Reducing Modifiable Risk Factors to Prevent and Control Non-communicable Diseases

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology & Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2023) | Viewed by 20126

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini 4, Pieve Emanuele, 20072 Milan, Italy
2. IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, 20089 Milan, Italy
Interests: epidemiology; biostatistics; evidence based medicine; systematic reviews; meta-analysis; umbrella review; research methodology; GRADE.
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Guest Editor
Medical School, University of Cyprus, 2029 Aglantzia, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus
Interests: infectious diseases; prevention; public health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini 4, Pieve Emanuele, 20072 Milan, Italy
2. IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, 20089 Milan, Italy
Interests: evidence based medicine; systematic reviews; meta-analysis; network meta-analysis; research methodology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Described as the "invisible epidemic", non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent the world’s leading cause of death, responsible for over 70% of annual deaths globally. NCDs, also known as chronic diseases, are the result of interplay between genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioral factors. The main types of NCDs are cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, and mental health conditions. NCDs have seen a sharp increase in their incidence and prevalence in recent decades, and this worrying trend is predicted to continue in the future. Fundamental public health measures to prevent and control NCDs focus on reducing the leading environmental risk factors of these diseases. It is essential to reduce the major modifiable risk factors for NCDs (e.g., tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and the harmful use of alcohol) to decrease the burden on health that NCDs create worldwide, but particularly in developing and so-called “transitioning” countries and among the poorest individuals within all countries. The aim of this Special Issue is to discuss recent advancements in the field of non-communicable diseases and their prevention and control. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Daniele Piovani
Dr. Georgios Nikolopoulos
Dr. Stefanos Bonovas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • non-communicable disease
  • chronic disease
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cancer
  • chronic respiratory disease
  • diabetes
  • mental health
  • tobacco use
  • physical inactivity
  • unhealthy diet
  • alcohol use
  • disease prevention

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Non-Communicable Diseases: The Invisible Epidemic
by Daniele Piovani, Georgios K. Nikolopoulos and Stefanos Bonovas
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(19), 5939; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11195939 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
Historically, communicable diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, malaria, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, influenza and, more recently, the coronavirus disease 2019, have been at the center of global health concerns and initiatives, as they are transmitted from one person to another with a variety of [...] Read more.
Historically, communicable diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, malaria, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, influenza and, more recently, the coronavirus disease 2019, have been at the center of global health concerns and initiatives, as they are transmitted from one person to another with a variety of ways, easily spread across national borders, and threaten the lives of millions of people all over the globe [...] Full article

Research

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15 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Barriers to Adherence to Healthy Diet and Recommended Physical Activity Perceived by the Polish Population
by Katarzyna Domosławska-Żylińska, Magdalena Łopatek, Magdalena Krysińska-Pisarek and Larysa Sugay
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010022 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Background: According to the World Health Organization, an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity constitute the primary global health risks. The purpose of this study was to as-certain the barriers to a healthy diet (HD) and physical activity (PA) as perceived by [...] Read more.
Background: According to the World Health Organization, an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity constitute the primary global health risks. The purpose of this study was to as-certain the barriers to a healthy diet (HD) and physical activity (PA) as perceived by the Polish population in order to implement public health interventions. Methods: A quantitative survey was conducted using the computer-assisted telephone interview technique on a randomly selected representative sample of 2000 Polish citizens aged 18–88 years. The research tool was a questionnaire consisting of two parts: sociodemographic characteristics and examining barriers to an HD (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.899) and regular PA (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.923). Results: Women constituted more than half of the sample (53.4%), and most of the respondents lived in urban areas (60.5%), considered their financial situation as average (56.9%), and their health as satisfactory (42.3%). Barriers to an HD include the cost of healthy food (43%), lack of motivation (26.7%), and lack of time (25.4%). Barriers to taking up PA include competing priorities (29%), a lack of motivation to exercise (27.3%), feeling of constant fatigue, and lack of energy (24.4%). Limiting factors in the adoption of both an HD and PA are gender (women > men; HD p < 0.01; PA p < 0.001), financial situation (unsatisfactory; HD and PA p < 0.001), health condition (unsatisfactory; HD and PA p < 0.001), type of work (blue-collar workers; HD p < 0.001; PA p < 0.05), and employment status (people running household; HD and PA p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study provide important information about barriers to adopting healthy lifestyle principles. The practical implications of our work can be used by policymakers responsible for intervention strategies and programmes to increase the number of people adhering to recommendations for an HD and PA by removing barriers. Full article
18 pages, 517 KiB  
Article
Sarcopenia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Study of the Modifiable Risk Factors Involved
by Surapaneni Lakshmi Sravya, Jayshree Swain, Abhay Kumar Sahoo, Swayamsidha Mangaraj, Jayabhanu Kanwar, Pooja Jadhao and Srijit Das
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(17), 5499; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12175499 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
(1) Background: Sarcopenia has gained much interest in recent years due to an increase in morbidity. Sarcopenia is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and vice versa. There is a paucity of information regarding the prevalence and predictors of sarcopenia among T2DM [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Sarcopenia has gained much interest in recent years due to an increase in morbidity. Sarcopenia is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and vice versa. There is a paucity of information regarding the prevalence and predictors of sarcopenia among T2DM individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of sarcopenia among T2DM individuals. (2) Methods: This study included 159 diabetics (cases) and 79 non-diabetics (controls) aged >50 years. The subjects were assessed for demographic and anthropometric parameters. Sarcopenia (according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 criteria) was assessed using Jammer’s hydraulic dynamometer for handgrip strength, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for muscle mass, and 6m gait speed. The biochemical investigations included glycated hemoglobin; fasting and prandial glucose; fasting insulin; lipid, renal, liver, and thyroid profiles; serum calcium; phosphorous; vitamin D; and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Appropriate statistical methods were used to determine the significance of each parameter, and a multivariate regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors. (3) Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (22.5% vs. 8.86%, p—0.012). Body mass index (BMI) (OR—0.019, CI—0.001–0.248), physical activity (OR—0.45, CI—0.004–0.475), serum calcium levels (OR—0.155, CI—0.035–0.687), hypertension (OR—8.739, CI—1.913–39.922), and neuropathy (OR—5.57, CI—1.258–24.661) were significantly associated with sarcopenia following multivariate regression analysis. (4) Conclusions: T2DM individuals are prone to sarcopenia, especially those with a low BMI, low physical activity, hypertension, neuropathy, and low serum calcium levels. Hence, by modifying these risk factors among the elderly T2DM, sarcopenia can be prevented. Full article
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18 pages, 571 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Normal-Weight Abdominal Obesity Phenotype in a Representative Sample of the Peruvian Population: A 4-Year Pooled Cross-Sectional Study
by Jamee Guerra Valencia, Lorena Saavedra-Garcia, Víctor Juan Vera-Ponce, Rubén Espinoza-Rojas and Noel C. Barengo
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(10), 3482; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12103482 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
To examine factors associated with abdominal obesity among normal-weight individuals from the Demographic and Health Survey of Peru (2018–2021). Cross-sectional analytical study. The outcome variable was abdominal obesity defined according to JIS criteria. Crude (cPR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were estimated for [...] Read more.
To examine factors associated with abdominal obesity among normal-weight individuals from the Demographic and Health Survey of Peru (2018–2021). Cross-sectional analytical study. The outcome variable was abdominal obesity defined according to JIS criteria. Crude (cPR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were estimated for the association between sociodemographic and health-related variables and abdominal obesity using the GLM Poisson distribution with robust variance estimates. A total of 32,109 subjects were included. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 26.7%. The multivariate analysis showed a statistically significant association between abdominal obesity and female sex (aPR: 11.16; 95% CI 10.43–11.94); categorized age 35 to 59 (aPR: 1.71; 95% CI 1.65–1.78); 60 to 69 (aPR: 1.91; 95% CI 1.81–2.02); and 70 or older(aPR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.87–2.10); survey year 2019 (aPR: 1.22; 95% CI 1.15–1.28); 2020 (aPR: 1.17; 95% CI 1.11–1.24); and 2021 (aPR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.06–1.18); living in Andean region (aPR: 0.91; 95% CI 0.86–0.95); wealth index poor (aPR: 1.26; 95% CI 1.18–1.35); middle (aPR: 1.17; 95% CI 1.08–1.26); rich (aPR: 1.26; 95% CI 1.17–1.36); and richest (aPR: 1.25; 95% CI 1.16–1.36); depressive symptoms (aPR: 0.95; 95% CI 0.92–0.98); history of hypertension (aPR: 1.08; 95% CI 1.03–1.13), type 2 diabetes (aPR: 1.13; 95% CI 1.07–1.20); and fruit intake 3 or more servings/day (aPR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.89–0.96). Female sex, older ages, and low and high income levels increased the prevalence ratio for abdominal obesity, while depressive symptoms, living in the Andean region, and fruit intake of 3 or more servings/day decreased it. Full article
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11 pages, 1286 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Test and the Prevalence of Enzyme Deficiency in Korea
by Rihwa Choi, Wonseo Park, Gayoung Chun, Sang Gon Lee and Eun Hee Lee
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3179; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12093179 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Glucose-5-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked genetic disorder that affects red blood cells’ metabolism. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of G6PD testing in Korea. Data were collected from laboratory information systems between July 2021 and June 2022. [...] Read more.
Glucose-5-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked genetic disorder that affects red blood cells’ metabolism. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of G6PD testing in Korea. Data were collected from laboratory information systems between July 2021 and June 2022. A total of 5193 patients (1722 males and 3471 females) with a median age of 55.1 years (interquartile range, IQR 44.6 to 64.5) were tested for whole blood G6PD, with 1.6% of tests performed on patients of non-Korean ethnicity. The majority of tests were performed in hospitals (37.7%) or local clinics (34.5%). Interestingly, no female children were tested for whole blood G6PD during the study period. The prevalence of decreased G6PD activity (<7.9 U/g Hb) was 0.4% (19/5111 Koreans and 2/82 non-Koreans), and only seven male patients with G6PD deficiency (<30% of the male median) were identified, with ages ranging from 4.8 months to 50.2 years. No female patients with G6PD deficiency were found. Further research is necessary to determine the clinical significance of G6PD test results and monitor their use. Full article
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Review

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28 pages, 476 KiB  
Review
Understanding and Fostering Mental Health and Well-Being among University Faculty: A Narrative Review
by Dalal Hammoudi Halat, Abderrezzaq Soltani, Roua Dalli, Lama Alsarraj and Ahmed Malki
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4425; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134425 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 10527
Abstract
In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of mental health concerns in academia, with stress, burnout, anxiety, and depression being reported among faculty members. The demanding work environment, the need to balance personal and professional duties, and the constant pressure of productivity [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of mental health concerns in academia, with stress, burnout, anxiety, and depression being reported among faculty members. The demanding work environment, the need to balance personal and professional duties, and the constant pressure of productivity while navigating multiple tasks of teaching, research, mentorship, professional development, and service all impact the mental health and overall well-being of faculty. Higher education institutions have structurally changed as has the research landscape. These changes as well as faculty-specific and student-specific factors coupled to the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to profound effects on the mental health of academics. This paper is a narrative review of the pertinent literature describing faculty mental health and well-being. It summarizes the available evidence on factors influencing faculty mental health and shows the prevalence of anxiety, depression, stress, and burnout among faculty from various academic fields and along the whole academic ladder. Using a suggested framework that collates the efforts of leaders and faculty, the paper concludes by exploring strategies that promote work–life balance among academics and suggesting effective interventions to improve their mental health outcomes. Full article
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