Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 2547

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Sport Medicine Center, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 50121 Florence, Italy
Interests: physical exercise; training; non-communicable chronic diseases; sedentary time; cardio-metabolic and inflammatory risk biomarkers; nutritional integration; functional evaluation; long-term efficacy of physical exercise; exercise prescription in non-communicable chronic disease and in solid organ transplantations; cardiotoxicity; echocardiographic deformation parameters
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Correct lifestyle criteria (e.g., nutritional recommendations and moderate physical activity) are well documented to have a positive role in many cardiovascular diseases with major or minor risk of complications. Individualized physical activity at moderate intensity can be considered a specific treatment with primary and secondary prevention effects. Among the clinical conditions, some congenital cardiac diseases, which are not suitable for sports eligibility, despite the surgical treatment, and low symptomatic or asymptomatic heart failure, are new emerging disorders often found in a large population following physical activity programs. Furthermore, the solid organs post-transplantation context should be considered for the specific multiple comorbidity associations, a group in whom the physical activity needs to be modulated. Sports medicine is particularly dedicated to this emerging category. The study on the promotion of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior to prevent chronic diseases has become an emerging trend in the field, as more and more researchers have conducted investigations in this area in recent decades. Despite this being a peculiar section called “the exercise prescription”, few data are available in the literature regarding the kind, amount, and effects of short- and long-term physical activity programs on CVD. More recently, some dedicated echocardiographic software, evaluating the deformation parameters (strain) and the intracardiac dynamic flows (vortex), can contribute to and support evaluating the eventual myocardial remodeling due to the regular practice of physical activity in specific categories. We invite submissions dedicated to examining the effects of physical activity programs on health promotion  in cardiovascular diseases

We look forward to receiving your submissions to this Special Issue.

Dr. Laura Stefani
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • congenital cardiac disease
  • arrhythmias
  • heart failure
  • CAD
  • physical activity and music
  • heart rate variability and physical activity

Published Papers (2 papers)

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10 pages, 713 KiB  
Article
Flow Dynamic Pattern in Liver and Renal Transplantation under Exercise Prescription Program
by Marco Corsi, Edoardo Falconi, Roberto Palazzo, Vittorio Bini, Gabriele Mascherini, Sabrina Mancini, Marco Maglione and Laura Stefani
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4521; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134521 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular diseases in the context of renal and liver transplants remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Physical exercise at a moderate intensity is allowed to contrast the risk profile. Echocardiographic evaluation is essential to stratifying potential cardiotoxicity by the standard [...] Read more.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases in the context of renal and liver transplants remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Physical exercise at a moderate intensity is allowed to contrast the risk profile. Echocardiographic evaluation is essential to stratifying potential cardiotoxicity by the standard and, more recently, the deformation and dynamic study of the intracardiac vortex. This study aims to investigate the vortex echo parameters of solid-organ-transplanted subjects who are physically active compared to a control group of healthy subjects. Methods: A group of 33 transplanted subjects (16 kidneys and 17 livers) was studied via a transthoracic echocardiography exam, comprehending the myocardial deformation parameters of global longitudinal strain (GLS), twisting of the left ventricle (LV) chamber, and HyperDoppler image acquisition. Results: The subjects enrolled in this study were 50 in total: there were 33 transplanted and 17 healthy subjects. The transplanted subjects presented higher values of interventricular septum in diastole (IVSd p = 0.001), posterior wall diastolic (PWd p = 0.05), and left ventricle mass index (LVMI p = 0.029); ejection fraction (EF) was found to be higher in athletes (p < 0.001). Transplanted subjects presented mild diastolic dysfunction, emerging only from septal E values (p = 0.001). The 4DStrain (p = 0.018) and GLS2c (p = 0.017) were significantly better in the athletes. All of the geometrical and energetical vortex data were in the normal range and no significant differences were found. An interesting positive correlation was evident for the diastolic parameter, particularly the E/A ratio (p = 0.023) and E’ septal value (p = 0.049), along with the vorticity fluctuation. This behavior was present for all subjects, particularly those that were transplanted (p = 0.005). Conclusions: In the vortex investigation, especially in cases of normal EF, the positive correlation of some diastolic parameters with the flow dynamic patterns corroborates this hypothesis. The HyperDoppler analysis could be helpful to detecting potential damage earlier in the diastolic time before a systolic deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease: An Update)
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11 pages, 533 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Implications of Physical Activity on Mortality from Ischaemic Heart Disease: Longitudinal Cohort Study Data
by Dalia Luksiene, Vilma Jasiukaitiene, Ricardas Radisauskas, Abdonas Tamosiunas and Martin Bobak
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134218 - 22 Jun 2023
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Abstract
Background: The prevalence of physical inactivity has been rising in many countries in recent years, adding to the burden of non-communicable diseases and affecting overall health worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the comprehensive assessment of the prognostic value of [...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of physical inactivity has been rising in many countries in recent years, adding to the burden of non-communicable diseases and affecting overall health worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the comprehensive assessment of the prognostic value of physical activity in leisure time on mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) by gender separately for those respondents who were diagnosed with IHD and for those who were not diagnosed with IHD in their baseline health survey. Methods: In the baseline survey (2006–2008), 7100 men and women ages 45–72 were examined within the framework of the international study Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE). A total of 6770 participants were available for statistical analysis (after excluding 330 respondents due to missing information on study variables). Physical activity was determined by leisure-time physical activities (hours/week). All participants in the baseline survey were followed up for IHD mortality events until 31 December 2018. Results: Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, it was found that moderate and higher levels of physical activity significantly reduced the risk of IHD mortality (HR = 0.54, p = 0.016 and HR = 0.60, p = 0.031, respectively) in men who were not diagnosed with IHD at baseline compared with physically inactive subjects. It was found that among men and women who were diagnosed with IHD at baseline, physical activity reduced the risk of mortality from IHD compared with those who were physically inactive (HR = 0.54, p = 0.021 and HR = 0.41, p = 0.025, respectively). Using mediation analysis, it was found that physical activity directly predicted statistically lower IHD mortality (p < 0.05) in men and women. Conclusion: High physical activity was a significant factor that directly predicted statistically lower IHD mortality in men, regardless of whether subjects had IHD at baseline or not. However, only moderate physical activity was a significant factor that directly predicted statistically lower IHD mortality in the women group with IHD at baseline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease: An Update)
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