New Advances in Neuroimmunology

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Neurology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 22 March 2024 | Viewed by 1545

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jens Schmidt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Neurology, Neuromuscular Center, University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg August University, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
2. Department of Neurology and Pain Treatment, Immanuel Klinik Rüdersdorf, University Hospital of the Brandenburg Medical School Theodor Fontane, 15562 Rüdersdorf bei Berlin, Germany
3. Faculty of Health Sciences Brandenburg, Brandenburg Medical School Theodor Fontane, 16816 Rüdersdorf bei Berlin, Germany
Interests: neuromuscular disorders; muscle inflammation; myositis; peripheral nerve disorders; skeletal muscle; myopathy; neuromuscular junction; neuroimmunology; autoimmune-inflammatory diseases of the peripheral nervous system; co-stimulation, cytotoxocity, aging; protein homeostasis; protein accumulation
Dr. Markus Krumbholz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Neurology and Pain Treatment, Immanuel Klinik Rüdersdorf, University Hospital of the Brandenburg Medical School Theodor Fontane, 15562 Rüdersdorf bei Berlin, Germany
2. Faculty of Health Sciences Brandenburg, Brandenburg Medical School Theodor Fontane, 16816 Rüdersdorf bei Berlin, Germany
3. Department of Neurology and Stroke, University Hospital of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
Interests: multiple sclerosis; CNS immunology; B-cells; neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD); MOG associated disorders (MOGAD); auto-immune inflammatory disorders of the brain

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, various areas within the vibrant field of Neuroimmunology have substantially advanced. We have learnt of several key events that drive the disease pathology in central demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis as well as in the peripheral nervous system such as in CIDP. These mechanisms include, but are not limited to, mitochondrial cell stress, cell signaling, immuno-regulation by cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulation, and many others. Most importantly, we begin to better understand the complex underlying interrelationships between inflammation, protein metabolism, cell death, and regeneration in the brain, peripheral nerves, and skeletal muscle.

In light of a growing understanding of the disease pathology in neuroimmunologic and neuroinflammatory disorders, successful clinical trials have recently paved the way for new drug approvals by the FDA and EMA, e.g., for satralizumab, inebilizumab, efgartigimod, and others.

The main aim of this Special Collection is to provide an overarching insight into the recent advances in Neuroimmunology with a particular focus on pathomechanisms and interactions between the nervous system, glial cells, immune cells, and mediators such as cytokines and chemokines as well as how to design effective treatment strategies.

We warmly welcome your valuable manuscripts with relevance to any aspect of central or peripheral Neuroimmunology. We very much look forward to receiving your original research and reviews with novel clinical or mechanistic insight.

Prof. Dr. Jens Schmidt
Dr. Markus Krumbholz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • auto-immune inflammatory diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system
  • multiple sclerosis
  • NMOSD
  • auto-immune encephalitis, myositis, neuritis
  • GBS, CIDP
  • myasthenia gravis, LEMS
  • treatment response, assessment, and design of novel therapeutics
  • pathomechanisms and model systems with direct clinical, experimental, or translational relevance in neuroim-munology and neuroinflammation including, but not limited to:
  • pro-inflammatory cell stress
  • co-stimulation
  • auto-antibodies
  • aging
  • mitochondrial cell stress, 
  • protein metababolism including proteasome, autophagy, necroptosis, etc.
  • cell signaling, signal transduction, cytokines, chemokines, epigenetic regulation

Published Papers (2 papers)

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10 pages, 461 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment in Selected Neurological Diseases—One Centre’s Experience Based on the Therapy of 141 Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(18), 5983; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12185983 - 15 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Background: Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of certain neuroimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IVIg in patients with selected nervous system diseases. Methods: The study enrolled patients who received [...] Read more.
Background: Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of certain neuroimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IVIg in patients with selected nervous system diseases. Methods: The study enrolled patients who received IVIg in programmes financed by the National Health Fund in Poland. The status of patients upon inclusion and during treatment was assessed using scales dedicated to specific neurological diseases. Results: The study enrolled 141 patients aged 56.28 ± 14.72 (51.77% female): 21 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), 65 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), 30 with Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), 12 with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and 13 patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE). Neurological improvement was found in 14 (66.66%) MG patients (with a reduction of at least three points on the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score (QMGS) within 14 days from the completion of the cycle), and in 34 (52.3%) GBS patients (with a reduction of at least one point on the Medical Research Council Scale within 14 days from the completion of the cycle). The parameters with the strongest effect on clinical improvement in MG patients were age [OR 1.033, CI 95% [0.09–1.09], p = 0.049] and baseline QMGS [OR 0.505; CI 95% [0.24–0.87], p = 0.038]. In the majority of CIDP patients (27, 97%) and NMOSD patients (6, 50%), neurological stabilisation was observed (without clinical improvement, defined for CIDP patients as an increase of at least two points on the Lovett Scale after three courses of IVIg were administered, and for NMOSD patients as an increase of at least one point on the Medical Research Council Scale and/or a shift of at least 0.3 logMAR after three courses of treatment). Deep-vein thrombosis was only one serious adverse event in the total group of patients treated with IVIg. Conclusions: The use of IVIg in patients with MG and GBS mostly results in neurological improvement, while in patients with NMOSD and CIDP, it mostly results in disease stabilisation. This could indicate the predominant anti-idiotypic antibody activity of IVIg in acute neuroimmune diseases or during exacerbations in chronic autoimmune diseases. The therapy of AE in comorbid neoplastic disease is burdened with an elevated risk of failure for IVIg. The results of our study confirm the improved safety of IVIg for selected neurological diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Neuroimmunology)
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10 pages, 3506 KiB  
Case Report
A Near-Fatal Encounter with Acute Suicidal Behavior in Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Autoimmune Encephalitis
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010206 - 29 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome known for its diverse neurological manifestations, often involving psychiatric symptoms and seizures that elevate the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. We present a case illustrating the potentially lethal nature of anti-NMDARE, wherein an [...] Read more.
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome known for its diverse neurological manifestations, often involving psychiatric symptoms and seizures that elevate the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. We present a case illustrating the potentially lethal nature of anti-NMDARE, wherein an unexpected suicide attempt occurred 10 days after the onset of seizures in a 21-year-old man. Upon arrival at the emergency room, immediate interventions addressed hypovolemic shock, followed by subsequent neurosurgical and orthopedic procedures. Six days after cessation of sedation, the patient exhibited atypical focal seizures, behavioral arrest, psychotic responses, and delusions. Despite normal brain magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis results, a high CSF immunoglobulin G index and posterior hypometabolism on brain F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography raised suspicion of autoimmune encephalitis. Steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins were administered. A comprehensive evaluation ruled out other conditions. Serum and CSF tests confirmed the presence of anti-NMDAR antibodies. This case highlights the potential lethality of the acute stage of anti-NMDARE, emphasizing the absence of apparent psychiatric symptoms before a suicide attempt. Further studies on suicidality associated with anti-NMDARE are crucial, underscoring the importance of vigilance in cases involving newly diagnosed seizures or psychoses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Neuroimmunology)
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