Personalized Physical Activity and Exercise: Acute Effects, Adaptations and Prevention in Chronic Disease Health

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 July 2022) | Viewed by 22836

Special Issue Editors

Health Research Center, Department of Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain
Interests: exercise science; sports science; biomechanics; human movement; meta-analysis; body composition; gerontology; muscle contraction; exercise; electromyography; muscle; hematology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
SEJ-680: Science-Based Training (SBT) Research Group, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Pablo de Olavide University, 41013 Seville, Spain
Interests: nutrition; strength; resistance exercise; isoinertial training; training optimization; physical performance; skeletal muscle; sports injuries; sports medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
LFE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Science (INEF), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Interests: exercise physiology; lactate metabolism; MCT; lactate transporters; female athlete; sexual hormones; estrogen; progesterone; menstrual cycle; oral contraceptives

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to the World Health Organization, a chronic non-communicable disease is a non-contagious illness, usually of long duration, progressing slowly, and resulting from genetics, the environment or a poor lifestyle. Chronic diseases are among the most prevalent and costly health conditions worldwide, affecting the health and quality of life of those who suffer these diseases. Moreover, the latest data point to a significant increase in this type of illness, and even with associated secondary pathologies.

In this context, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in every chronic disease an understanding of every risk factor that can be eliminated or controlled is important to reduce the burden of the disease. Regular physical activity and exercise is shown to be one of the most important contributors to well-being, quality of life, and disease prevention. However, a large proportion of children, adolescents, and adults do not meet the required guidelines set by global organizations.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to analyze the effect of acute physical exercise, as well as chronic adaptations of exercise in people suffering from some chronic pathology. Thus, we are accepting submissions of cross-sectional, original research, reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses addressing the effect of personalized physical exercise on physiological mechanisms and physical capacities, examining how they could improve the functionality and quality of life of people suffering from chronic diseases.

Dr. Jacobo Á. Rubio Arias
Dr. Domingo J. Ramos Campo
Dr. Luis Manuel Martínez Aranda
Dr. Rocio Cupeiro Coto
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Strength training
  • Resistance exercise
  • Endurance training
  • Whole-body vibration training
  • Velocity based training

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Impact of Kinesiotherapy and Hydrokinetic Therapy on the Rehabilitation of Balance, Gait and Functional Capacity in Patients with Lower Limb Amputation: A Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(14), 4108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11144108 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
The purpose of this pilot study was to identify impact differences in the rehabilitation of balance, gait and functional capacity in patients with lower limb amputation performing hydrokinetic therapy and kinesiotherapy programs during the pre-prosthetic and prosthetic phases. The study included 16 male [...] Read more.
The purpose of this pilot study was to identify impact differences in the rehabilitation of balance, gait and functional capacity in patients with lower limb amputation performing hydrokinetic therapy and kinesiotherapy programs during the pre-prosthetic and prosthetic phases. The study included 16 male patients aged 40–60 years with amputated lower limbs for 6 to 12 months, which involved transfemoral amputation (TFA), transtibial amputation (TTA), traumatic and vascular amputation, who were divided into the following two groups: the hydrokinetic therapy (HKT) group and the kinesiotherapy (KT) group, named after the content of the rehabilitation programs that were implemented for 2 weeks in the pre-prosthetic and prosthetic periods. The initial and final evaluation of the participants included the following tests: the Berg Scale and the four square test for the evaluation of the balance; the PodoSmart device for gait assessment; through the walking test over 6 min, we evaluated the functional capacity. The results were processed in SPSS 24. Analysis of the results on balance rehabilitation through the Berg Scale highlighted that the progress related to the mean of the total score was 7.62 points, p = 0.00 for the HKT group and 7.50 points, p = 0.00 for the KT group, while in the four square step test, the mean of progress was 6.125 s, p = 0.00 for the HKT group and 6 s, p = 0.000 for the KT group. The PodoSmart gait analysis revealed that the HKT group showed a progress mean of 4.875%, p = 0.00, for the foot symmetry parameter, which was 1.875% less than the score achieved by the KT group whose symmetry progress mean was 6.75%, p = 0.00, while the average progress mean for the cadence parameter was 2.75 steps/min higher for the KT group than the HKT group. The comparative analysis of the impact of these two programs on the patients’ functional capacity indicated that the score recorded by the KT group was a progress mean of 15.12 m, p = 0.00 better than the HKT group for the travelled distance parameter; the implementation of the hydrokinetic therapy program led to better exercise adaptation for the HKT group compared to the KT group at an average HR (HRavg) with 0.50 BPM, p = 0.00. After analyzing the results, it has been found that hydrokinetic therapy programs have a greater impact on balance rehabilitation and exercise adaptation, while kinesiotherapy programs have a greater impact on gait rehabilitation and functional capacity optimization for the travelled distance parameter. Full article
15 pages, 1313 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Active Video Game Exercise Based on Self-Determination Theory on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Function in Older Adults
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(14), 3984; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11143984 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
Background: Aging and physical inactivity are associated with declines in physical fitness and cognitive function. Active video games have proven to be beneficial for the physical health of older adults, but the exact effect of active video games on physical fitness and cognitive [...] Read more.
Background: Aging and physical inactivity are associated with declines in physical fitness and cognitive function. Active video games have proven to be beneficial for the physical health of older adults, but the exact effect of active video games on physical fitness and cognitive function was still unclear. Based on self-determination theory (SDT), which is a widely used theory of healthy behavior change, this study aimed to explore the effects of an active video game intervention on fitness and cognitive function in older adults. Methods: A total of 38 participants (mean age = 65.68 ± 3.78 years, 24 female) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (active video game training) or a control group (no additional intervention). The participants in the intervention group trained for a total of 36 sessions (3 times per week for 50–55 min each) for 12 weeks. The control group continued with their normal daily living. The pre- and posttest measurements included: IPAQ-C score and physical fitness (BMI, body fat percent, blood pressure, reaction time, sit and reach, vital capacity, grip strength, static balance, blood biochemical tests for liver function, kidney function, blood lipids, glucose and insulin levels) and cognitive functions (processing speed, spatial ability, working memory, language ability, associative memory). Result: The intervention group showed a significantly smaller decrease in total average physical activity relative to the control group. BMI, vital capacity, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and spatial cognition significantly improved after training in the intervention group (BMI: F = 9.814, p = 0.004, d = −0.93, vital capacity: F = 4.708, p = 0.038, d = 0.67, systolic blood pressure: F = 5.28, p = 0.028, d = −0.68, diastolic blood pressure: F = 6.418, p = 0.016, d = −0.86, spatial cognition: F = 8.261, p = 0.007, d = 0.72). Three measures of static balance (closed eyes) also showed improvements after training (total length of swing: F = 3.728, d = −0.62, total velocity of swing: F = 3.740, d = −0.62, total area of swing: F = 2.920, d = −0.70). No significant training effects were evident in the results from the blood biochemical tests. Conclusion: This study indicates a positive influence of active video game training on physical fitness and cognitive function. The use of SDT-based active video game exercise as a feasible, safe, and effective training method for improving community older adults’ healthy, promoting group cohesion, and increasing motivation to exercise. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Resistance Training Program on Static Balance in Multiple Sclerosis Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092405 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that affects balance. Among the non-pharmacological strategies to improve this variable, physical exercise is one of the most widely used. However, the benefits of some types of training, such as resistance training, on static balance [...] Read more.
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that affects balance. Among the non-pharmacological strategies to improve this variable, physical exercise is one of the most widely used. However, the benefits of some types of training, such as resistance training, on static balance in this population are still unclear. This study aims to analyze the effects of a resistance training (RT) intervention on balance in people with MS. Methods: Thirty people with MS were randomized to either an experimental (n = 18) or a control (n = 12) group. The RT group performed 10 weeks of lower limb resistance training with a concentric phase at maximum velocity. Static balance was measured before and after intervention. Results: No significant group × time interaction effects were found (ANOVA test) in any of the variables at the end of the intervention. No intragroup differences were found before or after the intervention in the balance variables. Conclusions: Resistance training with a concentric phase at maximum velocity showed no impact on balance in our sample. Future studies should examine programs of longer duration or combined with other types of training, such as balance training, with the aim of obtaining improvements in this variable in people with MS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 555 KiB  
Article
Chronic Pain in Spanish Wildland Firefighters
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11040989 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
The work performed by wildland firefighters (WFFs) is very demanding owing to the conditions in which they have to operate. It has been reported that these professionals walk long distances over unstable and steep terrain carrying heavy loads, handle tools manually and repeatedly [...] Read more.
The work performed by wildland firefighters (WFFs) is very demanding owing to the conditions in which they have to operate. It has been reported that these professionals walk long distances over unstable and steep terrain carrying heavy loads, handle tools manually and repeatedly and are subject to a high level of thermal stress. Under such conditions, the risk of developing chronic pain (CP) is high, although despite this, there are no available data pertaining to CP among WFFs, to the best of our knowledge. As such, the aim of this study is to describe CP in Spanish helitack crews, for which purpose 221 WFFs (203 men and 18 women) completed an online self-report questionnaire. Approximately 60% of WFFs reported suffering from CP, of which 45.5% had CP in more than one body region at the same time. Age and length of service were associated with the probability of suffering from CP. Likewise, the age and height of WFFs and weight of the protective equipment used increased the prevalence of CP. Lastly, gender and job position affected CP location, with women and forepersons reporting greater prevalence of CP in the lower limbs. To conclude, the results obtained suggest the major prevalence of CP among Spanish WFFs, with current data suggesting in turn the importance that age, stature, gender, length of service, weight of protective equipment and job position have on the prevalence and location of CP. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

12 pages, 4543 KiB  
Review
The Beneficial Effects of Eccentric Exercise in the Management of Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(17), 3968; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173968 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 9318
Abstract
As a first-line treatment for lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET), eccentric exercise has been suggested as a conservative treatment method. This study aimed to investigate the impact of eccentric exercise on LET with regard to pain reduction, and strength and functional improvement. The PubMed, [...] Read more.
As a first-line treatment for lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET), eccentric exercise has been suggested as a conservative treatment method. This study aimed to investigate the impact of eccentric exercise on LET with regard to pain reduction, and strength and functional improvement. The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched, and studies up to May 2021 were included if (1) randomization was used for patient allocation, (2) the study comprised patients with LET, (3) the intervention was eccentric exercise, and (4) the primary outcomes included improvement in pain intensity, muscle strength, or function. The meta-analysis comprised of six studies, totaling 429 participants. Additional eccentric exercise with underlying adjuvant therapy significantly improved the visual analog scale (VAS) scores (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.90–−0.36) and muscle strength (SMD, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.78–1.33) compared with adjuvant therapy alone. Compared with the concentric or isotonic exercise group, the eccentric exercise group showed significantly improved VAS scores (SMD, −0.30; 95% CI, −0.58–−0.02). However, no differences in muscle strength and function were observed between the two groups. Eccentric exercise can improve pain and muscle strength in patients with LET. The limited number of included studies and heterogeneous exercise parameters are important when interpreting these findings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 22748 KiB  
Review
Evidence-Based Aerobic Exercise Training in Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease: Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(8), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081659 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4069
Abstract
Background: This meta-analysis evaluates the overall effect of the non-pharmacological intervention, aerobic exercise, upon serum liver enzymes levels, glucose metabolism and anthropometric measures amongst patients with metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). It also examines whether the effects on these outcomes are moderated [...] Read more.
Background: This meta-analysis evaluates the overall effect of the non-pharmacological intervention, aerobic exercise, upon serum liver enzymes levels, glucose metabolism and anthropometric measures amongst patients with metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). It also examines whether the effects on these outcomes are moderated by the aerobic training protocol when considered according to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommended FITT (frequency, intensity, time, type) principles. Approach and Results: Fifteen randomized control trials were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with usual care, continuous and interval training showed significant efficacy in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level improvement (MD = −2.4, 95% CI: −4.34 to −0.46 p = 0.015, I2 = 9.1%). Interventions based on all types of aerobic exercise protocols showed significant improvement of intrahepatic triglycerides (MD = −4.0557, 95% CI: −5.3711 to −2.7403, p < 0.0001, I2 = 0%) and BMI (MD = −0.9774, 95% CI: −1.4086 to −0.5462, p < 0.0001, I2 = 0). Meta-regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between total intervention time and ALT level (for all aerobic protocols: 6.0056, se = 2.6896, z = 2.2329, p = 0.02; as well as for continuous and interval aerobic protocols: 5.5069, se = 2.7315, z = 2.016, p = 0.04). Conclusions: All types of aerobic exercise protocols are effective at improving intrahepatic triglycerides and lead to a reduction in body mass index. In addition, continuous and interval aerobic exercise may be more effective at improving ALT ≤12 weeks intervention time benefits the management of MAFLD. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop