Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Obstetrics & Gynecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 1994

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Catalina De Paco-Matallana
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Institute for Biomedical Research of Murcia, IMIB-Arrixaca, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia, Spain
2. Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Murcia, 30120 Murcia, Spain
Interests: preeclampsia; fetal growth restriction; fetal medicine; prenatal diagnosis; pregnancy complications; pregnancy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to explore the causes, diagnosis, and current treatment options for various pregnancy complications from a clinical perspective. Pregnancy complications pose significant challenges to both maternal and fetal health, requiring a comprehensive understanding of their underlying causes and effective management strategies. This Special Issue will feature in-depth discussions on a wide range of pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa, preterm labor, and fetal growth restriction. Through a collection of expert articles, this Special Issue seeks to provide healthcare professionals with up-to-date knowledge and evidence-based practices to optimize the care and outcomes for pregnant women experiencing complications.

Dr. Catalina De Paco-Matallana
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • pregnancy complications
  • causes
  • diagnosis
  • current treatment
  • gestational diabetes
  • preeclampsia
  • placenta previa
  • preterm labor
  • fetal growth restriction
  • maternal–fetal health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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10 pages, 1116 KiB  
Article
Maternal Visceral Fat in Prediction of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020493 - 16 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Objective: To determine the diagnostic performance of maternal abdominal visceral adipose tissue thickness, measured by ultrasound, in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Patients and methods: A prospective diagnostic study was conducted on low-risk pregnant women attending our antenatal care clinic. All underwent abdominal [...] Read more.
Objective: To determine the diagnostic performance of maternal abdominal visceral adipose tissue thickness, measured by ultrasound, in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Patients and methods: A prospective diagnostic study was conducted on low-risk pregnant women attending our antenatal care clinic. All underwent abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measurement by two-dimension transabdominal ultrasound twice, at late first trimester (gestational age: GA 11–14 weeks) and second trimester (GA 18–22 weeks). All patients underwent a two-step approach for screening and diagnosis of GDM between GA 24 and 28 weeks. Results: A total of 141 women were recruited into the study; including 32 (22.7%) women with GDM, and 109 (77.3%) women of non-GDM, between GA 24 and 28 weeks. The means VAT at the 1st, 2nd trimester and the difference of VAT of GDM group were 4.0 ± 0.27 cm, 5.7 ± 1.12 cm, and 1.6 ± 0.91 cm respectively. The means VAT at 1st, 2nd trimester and the difference of VAT of non-GDM group were 3.8 ± 1.01 cm, 5.4 ± 1.07 cm, and 1.6 ± 1.12 cm respectively. There were no significant differences of VAT measurements (1st, 2nd and the difference) between both groups. The VAT thickness was slightly greater in the GDM group but the mean differences between 1st and 2nd trimester were comparable between the two groups. The diagnostic performance of VAT, maternal age and body mass index (BMI) in predicting GDM was comparable. Conclusion: Measurement of maternal visceral adipose thickness in early pregnancy is not effective in predicting GDM among Thai women, which is different from most studies conducted on western women. However, a trend of higher VAT in the GDM group was noted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment)
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13 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Gestational Weight Gain, Pregnancy Related Complications and the Short-Term Risks for the Offspring
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020445 - 13 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Maternal obesity influences pregnancy course in several different manners, and imbalanced nutrition during pregnancy may lead to various adverse pregnancy outcomes. Additionally, nutritional status during pregnancy may have implications for the health of the offspring and may possibly influence early [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Maternal obesity influences pregnancy course in several different manners, and imbalanced nutrition during pregnancy may lead to various adverse pregnancy outcomes. Additionally, nutritional status during pregnancy may have implications for the health of the offspring and may possibly influence early motor development in children. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) on pregnancy outcomes and infant’s motor development within the first twelve months of life. Materials and methods: The study included 200 participants divided in two groups based on their gestational weight gain. Maternal, perinatal, and neonatal factors were analyzed, and early motor development was assessed using the Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS). Results: EGWG was significantly associated with: pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001), family history for cardiovascular diseases (p = 0.013) and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.045), hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (p = 0.003), gestational diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001), gestational anemia (p = 0.001), vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.001), metformin use (p = 0.045), pre-labor premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.031), amniotic fluid index (p = 0.047), and APGAR score in the first five min of life (p = 0.007). Scored by AIMS, EGWG was significantly associated with parameters of early motor development at the age of three AIMS total (p < 0.001), six AIMS total (p < 0.001), nine AIMS total (p < 0.001), and twelve AIMS total (p < 0.001) months of infant’s life. Conclusions: The link between EGWG and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring is a complex and multifaceted issue. Our results imply significant alterations in early motor development in the group of infants born from mothers who gained weight excessively during pregnancy. Further studies are needed to unravel the intricacies of this relationship and inform strategies for preventive interventions and supportive care during pregnancy and infancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment)

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22 pages, 467 KiB  
Systematic Review
Advancements in Nutritional Strategies for Gestational Diabetes Management: A Systematic Review of Recent Evidence
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010037 - 20 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as hyperglycaemia first detected at any time during pregnancy with values lower than those determined by the WHO for diabetes diagnosis in adults. This pathology, with a worldwide prevalence of 13.4%, causes significant maternal and foetal risks. [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as hyperglycaemia first detected at any time during pregnancy with values lower than those determined by the WHO for diabetes diagnosis in adults. This pathology, with a worldwide prevalence of 13.4%, causes significant maternal and foetal risks. The first line of treatment consists of maintaining normo-glycaemia through an adequate diet and lifestyle changes. The aim is to synthesize the scientific evidence updating the nutritional recommendations for the effective management of GDM. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Randomized clinical trials published within the last five years and providing information on nutritional recommendations to achieve an effective management of gestational diabetes were selected. The databases searched were PubMed, the WOS Core Collection, SCOPUS, and CINAHL, using the MeSH terms: “Diabetes, Gestational”; “Nutrition Assessment (nutrition*)”; “Diet”; “Eating”; and “Food”; with the Boolean operators “AND” and “OR”. The PEDro scale (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) was used to assess the scientific quality of the studies, with a mean score of 8.9, indicating an average good scientific quality. Results: A total of 809 papers were collected, of which, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 randomized clinical trials were selected. Probiotic supplementation and co-supplementation with vitamin D have been found to be the most beneficial options for both mothers with GDM and neonates, but the most effective regimens are not known. Diets enriched with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and oat bran, as well as some recommendations focused on carbohydrates also seem effective, as well as diets designed for this group of women with GDM such as “CHOICE”. Conclusions: Although there are numerous proposals that have been published in recent years focused on the diet of women with GDM in order to improve their results and those of their children, it is the supplementation with probiotics and the co-supplementation with vitamin D that is most agreed upon as beneficial; however, more research is needed into which protocols are most effective. Other proposals that could also be beneficial should be further studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment)
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