Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "General Surgery".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2023) | Viewed by 31298

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Surgery, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba 4428164, Israel
2. Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
Interests: surgical oncology; colon cancer; rectal cancer; robotic surgery; IBD
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent years have seen major changes in the treatment and surgical approach to colorectal pathologies. These changes were driven by technological developments, changes in concepts regarding treatment options and the movement towards personalized treatment.

Technological progress has led to a gradual adoption of robotic surgery for colorectal resections, the use of trans-anal microsurgery and advanced laparoscopic use.

Conceptual changes can be seen in several fields, such as in IBD when upfront surgery in limited disease of Chron's patients became a valid option, or in the growing use of total neoadjuvant treatment for patients with rectal cancer to achieve a complete response in order to avoid surgery on one hand and upfront surgery without preoperative irradiation in other patients on the other. As a further example, progress in the research of stem cells has led to their use in anorectal diseases such as perianal fistulas and fissures.

These are only few examples of the vast progress seen in colorectal surgery and proctology in recent years.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for the presentation of recent research regarding advances in proctology and colorectal surgery.

Prof. Dr. Shmuel Avital
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • surgical oncology
  • colon cancer
  • rectal cancer
  • anorectal diseases
  • robotic surgery

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 728 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Primary Tumor Location on Survival after Liver Resection for Colorectal Liver Metastasis in the Mediterranean Population
by Ahmad Mahamid, Omar Abu-Zaydeh, Esther Kazlow, Dvir Froylich, Muneer Sawaied, Natalia Goldberg, Yael Berger, Wissam Khoury, Eran Sadot and Riad Haddad
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(16), 5242; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12165242 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 817
Abstract
(1) Background: There is an abundance of literature available on predictors of survival for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) but minimal information available on the relationship between the primary tumor location and CRLM survival. The studies that focus on the primary tumor [...] Read more.
(1) Background: There is an abundance of literature available on predictors of survival for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) but minimal information available on the relationship between the primary tumor location and CRLM survival. The studies that focus on the primary tumor location and CRLM survival exhibit a great deal of controversy and inconsistency with regard to their results (some studies show statistically significant connections between the primary tumor location and prognosis versus other studies that find no significant relationship between these two factors). Furthermore, the majority of these studies have been conducted in the West and have studied more diverse and heterogenous populations, which may be a contributing factor to the conflicting results. (2) Methods: We included patients who underwent liver resection for CRLM between December 2004 and January 2019 at two university-affiliated medical centers in Israel: Carmel Medical Center (Haifa) and Rabin Medical Center (Petach Tikvah). Primary tumors located from the cecum up to and including the splenic flexure were labeled as right-sided primary tumors, whereas tumors located from the splenic flexure down to the anal verge were labeled as left-sided primary tumors. (3) Results: We identified a total of 501 patients. Of these patients, 225 had right-sided primary tumors and 276 had left-sided primary tumors. Patients with right-sided tumors were significantly older at the time of liver surgery compared to those with left-sided tumors (66.1 + 12.7 vs. 62 + 13.1, p = 0.002). Patients with left-sided tumors had slightly better overall survival rates than those with right-sided tumors. However, the differences were not statistically significant (57 vs. 50 months, p = 0.37 after liver surgery). (4) Conclusions: The primary tumor location does not significantly affect patient survival after liver resection for colorectal liver metastasis in the Mediterranean population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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14 pages, 2128 KiB  
Article
New Perianal Sepsis Risk Score Predicts Outcome of Elderly Patients with Perianal Abscesses
by Martin Reichert, Lukas Eckerth, Moritz Fritzenwanker, Can Imirzalioglu, Anca-Laura Amati, Ingolf Askevold, Winfried Padberg, Andreas Hecker, Juliane Liese and Fabienne Bender
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(16), 5219; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12165219 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 971
Abstract
Antibiotic therapy following surgical perianal abscess drainage is debated, but may be necessary for high-risk patients. Frailty has been shown to increase the risk of unfavorable outcomes in elderly surgical patients. This study aims to identify high-risk patients by retrospectively analyzing a single-center [...] Read more.
Antibiotic therapy following surgical perianal abscess drainage is debated, but may be necessary for high-risk patients. Frailty has been shown to increase the risk of unfavorable outcomes in elderly surgical patients. This study aims to identify high-risk patients by retrospectively analyzing a single-center cohort and using a pretherapeutic score to predict the need for postoperative antibiotics and extended nursing care following perianal abscess drainage surgery. The perianal sepsis risk score was developed through univariable and multivariable analysis. Internal validation was assessed using the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve. Elderly, especially frail patients exhibited more severe perianal disease, higher frequency of antibiotic therapy, longer hospitalization, poorer clinical outcomes. Multivariable analysis revealed that scores in the 5-item modified frailty index, severity of local infection, and preoperative laboratory markers of infection independently predicted the need for prolonged hospitalization and anti-infective therapy after abscess drainage surgery. These factors were combined into the perianal sepsis risk score, which demonstrated better predictive accuracy for prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic therapy compared with chronological age or frailty status alone. Geriatric assessments are becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. The perianal sepsis risk score identifies high-risk patients before surgery, enabling early initiation of antibiotic therapy and allocation of additional nursing resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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20 pages, 18912 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Clinical Manifestations of Hemorrhoidal Disease, Carried Out Surgeries and Prolapsed Anorectal Tissues: Associations with ABO Blood Groups of Patients
by Inese Fišere, Valērija Groma, Šimons Svirskis, Estere Strautmane and Andris Gardovskis
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155119 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
Hemorrhoidal disease (HD) is a chronic multifactorial disease. Increased abdominal pressure, along with hyperperfusion, neovascularization, overexpression of inflammatory mediators, and dysbiosis, contributes to the development of HD. The deterioration of the anchoring connective tissue with reduced collagen content and altered collagen ratios, dilatation [...] Read more.
Hemorrhoidal disease (HD) is a chronic multifactorial disease. Increased abdominal pressure, along with hyperperfusion, neovascularization, overexpression of inflammatory mediators, and dysbiosis, contributes to the development of HD. The deterioration of the anchoring connective tissue with reduced collagen content and altered collagen ratios, dilatation of blood vessels and thrombosis, muscle injury, and inflammation gradually lead to clinically manifesting prolapse and bleeding from hemorrhoids. The associations of the ABO blood types with a disease have been investigated for the upper gastrointestinal tract only. This study aimed to evaluate HD clinical manifestations, surgeries carried out, and the status of prolapsed anorectal tissues by exploring the associations with the patients’ ABO blood groups. Clinical and various morphological methods, combined with extensive bioinformatics, were used. The blood type 0, grade III and IV HD individuals constituted the largest group in a moderately-sized cohort of equally represented males and females studied and submitted to surgical treatment of hemorrhoids. There were significantly more complaints reported by HD females compared to males (p = 0.0094). The Longo technique appeared mostly used, and there were proportionally more surgeries performed below the dentate line for HD individuals with blood type 0 compared to other blood type patients (24% vs. 11%). HD males were found to present with significantly more often inflamed rectal mucosa (p < 0.05). Loosening and weakening of collagenous components of the rectal wall combined with vascular dilation and hemorrhage was found to differ in 0 blood type HD individuals compared to other types. HD males were demonstrated to develop the ruptures of vascular beds significantly more often when compared to HD females (p = 0.0165). Furthermore, 0 blood type HD males were significantly more often affected by a disease manifested with tissue hemorrhage compared to the 0 blood type HD females (p = 0.0081). Collectively, the local status of chronically injured anorectal tissue should be considered when applying surgical techniques. Future studies could include patients with HD grades I and II to gain a comprehensive understanding of the disease progression, allowing for a comparison of tissue changes at different disease stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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9 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
A Synchronous Robotic Resection of Colorectal Cancer and Liver Metastases—Our Initial Experience
by Yaron Rudnicki, Ron Pery, Sherief Shawki, Susanne Warner, Sean Patrick Cleary and Kevin T. Behm
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3255; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12093255 - 02 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Introduction: Synchronous robotic colorectal and liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is gaining popularity. This case series describes our initial institutional experience. Methods: A retrospective study of synchronous robotic colorectal and liver resections for metastatic colorectal cancer (March 2020 to December 2021). [...] Read more.
Introduction: Synchronous robotic colorectal and liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is gaining popularity. This case series describes our initial institutional experience. Methods: A retrospective study of synchronous robotic colorectal and liver resections for metastatic colorectal cancer (March 2020 to December 2021). Results: Eight patients underwent synchronous robotic resections. The median age was 59 (45–72), and the median body mass index was 29 (20–33). Seven received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and five rectal cancers received neoadjuvant radiotherapy. One patient had a low anterior resection with major hepatectomy, two had low anterior resection with minor hepatectomy, and one had abdominoperineal resection with major hepatectomy. One patient had a left colectomy with minor hepatectomy, and two had right colectomies with minor hepatectomy. We used five robotic 8/12 mm ports in all cases. Extraction incisions were Pfannenstiel in four patients, colostomy site in two patients, one perineal incision, and one supra-umbilical incision. The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (25–500), and the median operative time was 448 min (374–576). There were no intra-operative complications or conversions. Five patients had the liver resection first, and two of six anastomoses were performed before the liver resection. The Median length of stay was 4 days (3–14). There were two post-operative complications, prolonged ileus and DVT, with a Clavien-Dindo complication grade of I and II, respectively. There were no readmissions or reoperations. All colorectal and liver resection margins were negative. Conclusions: Synchronous robotic colorectal and liver resection can be performed effectively utilizing one port configuration with acceptable short-term outcomes and quality of oncologic resection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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9 pages, 565 KiB  
Article
Developing a Robotic Surgical Platform Is Beneficial to the Implementation of the ERAS Program for Colorectal Surgery: An Outcome and Learning Curve Analysis
by Chun-Yen Hung, Chun-Yu Lin, Ming-Cheng Chen, Teng-Yi Chiu, Tzu-Wei Chiang and Feng-Fan Chiang
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(7), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12072661 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Background: Robotic surgery and ERAS protocol care are both prominent developments and have each become global trends. However, the effects and learning curves of combining robotic surgery and ERAS care in colorectal resection have not yet been well validated. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Background: Robotic surgery and ERAS protocol care are both prominent developments and have each become global trends. However, the effects and learning curves of combining robotic surgery and ERAS care in colorectal resection have not yet been well validated. This study aimed to present our real-world experience and establish the learning curves necessary for the implementation of an ERAS program in minimally-invasive surgery for colorectal resection, while also evaluating the impact that the development of the robotic technique has on ERAS outcomes. Methods: A total of 155 patients who received elective, minimally-invasive surgery, including laparoscopic and robotic surgery for colorectal resection, with ERAS care during the period June 2019 to September 2021 were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients were divided chronologically into five groups (31 cases per quintile). Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, perioperative data, ERAS compliance, and surgical outcomes were all compared among the quintiles. Learning curves were evaluated based on ERAS compliance and optimal recovery, which are composed of an absence of major complications, postoperative length of stay (LOS) of no more than five days, and no readmission within 30 days. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess factors associated with postoperative LOS. Results: There were no statistically significant differences seen overall or between the quintile groups in regards to demographic and tumor characteristic parameters. A total of 79 patients (51%) received robotic surgery, with the ratio of robotic groups rising chronologically from zero in the first quintile to 90.3% in the fifth quintile (p < 0.001). The median compliance rate of total ERAS protocol was 83.3% overall, 72.2% in the first quintile and 83.3% in the 2nd–5th quintiles (p < 0.001). A total of 85 patients underwent optimal recovery after surgery, four patients in the first quintile, 11 patients in the second quintile, and 21, 24, 25 patients in the 3rd–5th quintiles respectively (p < 0.001). There were significant improvements from early to later groups upon postoperative LOS (p < 0.001). In addition, the surgical outcomes including first oral intake within 24 hours after surgery, time to first stool and early termination of intravenous fluid administration showed significant improvement among the quintiles. A multivariable logistic regression model demonstrated that robotic surgery was superior to laparoscopic surgery upon postoperative LOS (odds ratio = 5.029, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.321 to 19.142; p = 0.018). Conclusions: Our experience demonstrated that an effective implementation of the ERAS program in minimally-invasive colorectal surgery requires 31 patients to accomplish the higher compliance and requires more cases to reach the maturation phase for optimal recovery. We believe that developing a robotic platform would have no impact on the learning curve of ERAS implementation. Moreover, there is a beneficial effect on the postoperative length of surgery provided through the combination of ERAS care and robotic surgery for patients undergoing colorectal resection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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10 pages, 1358 KiB  
Article
Emergency Colectomies in the Elderly Population—Perioperative Mortality Risk-Factors and Long-Term Outcomes
by Ilan Kent, Amandeep Ghuman, Luna Sadran, Adi Rov, Guy Lifschitz, Yaron Rudnicki, Ian White, Nitzan Goldberg and Shmuel Avital
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(7), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12072465 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Background: As the population ages emergency surgeries among the elderly population, including colonic resections, is also increasing. Data regarding the short- and long-term outcomes in this population is scarce. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to investigate mortality and mortality risk factors associated [...] Read more.
Background: As the population ages emergency surgeries among the elderly population, including colonic resections, is also increasing. Data regarding the short- and long-term outcomes in this population is scarce. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to investigate mortality and mortality risk factors associated with emergent colectomies in older compared to younger patients in a single university affiliated tertiary hospital. Patients with metastatic disease, colectomy due to trauma or index colectomy within 30 days prior to emergent surgery were excluded. Results: Operative outcomes compared among age groups, included 30-day mortality, mortality risk-factors and long-term survival. 613 eligible patients were included in the cohort. Mean age was 69.4 years, 45.1% were female. Patients were divided into four age groups: 18–59, 60–69, 70–79 and ≥80-years. Thirty-day mortality rates were 3.2%, 11%, 29.3% and 37.8%, respectively and 22% for the entire cohort. Risk-factors for perioperative death in the younger group were related to severity of ASA score and WBC count. In groups 60–69, 70–79, main risk-factors were ADL dependency and ASA score. In the ≥80 group, risk-factors affecting perioperative mortality, included ASA score, pre-operative albumin, creatinine, WBC levels, cancer etiology, ADL dependency, and dementia. Long-term survival differed significantly between age groups. Conclusion: Perioperative mortality with emergency colectomy increases with patients’ age. Patients older than eighty-years undergoing urgent colectomies have extremely high mortality rates, leading to a huge burden on medical services. Evaluating risk-factors for mortality and pre-operative discussion with patients and families is important. Screening the elderly population for colonic pathologies can result in early diagnosis potentially leading to elective surgeries with decreased mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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9 pages, 415 KiB  
Article
Rectal Cancer following Local Excision of Rectal Adenomas with Low-Grade Dysplasia—A Multicenter Study
by Yaron Rudnicki, Nir Horesh, Assaf Harbi, Barak Lubianiker, Eraan Green, Guy Raveh, Moran Slavin, Lior Segev, Haim Gilshtein, Muhammad Khalifa, Alexander Barenboim, Nir Wasserberg, Marat Khaikin, Hagit Tulchinsky, Nidal Issa, Daniel Duek, Shmuel Avital and Ian White
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(3), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12031032 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
Purpose: Rectal polyps with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) can be removed by local excision surgery (LE). It is unclear whether these lesions pose a higher risk for recurrence and cancer development and might warrant an early repeat rectal endoscopy. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Purpose: Rectal polyps with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) can be removed by local excision surgery (LE). It is unclear whether these lesions pose a higher risk for recurrence and cancer development and might warrant an early repeat rectal endoscopy. This study aims to assess the rectal cancer rate following local excision of LGD rectal lesions. Methods: A retrospective multicenter study including all patients that underwent LE for rectal polyps over a period of 11 years was conducted. Demographic, clinical, and surgical data of patients with LGD werecollected and analyzed. Results: Out of 274 patients that underwent LE of rectal lesions, 81 (30%) had a pathology of LGD. The mean patient age was 65 ± 11 years, and 52 (64%) were male. The mean distance from the anal verge was 7.2 ± 4.3 cm, and the average lesion was 3.2 ± 1.8 cm. Full thickness resection was achieved in 68 patients (84%), and four (5%) had involved margins for LGD. Nine patients (11%) had local recurrence and developed rectal cancer in an average time interval of 19.3 ± 14.5 months, with seven of them (78%) diagnosed less than two years after the initial LE. Seven of the nine patients were treated with another local excision, whilst one had a low anterior resection, and one was treated with radiation. The mean follow-up time was 25.3 ± 22.4 months. Conclusions: Locally resected rectal polyps with LGD may carry a significant risk of recurring and developing cancer within two years. This data suggests patients should have a closer surveillance protocol in place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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11 pages, 1572 KiB  
Article
Tunneling of Mesh during Ventral Rectopexy: Technical Aspects and Long-Term Functional Results
by Paola Campennì, Angelo Alessandro Marra, Veronica De Simone, Francesco Litta, Angelo Parello and Carlo Ratto
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(1), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12010294 - 30 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Avoiding the extensive damage of pelvic structures during ventral rectopexy could minimize secondary disfunctions. The objective of our observational study is to assess the safety and functional efficacy of a modified ventral rectopexy. In the modified ventral rectopexy, a retroperitoneal tunnel was created [...] Read more.
Avoiding the extensive damage of pelvic structures during ventral rectopexy could minimize secondary disfunctions. The objective of our observational study is to assess the safety and functional efficacy of a modified ventral rectopexy. In the modified ventral rectopexy, a retroperitoneal tunnel was created along the right side of rectum, connecting two peritoneal mini-incisions at the Douglas pouch and sacral promontory. The proximal edge of a polypropylene mesh, sutured over the ventral rectum, was pulled up through the retroperitoneal tunnel and fixed to the sacral promontory. In all patients, radiopaque clips were placed on the mesh, making it radiographically “visible”. Before surgery and at follow up visits, Altomare, Longo, CCSS, PAC-SYM, and CCFI scores were collected. From March 2010 to September 2021, 117 patients underwent VR. Modified ventral rectopexy was performed in 65 patients, while the standard ventral rectopexy was performed in 52 patients. The open approach was used in 97 cases (55 and 42 patients in modified and standard VR, respectively), while MI surgery was used in 20 cases (10 and 10 patients in modified and standard VR, respectively). A slightly shorter operative time and hospital stay were observed following modified ventral rectopexy (though this was not statistically significant). Similar overall complication rates were registered in the modified vs. standard ventral rectopexies (4.6% vs. 5.8%, p = 0.779). At follow-up, the Longo score (14.0 ± 8.6 vs. 11.0 ± 8.2, p = 0.042) and “delta” values of Altomare (9.2 ± 6.1 vs. 5.9 ± 6.3, p = 0.008) and CCSS (8.4 ± 6.3 vs. 6.1 ± 6.1, p = 0.037) scores were significantly improved in the modified ventral rectopexy group. A similar occurrence of symptoms recurrence was diagnosed in the two groups. Radiopaque clips helped to accurately diagnose mesh detachment/dislocation. The proposed modified VR seems to be feasible and safe. Marking the mesh intraoperatively seems useful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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9 pages, 963 KiB  
Article
The Emborrhoid Technique for Treatment of Bleeding Hemorrhoids in Patients with High Surgical Risk
by Paola Campennì, Roberto Iezzi, Angelo Alessandro Marra, Alessandro Posa, Angelo Parello, Francesco Litta, Veronica De Simone and Carlo Ratto
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(19), 5533; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11195533 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
The Emborrhoid is an innovative non-surgical technique for the treatment of severe hemorrhoidal bleeding. Patient selection and the impact on quality of life have not been fully investigated. This prospective observational study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes after Emborrhoid in patients with [...] Read more.
The Emborrhoid is an innovative non-surgical technique for the treatment of severe hemorrhoidal bleeding. Patient selection and the impact on quality of life have not been fully investigated. This prospective observational study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes after Emborrhoid in patients with high surgical risk. All patients with high surgical risk and anemia due to hemorrhoids were enrolled. Clinical data and previous blood transfusions were collected. The Hemorrhoidal Disease Symptom Score and Short Health Scala were completed before the procedure and during the follow-up visits at 1, 6 and 12 months. Transfusions and serum hemoglobin level variations were registered. Perioperative complications and the recurrence of bleeding were assessed. Trans-radial/femoral embolization of superior rectal artery, and/or middle rectal artery was performed with Interlock and Detachable Embolization Coils. From September 2020 to February 2022, 21 patients underwent a superselective embolization of all branches of the superior rectal artery. The transradial approach was most frequently performed compared to transfemoral access. After the procedure, no signs of ischemia were identified; three minor complications were observed. The mean follow-up was 18.5 ± 6.0 months. At the last follow-up, the mean increase of hemoglobin for patients was 1.2 ± 1.6 g/dL. Three patients needed transfusions during follow-up for recurrent hemorrhoidal bleeding. The Hemorrhoidal Disease Symptom Score and Short Health Scala decreased from 11.1 ± 4.2 to 4.7 ± 4.6 (p < 0.0001) and from 18.8 ± 4.8 to 10.2 ± 4.9 (p < 0.0001), respectively. Patients who had given up on their daily activities due to anemia have returned to their previous lifestyle. Emborrhoid seems to be a safe and effective option for the treatment of bleeding hemorrhoids in frail patients. The low complication rate and the significant reduction of post-defecation bleeding episodes are related to the improvement of the hemorrhoidal symptoms and patients’ quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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6 pages, 203 KiB  
Article
Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis in the White British and South Asian Populations in Selected Trusts in England 2001–2020: An Absence of Disparate Care and a Need for Specialist Centres
by Affifa Farrukh and John Francis Mayberry
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(17), 4967; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11174967 - 24 Aug 2022
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Over the last decade, there has been extensive evidence that patients with inflammatory bowel disease from minority communities in the UK receive less than optimal care. In none of the studies has the role of surgery in the management of acute and severe [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, there has been extensive evidence that patients with inflammatory bowel disease from minority communities in the UK receive less than optimal care. In none of the studies has the role of surgery in the management of acute and severe ulcerative colitis been considered in any detail. A freedom of information (FOI) request was sent to 14 NHS Trusts in England, which serve significant South Asian populations. Details of the type of surgery patients from the South Asian and White British communities received between 2021 and 2020 were requested. Detailed responses were obtained from eight Trusts. Four hundred and ten White British patients underwent surgery for ulcerative colitis over this period at these eight Trusts, together with 67 South Asian patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution across the types of surgery undergone by the two communities overall (χ2 = 1.3, ns) and the proportions who underwent an ileo-anal anastomosis with pouch (z = −1.2, ns). However, within individual trusts, at the University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, a significantly greater proportion of South Asian patients had an ileo-anal anastomosis with pouch compared to White British patients. At Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, all 72 patients who underwent surgery for ulcerative colitis were White British. This study has shown that, in general, for patients with a severe flare of ulcerative colitis where medical treatment has failed and surgery is warranted, the nature of the procedures offered is the same in the White British and South Asian communities. However, of concern is the number of units with low volume procedures. For most Trusts reported in this study, the overall number of Ileo-anal pouch anastomosis or anastomosis of ileum to anus procedures performed over a number of years was substantially below that required for a single surgeon to achieve competence. These findings reinforce the argument that inflammatory bowel disease surgery should be performed in a limited number of high-volume centres rather than across a wide range of hospitals so as to ensure procedures are carried out by surgeons with sufficient and on-going experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)

Review

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17 pages, 1469 KiB  
Review
Watch and Wait Approach for Rectal Cancer
by Carlos Cerdan-Santacruz, Guilherme Pagin São Julião, Bruna Borba Vailati, Leonardo Corbi, Angelita Habr-Gama and Rodrigo Oliva Perez
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(8), 2873; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12082873 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4761
Abstract
The administration of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by total mesorrectal excision (TME) and selective use of adjuvant chemotherapy can still be considered the standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). However, avoiding sequelae of TME and entering a narrow follow-up program [...] Read more.
The administration of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by total mesorrectal excision (TME) and selective use of adjuvant chemotherapy can still be considered the standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). However, avoiding sequelae of TME and entering a narrow follow-up program of watch and wait (W&W), in select cases that achieve a comparable clinical complete response (cCR) to nCRT, is now very attractive to both patients and clinicians. Many advances based on well-designed studies and long-term data coming from big multicenter cohorts have drawn some important conclusions and warnings regarding this strategy. In order to safely implement W&W, it is important consider proper selection of cases, best treatment options, surveillance strategy and the attitudes towards near complete responses or even tumor regrowth. The present review offers a comprehensive overview of W&W strategy from its origins to the most current literature, from a practical point of view focused on daily clinical practice, without losing sight of the most important future prospects in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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26 pages, 2818 KiB  
Review
Stage IV Colorectal Cancer Management and Treatment
by Oscar Hernandez Dominguez, Sumeyye Yilmaz and Scott R. Steele
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(5), 2072; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12052072 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 7450
Abstract
(1) Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Up to 50% of patients with CRC develop metastatic CRC (mCRC). Surgical and systemic therapy advances can now offer significant survival advantages. Understanding [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Up to 50% of patients with CRC develop metastatic CRC (mCRC). Surgical and systemic therapy advances can now offer significant survival advantages. Understanding the evolving treatment options is essential for decreasing mCRC mortality. We aim to summarize current evidence and guidelines regarding the management of mCRC to provide utility when making a treatment plan for the heterogenous spectrum of mCRC. (2) Methods: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed and current guidelines written by major cancer and surgical societies were reviewed. The references of the included studies were screened to identify additional studies that were incorporated as appropriate. (3) Results: The standard of care for mCRC primarily consists of surgical resection and systemic therapy. Complete resection of liver, lung, and peritoneal metastases is associated with better disease control and survival. Systemic therapy now includes chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy options that can be tailored by molecular profiling. Differences between colon and rectal metastasis management exist between major guidelines. (4) Conclusions: With the advances in surgical and systemic therapy, as well as a better understanding of tumor biology and the importance of molecular profiling, more patients can anticipate prolonged survival. We provide a summary of available evidence for the management of mCRC, highlighting the similarities and presenting the difference in available literature. Ultimately, a multidisciplinary evaluation of patients with mCRC is crucial to selecting the appropriate pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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16 pages, 1390 KiB  
Review
Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Guided Surgery in Colorectal Surgery
by Zoe Garoufalia and Steven D. Wexner
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(2), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12020494 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4791
Abstract
Background: Indocyanine green (ICG) imaging has been increasingly used for intraoperative guidance in colorectal surgery over the past decade. The aim of this study was to review and organize, according to different type of use, all available literature on ICG guided colorectal surgery [...] Read more.
Background: Indocyanine green (ICG) imaging has been increasingly used for intraoperative guidance in colorectal surgery over the past decade. The aim of this study was to review and organize, according to different type of use, all available literature on ICG guided colorectal surgery and highlight areas in need of further research and discuss future perspectives. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched systematically through November 2022 for all available studies on fluorescence-guided surgery in colorectal surgery. Results: Available studies described ICG use in colorectal surgery for perfusion assessment, ureteral and urethral assessment, lymphatic mapping, and hepatic and peritoneal metastases assessment. Although the level of evidence is low, results are promising, especially in the role of ICG in reducing anastomotic leaks. Conclusions: ICG imaging is a safe and relatively cheap imaging modality in colorectal surgery, especially for perfusion assessment. Work is underway regarding its use in lymphatic mapping, ureter identification, and the assessment of intraperitoneal metastatic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Proctology and Colorectal Surgery)
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