The Impact of the COVID-19 Emergency on the Quality of Life of the General Population, Part II

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 March 2024) | Viewed by 25919

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

COVID-19 is a pandemic that has forced many countries to implement various restrictive measures to prevent its spread. These restrictive measures and quarantine periods have caused an increase in anxiety crises, fear of contagion and post-traumatic stress disorder (frustration, boredom, isolation, fear, insomnia, difficulty concentrating).

Although only a few years have passed since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large body of scientific literature is already present on the impact that the worldwide spread of the virus has had on people's quality of life.

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a catastrophe of global dimensions, the first traumatic event on a global scale in the most recent history of humanity.
Many studies have reported a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) element during the COVID-19 pandemic.

We welcome manuscripts on the impact of the COVID-19 emergency on the quality of life of the general population, children and people with disabilities.
We will be happy to review your contributions to our Special Issue in the Journal of Clinical Medicine.

Prof. Dr. Michele Roccella
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  •  COVID-19 pandemic
  •  post-traumatic stress disorder
  •  life quality
  •  emergencies from COVID-19
  •  psychological problems

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 186 KiB  
Editorial
On the Waves of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Michele Roccella, Antonio Fallea and Luigi Vetri
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(4), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12041338 - 08 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has been a tsunami that has deeply changed the lives of the people all over the planet [...] Full article

Research

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10 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
A Longitudinal Study of the Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Anxiety and Stress among Medical University Students
by Oskar Wróblewski, Kaja Michalczyk, Mateusz Kozłowski, Katarzyna Nowak, Anita Chudecka-Głaz and Edyta Skwirczyńska
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(3), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13030890 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 584
Abstract
(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic was declared an international health emergency by the World Health Organization. The dramatic, widespread transmission of the virus, high mortality, and lack of specific drugs caused the development of panic attacks and anxiety. Healthcare professionals, including medical students, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic was declared an international health emergency by the World Health Organization. The dramatic, widespread transmission of the virus, high mortality, and lack of specific drugs caused the development of panic attacks and anxiety. Healthcare professionals, including medical students, were challenged to provide medical care to patients in need, often exposing themselves to the virus. (2) Methods: This study aimed to assess anxiety and stress levels in medical students, both at the beginning and after the end of the COVID-19 pandemic. The STAI and PSS-10 questionnaires were used. (3) Results: This study showed a decrease in anxiety levels among medical students after the end of the COVID-19 pandemic. In both 2020 and 2022, female students were found to experience higher stress levels than male students. Anxiety levels were similar among students of different medical-related faculties. (4) Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic caused stress and anxiety among medical students, which decreased throughout the duration of the pandemic. Full article
11 pages, 824 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity in Patients with Neuromuscular Disease Three Years after COVID-19, a Longitudinal Survey: The After-Effects of the Quarantine and the Benefits of a Return to a Healthier Life-Style
by Ignazio Leale, Valerio Giustino, Paolo Trapani, Paolo Alonge, Nicasio Rini, Ivana Cutrò, Olga Leone, Angelo Torrente, Antonino Lupica, Antonio Palma, Michele Roccella, Filippo Brighina, Vincenzo Di Stefano and Giuseppe Battaglia
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010265 - 03 Jan 2024
Viewed by 879
Abstract
Background: Quarantine was one of the strategies adopted by governments against the spread of COVID-19. This restriction has caused an increase in sedentary behaviors and a decrease in the practice of physical activity (PA), with a consequent negative impact on lifestyle both in [...] Read more.
Background: Quarantine was one of the strategies adopted by governments against the spread of COVID-19. This restriction has caused an increase in sedentary behaviors and a decrease in the practice of physical activity (PA), with a consequent negative impact on lifestyle both in healthy people and in those who need constant practice of PA to combat diseases, such as patients suffering from neuromuscular diseases (NMDs). Hence, this study aimed to compare PA levels among patients with NMD during and after quarantine. Methods: An adapted version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short-Form and the Short-Form Health Survey were administered during COVID-19 quarantine (T0) and after 3 years (T1) to 91 Italian patients with NMDs. Results: We found a significant increase in the total PA level at T1, with no significant changes in vigorous-intensity PA. Moreover, a significant decrease in the PA level was found among the patients with different NMDs. No significant changes in physical component scores and mental component scores were detected. Conclusions: Our results suggest that it would be necessary to provide alternative indoor exercise settings to prevent the adoption of sedentary behaviors. Full article
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11 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
Exploring Social Bonds and Well-Being in Young Adults during and beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Emanuela Mari, Alessandro Quaglieri, Micaela Di Consiglio, Alessandro Couyoumdjian, Clarissa Cricenti, Giulia Lausi, Alessandra Pizzo, Vincenzo D’Amato, Sabina D’Amato, Emilia Anna Vozzella, Antonietta Ferrara, Anna Maria Giannini and Jessica Burrai
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(23), 7298; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12237298 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Background: Young adults, aged between 17 and 25 years, experienced a strong impact on both their mental health and well-being due to COVID-19. Indeed, they were simultaneously faced with the normative tasks of their age and stressors associated with the long-lasting COVID-19 pandemic. [...] Read more.
Background: Young adults, aged between 17 and 25 years, experienced a strong impact on both their mental health and well-being due to COVID-19. Indeed, they were simultaneously faced with the normative tasks of their age and stressors associated with the long-lasting COVID-19 pandemic. This study offers further insights into the perceptions of the well-being (stress, anxiety, and depression) and social bonds in young Italian adults during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The first survey was conducted between December and February 2021 (i.e., during the second wave in Italy) and included a total sample of 347 participants. The second survey took place between April and May 2022 (i.e., at the end of the health emergency in Italy) and consisted of a total sample of 313 participants. Results: T-tests, correlations, and linear regressions were performed. Overall, our findings showed an increased mood disturbance was positively correlated with having contracted COVID-19 and negatively associated with social connectedness. Furthermore, social assurance was found to negatively predict mood disorders during COVID-19. Conclusion: While numerous studies have focused on mental health, there has been limited exploration of protective factors, which could represent a different perspective that emphasizes individuals’ resources rather than their vulnerabilities. Full article
14 pages, 697 KiB  
Article
Fear of COVID-19 Predicts Depression, Anxiety and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators and Is Mediated by Positive and Negative Affects—A Cross-Sectional Study
by Marc Dörner, Roland von Känel, Aju P. Pazhenkottil, Rahel Altwegg, Ladina Nager, Veronica Attanasio, Lisa Guth, Sina Zirngast, Anna Menzi, Mary Princip and Claudia Hackl-Zuccarella
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6884; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216884 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 764
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic affected both the physical and mental health of the general population. People with cardiac diseases seem to be particularly vulnerable to the implications of the pandemic. However, studies on the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic affected both the physical and mental health of the general population. People with cardiac diseases seem to be particularly vulnerable to the implications of the pandemic. However, studies on the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICDs) are lacking. Thus, we aimed to explore the level of fear of COVID-19 and the prevalence of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ICD patients. Furthermore, we aimed to identify novel predictors for anxiety, depression and PTSD, including COVID-19-related variables, and to assess whether positive affects (PAs) and negative affects (NAs) mediate the relationship between the level of fear of COVID-19 and anxiety, depression and PTSD, respectively. The data of 363 patients with ICDS who had been prospectively included in this study between 2020 and 2023, were analyzed. Potential predictors for anxiety, depression, and PTSD were identified using logistic regression. To identify indirect mediating effects of PAs and NAs, we applied the PROCESS regression path analysis modeling tool. The prevalence of anxiety was 9.19%, of depression 10.85%, and of PTSD 12.99%. Being unemployed was the strongest predictor for anxiety (OR = 10.39) and depression (OR = 6.54). Younger age predicted anxiety (OR = 0.95) and PTSD (OR = 0.92). Receiving low social support was associated with anxiety (OR = 0.91), depression (OR = 0.88) and PTSD (OR = 0.91). Patients with a history of COVID-19 (OR = 3.58) and those who did not feel well-informed about COVID-19 (OR = 0.29) were more likely to be depressed. Higher levels of fear of COVID-19 predicted anxiety (OR = 1.10), depression (OR = 1.12) and PTSD (OR = 1.14). The relationship between fear of COVID-19 and anxiety or depression was fully mediated by PAs and NAs, while NAs partially mediated the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and PTSD. Vulnerable subgroups of ICD patients may need additional psychological and educational interventions due to fear of COVID-19, anxiety, depression and PTSD during the pandemic. Full article
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15 pages, 2277 KiB  
Article
Caregiving for Dementia Patients during the Coronavirus Pandemic
by Ana Claudia Damian, Adela Magdalena Ciobanu, Cristina Anghele, Ioana Raluca Papacocea, Mihnea Costin Manea, Floris Petru Iliuță, Constantin Alexandru Ciobanu and Șerban Papacocea
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(7), 2616; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12072616 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
The coronavirus pandemic has had a global impact on both mental and physical health. Caregiving has become more difficult during this time due to the quick spread of this respiratory disease, dread of the unknown, congested hospitals, and many restrictions, particularly for people [...] Read more.
The coronavirus pandemic has had a global impact on both mental and physical health. Caregiving has become more difficult during this time due to the quick spread of this respiratory disease, dread of the unknown, congested hospitals, and many restrictions, particularly for people with multiple comorbidities. We aimed to assess the impact of this pandemic on a group of caregivers of patients with dementia and their needs during this time. The study’s findings indicate that females assumed the role of the caregiver more often than men (88.5% of the participants) and scored lower on the life quality scale. The most often issue encountered during the pandemic was difficulty in accessing health care facilities (36%). Participants with a higher education level scored better in the physical (24.67, p = 0.01 and 24.48, p = 0.01) and mental health (20.67, p = 0.002; 19,82, p = 0.008) domains of the life quality test. The fear of COVID questionnaire showed a low level of concern in the category of participants with a high education level. Overall, this pandemic emphasizes the importance of social interaction and the possibilities to improve health care services through telemedicine. Caregivers could benefit from socialization and support programs as well as the early detection of affective disorders. Full article
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12 pages, 757 KiB  
Article
Stress during the COVID-19 Pandemic Moderates Pain Perception and Momentary Oxytocin Levels
by Ekaterina Schneider, Dora Hopf, Monika Eckstein, Dirk Scheele, Corina Aguilar-Raab, Sabine C. Herpertz, Valery Grinevich and Beate Ditzen
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(6), 2333; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12062333 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2673
Abstract
Self-reported pain levels have been associated with increased stress levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. Less is known about the long-term effects of stress on individuals’ physical and emotional pain levels and their associations with the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin. We aimed to predict momentary [...] Read more.
Self-reported pain levels have been associated with increased stress levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. Less is known about the long-term effects of stress on individuals’ physical and emotional pain levels and their associations with the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin. We aimed to predict momentary pain through individual stress levels and momentary oxytocin levels at genuinely high-stress phases, namely during COVID-related lockdowns. In a cross-sectional (n = 254) and a longitudinal (n = 196) assessment during lockdowns in Germany, participants completed a 2-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol (collecting six saliva samples on two consecutive days each and simultaneously reporting on stress, physical, and emotional pain levels) in 2020, as well as one year later, in 2021. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed significant positive associations between individuals’ stress levels and physical pain, both cross-sectionally (b = 0.017; t(103) = 3.345; p = 0.001) and longitudinally (b = 0.009; t(110) = 2.025; p = 0.045). Similarly, subjective stress ratings showed significant positive associations with emotional pain on a within-person (b = 0.014; t(63) = 3.594; p < 0.001) as well as on a between-person (b = 0.026; t(122) = 5.191; p < 0.001) level. Participants further displayed significantly lower salivary oxytocin when experiencing higher levels of emotional pain (b = −0.120; t(163) = −2.493; p = 0.014). In addition, high-stress levels significantly moderated the association between physical pain and salivary oxytocin (b = −0.012; t(32) = −2.150; p = 0.039). Based on mechanistic and experimental research, oxytocinergic mechanisms have long been suggested to modulate pain experiences, however, this has not yet been investigated in everyday life. Our data, which was collected from a large sample experiencing continued stress, in this case, during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggests that individuals experience more intense physical pain and elevated stress levels, as shown by particularly low salivary oxytocin concentrations. Full article
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13 pages, 454 KiB  
Article
Parental Resources in Parents of Children with Special Needs (SNs) at the Time of COVID-19
by Ambra Gentile, Concetta Polizzi, Giulia Giordano, Sofia Burgio and Marianna Alesi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12020475 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
Background. The limitations imposed by governments for containing the spread of COVID-19 have affected familial relationships, especially those of families dealing with children with special needs or chronic illness conditions. The current study aims to better understand what pathological/disability condition has impacted parental [...] Read more.
Background. The limitations imposed by governments for containing the spread of COVID-19 have affected familial relationships, especially those of families dealing with children with special needs or chronic illness conditions. The current study aims to better understand what pathological/disability condition has impacted parental resources, sense of competence, and perception of children’s executive functioning the most. Methods. A sample of 648 parents was asked to answer a survey assessing children’s condition (typical development, specific learning disorder, autism spectrum syndrome, chronic illness), parental resources, parenting sense of competence (distinguished into parental satisfaction and self-efficacy), and parents’ perception of their children’s executive functioning. A MANOVA model was performed to assess differences in parental resources, sense of competence, and perception of the children’s executive functions according to their condition. A path analysis model was performed to examine the impact of sense of competence and children’s condition on parental resources and children’s executive functions. Results. Parents with children with specific learning disorder reported lower scores of parental resources in terms of total scores, common antecedents, and specific antecedents compared to parents with typically developed children (total scores: MD = 56.45, p < 0.001; common antecedents: MD = 22.28, p < 0.00; specific antecedents: MD = 34.17, p < 0.001), parents with autistic children (total scores: MD = 62.79, p = 0.01; common antecedents: MD = 24.03, p = 0.01; specific antecedents: MD = 38.76, p = 0.02) and parents of children with chronic illness (total scores: MD = 37.42, p = 0.04; common antecedents: MD = 16.59, p = 0.01). The path analysis model shows a direct effect of parental satisfaction (β = 0.26) and pathology/disability (β = −0.10) on parental resources that, in turn, influence parents’ perception of their children’s executive functioning (β = 0.24). Conclusion. Although no data about the prepandemic situation is available, the current study highlights that parental stress influence children’s cognition. Moreover, parents of children with special needs seemed to be challenged during COVID-19, especially parents of children with specific learning disorders, that are already stressed out by their children’s condition. Therefore, academic services should undertake preventive measures to preserve parental well-being and to provide a supportive environment for children, especially for those with atypical development. Full article
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13 pages, 1017 KiB  
Article
Is the Pandemic Wearing Us Out? A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Fatigue in Adult Twins without Previous SARS-CoV-2 Infection
by Sophia Kristina Rupp, Katja Weimer, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Paul Enck, Stephan Zipfel and Andreas Stengel
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(23), 7067; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11237067 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
During the pandemic, mental health was not only impaired in people after a SARS-CoV-2 infection, but also in people without previous infection. This is the first study on twins without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection to estimate the influence of genetic components and shared as [...] Read more.
During the pandemic, mental health was not only impaired in people after a SARS-CoV-2 infection, but also in people without previous infection. This is the first study on twins without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection to estimate the influence of genetic components and shared as well as individual environments on pandemic-associated fatigue. The study sample included 55 monozygotic and 45 dizygotic twin pairs. A total of 34.5% reported an increase in fatigue since the pandemic. A significant correlation was shown between the responses within monozygotic (χ2[1] = 11.14, p = 0.001) and dizygotic pairs (χ2[1] = 18.72, p < 0.001). In all pandemic-associated fatigue dimensions, individual environment (ranging from e2 = 0.64 to e2 = 0.84) and heritability (ranging from h2 = 0.32 to h2 = 1.04) seem to have the highest impact. The number of comorbidities significantly correlated with physical fatigue (Spearman’s ρ = 0.232, p < 0.001) and psychological impairment due to pandemic measures with the total fatigue score (Spearman’s ρ = 0.243, p < 0.001). However, calculated ANCOVAs with these significant correlations as covariates showed no significant influence on the mean values of the respective fatigue dimensions. Susceptibility to pandemic-associated fatigue may be genetically and environmentally determined, while intensity is also influenced by individual components. The prevalence of fatigue is high even in individuals without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Future mental health prevention and intervention programs should be implemented to alleviate the impact of the pandemic on the global population. Full article
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25 pages, 1205 KiB  
Article
A Path Model for Subjective Well-Being during the Second Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Study among Polish and Ukrainian University Students
by Aleksandra M. Rogowska, Cezary Kuśnierz, Iuliia Pavlova and Karolina Chilicka
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(16), 4726; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11164726 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
Background: Previous studies showed several associations between physical and mental health dimensions and well-being. This study aims to examine a complex path model explaining the life satisfaction of university students from Poland and Ukraine during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies showed several associations between physical and mental health dimensions and well-being. This study aims to examine a complex path model explaining the life satisfaction of university students from Poland and Ukraine during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The cross-sectional web-based study was performed in November 2020 using Google Forms. The conventional sample of 3230 university students from Poland (n = 1581) and Ukraine (n = 1649), aged 18–59 (M = 21.40, SD = 3.46), with 59% women, participated in the study. We used standardized questionnaires to measure life satisfaction (SWLS), self-reported physical health (GSRH), perceived stress (PSS-10), coronavirus-related PTSD (PCL-S), anxiety (GAD-7), and depression (PHQ-9). We also developed some questions to assess the exposure to the COVID-19 pandemic, positive effects of the pandemic, religiosity, and physical activity (PA). Results: We found a high prevalence of stress, coronavirus-related PTSD, anxiety, and depression and a low level of life satisfaction and physical health. Polish students, women, and those with insufficient PA levels reported worse physical and mental health than Ukrainians, men, and those who exercised sufficiently during the pandemic. Low perceived stress can directly predict life satisfaction, anxiety, and depression. Low stress also leads to better physical health, sufficient PA levels, high religiosity, and more perceived positive effects of the pandemic. Several indirect effects between particular variables and life satisfaction were also found in the path model. Conclusions: The target group for campus prevention programs is Polish university students, women, and people with insufficient PA levels. Intervention and prevention programs should focus on coping strategies and techniques for improving mental and physical health. Full article
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18 pages, 1056 KiB  
Article
Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Quality of Life, Mental Health, and Level of Physical Activity in Colombian University Workers: A Longitudinal Study
by Patricia Alexandra García-Garro, Agustín Aibar-Almazán, Yulieth Rivas-Campo, Gloria Cecilia Vega-Ávila, Diego Fernando Afanador-Restrepo and Fidel Hita-Contreras
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(14), 4104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11144104 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a strong influence on people’s quality of life, and the different restrictive measures during the phases of the pandemic have had consequences for physical and mental health. This study determined the changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL), [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a strong influence on people’s quality of life, and the different restrictive measures during the phases of the pandemic have had consequences for physical and mental health. This study determined the changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL), sleep quality, depression symptoms (DS), and physical activity (PA) level of middle-aged Colombian university personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis was performed following a longitudinal design on a sample of 354 people at four points before and during the pandemic. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the SF-12v2, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS) were included in an online survey. The measurements showed a decrease in quality of life with respect to PCS from 91.66 ± 10.78 to 83.64 ± 17.22 (p = 0.000) and MCS from 87.57 ± 12.23 to 80.90 ± 17.31, while poor sleep quality increased from 25.99% to 47.46% (p = 0.000), with DS reaching the peak during mandatory confinement (14.69%). Regarding the level of physical activity, the period of mandatory confinement inverted the proportion, highlighting active people as a minority (32.2%). In the multivariate analysis, we adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and socioeconomic level, discarding confounding effects and their interactions with the results obtained. In conclusion, this study showed that the pandemic has had a negative impact on sleep quality, HRQoL, DS, and PA level. Full article
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17 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
Positive Orientation and Fatigue Experienced by Polish Nursing Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Mediatory Role of Emotional Control
by Ewa Kupcewicz, Kamila Rachubińska, Aleksandra Gaworska-Krzemińska, Anna Andruszkiewicz, Ewa Kawalec-Kajstura, Dorota Kozieł, Małgorzata A. Basińska and Elżbieta Grochans
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(11), 2971; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11112971 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2313
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the mediatory role of emotional control with respect to the control of anger, depression, and anxiety in the relationship between positive orientation and tiredness/fatigue occurring in a group of Polish nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the mediatory role of emotional control with respect to the control of anger, depression, and anxiety in the relationship between positive orientation and tiredness/fatigue occurring in a group of Polish nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study included 894 nursing students from six universities in Poland. A diagnostic survey was applied as the research method, and the data were collected using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS) and the Positive Orientation Scale (SOP). The mean participant age was 20.73 years (SD = 1.81). More than half of the students in the study showed a low level of positive orientation. Correlational analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between positive orientation and tiredness/fatigue experienced by the students participating in the study (r = −0.336; p < 0.001), and correlation between positive orientation and the overall emotional control index (r = −0.317; p < 0.001), and the indices of control of anger (r = −0.154; p < 0.01), depression (r = −0.376; p < 0.001), and anxiety (r = −0.236; p < 0.01). Analysis of the results also revealed the occurrence of significant, positive links between the controlled emotions and their components and the tiredness/fatigue experienced by nursing students. It is important to take action associated with the prevention of tiredness/fatigue among students and to reinforce a positive orientation and the capacity to control emotions to effectively minimize the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on nursing students. Full article
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12 pages, 1309 KiB  
Article
The Upshot of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic on Nursing Assistants: Evaluating Mental Health Indicators in Huelva
by Francisco-Javier Gago-Valiente, Emilia Moreno-Sánchez, Emilia Vélez-Moreno, María-de-los-Ángeles Merino-Godoy, Jesús Sáez-Padilla, Francisco de Paula Rodríguez-Miranda, Emília Isabel Martins Teixeira da Costa, Luis-Carlos Saenz-de-la-Torre, Adrián Segura-Camacho and María-Isabel Mendoza-Sierra
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2586; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092586 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
Healthcare professionals who work in front-line situations are among those under the highest risk of presenting negative mental health indicators. We sought to assess the prevalence of low personal realization, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization as well as probable non-psychotic psychiatric pathologies during the [...] Read more.
Healthcare professionals who work in front-line situations are among those under the highest risk of presenting negative mental health indicators. We sought to assess the prevalence of low personal realization, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization as well as probable non-psychotic psychiatric pathologies during the pandemic in nursing assistants in the city of Huelva (Spain), and to study the association between these mental health indicators and sociodemographic and professional variables. A cross-sectional descriptive investigation with a quantitative approach was used. A representative sample of these professionals, consisting of 29 men and 284 women, completed the GHQ-12 questionnaire, including sociodemographic data and the MBI-HSS questionnaire, collecting information on situations of contact with SARS-CoV-2. Data analysis was conducted, and correlations were established. We found that emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and probable non-psychotic, psychiatric pathologies were related to contact with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, personal realization, depersonalization and emotional exhaustion were related to just gender. We conclude that nursing assistants from public hospitals in the city of Huelva who had contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2 in the workplace, showed poor mental health indicators than those who did not come into contact with infected individuals. Full article
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Review

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11 pages, 938 KiB  
Review
Psychological Interventions in a Pandemic Emergency: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Studies
by Grazia D’Onofrio, Nicoletta Trotta, Melania Severo, Salvatore Iuso, Filomena Ciccone, Anna Maria Prencipe, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Gabriella De Vincentis and Annamaria Petito
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(11), 3209; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11113209 - 04 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
Background: The study aim was to review the evidence and effectiveness of psychological interventions applied during Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Methods: A literature search was run from April 2020 to April 2021. The inclusion criteria were: (1) RCTs or [...] Read more.
Background: The study aim was to review the evidence and effectiveness of psychological interventions applied during Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Methods: A literature search was run from April 2020 to April 2021. The inclusion criteria were: (1) RCTs or observational studies; (2) professional health carers and patients who had contracted coronavirus during the pandemic; (3) adults and elderly people with a viral infection diagnosis; (4) suitable measures to assess intervention effectiveness on clinical status and psychological and behavioral aspects. An internal validity assessment was planned using robvis. Data were synthesized according to PICO criteria. Results: A total of 12 studies were selected. Studies measuring mental health outcomes demonstrated the greatest reduction in symptoms, with eight out of the twelve studies demonstrating a reduction in symptoms that reached statistical significance (p < 0.05) and four of the studies reaching a higher significance level of p < 0.01. The type of psychological intervention was predominantly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). All studies except one was run online. Conclusion: Psychological interventions have a benefit on mental health outcomes, even if performed online. In particular, CBT seems to be the psychological intervention that is used more and also seems to have a larger effect size on the mitigation of mental health symptoms and increasing resilience. Full article
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16 pages, 2046 KiB  
Perspective
COVID-19 and Tuberculosis: Unveiling the Dual Threat and Shared Solutions Perspective
by Ramona Cioboata, Viorel Biciusca, Mihai Olteanu and Corina Maria Vasile
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(14), 4784; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12144784 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
The year 2020 will likely be remembered as the year dominated by COVID-19, or coronavirus disease. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for this pandemic, can be traced back to late 2019 in China. The COVID-19 pandemic has [...] Read more.
The year 2020 will likely be remembered as the year dominated by COVID-19, or coronavirus disease. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for this pandemic, can be traced back to late 2019 in China. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the tuberculosis (TB) care system, reducing TB testing and reporting. This can be attributed to the disruption of TB services and restrictions on patient movement, consequently increasing TB-related deaths. This perspective review aims to highlight the intersection between COVID-19 and TB, highlighting their dual threat and identifying shared solutions to address these two infectious diseases effectively. There are several shared commonalities between COVID-19 and tuberculosis, particularly the transmission of their causative agents, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both pathogens are transmitted via respiratory tract secretions. TB and COVID-19 are diseases that can be transmitted through droplets and airborne particles, and their primary target is typically the lungs. Regarding COVID-19 diagnostics, several methods are available for rapid and accurate detection. These include RT-PCR, which can provide results within two hours, and rapid antigen test kits that offer results in just a few minutes. The availability of point-of-care self-testing further enhances convenience. On the other hand, various approaches are employed for TB diagnostics to swiftly identify active TB. These include sputum microscopy, sputum for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and chest X-rays. These methods enable the rapid detection of active TB on the same day, while culture-based testing may take significantly longer, ranging from 2 to 8 weeks. The utilization of diverse diagnostic tools helps ensure the timely identification and management of COVID-19 and TB cases. The quality of life of patients affected by COVID-19 and tuberculosis (TB) can be significantly impacted due to the nature of these diseases and their associated challenges. In conclusion, it is crucial to emphasize the urgent need to address the dual threat of COVID-19 and TB. Both diseases have devastated global health, and their convergence poses an even greater challenge. Collaborative efforts, research investments, and policy reforms are essential to tackle this dual threat effectively. Full article
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