Research Status of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 1743

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Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry, Puerta de Hierro University Hospital, Health Research Institute Puerta de Hierro-Segovia de Arana (IDIPHISA), Majadahonda, 28222 Madrid, Spain
Interests: suicidal behavior; personality disorders; ADHD; psychopharmacology; biomarkers; nutrition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are delighted to invite you to send a manuscript to this Special Issue focused on the Research status of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

For all ages, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in the world. However, its diagnosis still depends on the expertise of the observer since we lack biomarkers with sufficient diagnostic capacities. Thus, the introduction of new technologies could help diagnostically. On the other hand, ADHD is a disorder with high comorbidity, both medical and psychiatric, a factor which has been only partially studied. Likewise, the correct identification of ADHD in adulthood is the exception, which is concerning, since its prevalence in this age group is 2.5%. Finally, multimodal treatment is still insufficient, so the integration of new therapeutic strategies, such as the use of serious video games and/or food supplements, and the introduction of new drugs represent an opportunity to improve the treatment, evolution and prognosis of ADHD.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an update on the latest developments in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.

Dr. Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • ADHD
  • diagnosis
  • nutrition
  • treatment
  • drugs
  • comorbidity
  • genes

Published Papers (2 papers)

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12 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Depression or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
by Stephan Gemp, Dirk Ziebolz, Rainer Haak, Nicole Mauche, Madlen Prase, Ezgi Dogan-Sander, Frauke Görges, Maria Strauß and Gerhard Schmalz
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227192 - 20 Nov 2023
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Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional study was the evaluation of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients with depression or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with a group of mentally healthy individuals. Patients from the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was the evaluation of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients with depression or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with a group of mentally healthy individuals. Patients from the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Leipzig, Germany, were recruited. A healthy comparison group (HC) was recruited from the Department of Cariology, Endodontology and Periodontology. The OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile G14 (OHIP G14). Furthermore, a questionnaire regarding oral hygiene behaviour was applied. A total of 141 patients with depression or ADHD (depression n = 94, ADHD n = 47) and 145 HC individuals with a balanced age and gender distribution were surveyed. OHIP G14 median scores were significantly higher in the overall psychiatric patient group compared to HC (5.00 vs. 0.00, p < 0.001). This was also found for the four dimensions of OHIP G14 (p < 0.001). The OHIP G14 sum score of patients with depression and ADHD was comparable (5.00 vs. 6.50, p = 0.302). A significant association among psychiatric patients between smoking, gum bleeding, professional tooth cleaning, oral health education, interdental cleaning, and elevated OHIP scores was found (p < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with depression and adults with ADHD show a reduced OHRQoL. A contradictory association between oral hygiene/oral health behaviour and OHRQoL supports the hypothesis of a changed perception of oral conditions in patients with mental diseases. Interdisciplinary collaboration between psychiatric specialists and dentists should be fostered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Status of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
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13 pages, 904 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Kynurenine Pathway in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Blood Concentrations of Tryptophan and Its Catabolites
by Daniele Cavaleri, Cristina Crocamo, Pietro Morello, Francesco Bartoli and Giuseppe Carrà
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020583 - 19 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Preliminary evidence shows that the kynurenine pathway (KP) may be altered in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We thus conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the peripheral blood concentrations of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) in people with ADHD. We searched the main electronic databases up [...] Read more.
Preliminary evidence shows that the kynurenine pathway (KP) may be altered in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We thus conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the peripheral blood concentrations of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) in people with ADHD. We searched the main electronic databases up to 7th December 2023. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to compare TRYCAT concentrations between participants with ADHD and healthy controls (HCs). We included eight studies. Random-effects meta-analyses found higher kynurenine (SMD = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.04 to 1.08; p = 0.033; I2 = 90.3%) and lower kynurenic acid (SMD = −0.33; 95%CI: −0.49 to −0.17; p < 0.001; I2 = 0%) concentrations in people with ADHD compared to HCs. Additional analyses on drug-free children with ADHD showed higher tryptophan (SMD = 0.31; 95%CI: 0.11 to 0.50; p = 0.002; I2 = 0%) and kynurenine (SMD = 0.74; 95%CI: 0.30 to 1.17; p < 0.001; I2 = 76.5%), as well as lower kynurenic acid (SMD = −0.37; 95%CI: −0.59 to −0.15; p < 0.001; I2 = 0%) blood levels, as compared to HCs. Despite some limitations, our work provides preliminary evidence on KP alterations in ADHD that may suggest decreased neuroprotection. Further research is needed to clarify the role of the KP in ADHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Status of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
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