assessed using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. We first selected 104 full-text articles. Finally, 55 studies were retained, including 35 that obtained the highest level of evidence. The risk of bias was high in 22 out of 55 studies. Cognitive training, psycho-education, cognitive behavioral therapy, and graded return to physical activity demonstrated some effectiveness on persistent PCS. However, there is limited evidence of the beneficial effect of Methylphenidate. Oculomotor rehabilitation, light therapy, and headache management using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation seem effective regarding somatic complaints and sleep disorders. The preventive effect of early (<3 months) interventions remains up for debate. Despite its limitations, the results of the present review should encourage clinicians to propose a tailored treatment to patients according to the type and severity of PCS and could encourage further research with larger groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Recent Trends and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop