Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease: Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Neurology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 May 2024 | Viewed by 4494

Special Issue Editors

1. Research Institute (Imas12), University Hospital "12 de Octubre", Madrid, Spain
2. Center for Biomedical Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain
Interests: Alzheimer’s disease; neurological diseases; neurodegenerative diseases; neurodegeneration; neuroimaging; brain diseases; neurobiology; clinical neurology; mild cognitive impairment; molecular neuroscience
Alzheimer’s Centre Reina Sofia—CIEN Foundation, Madrid, Spain
Interests: clinical neuropsychology; neuropsychological assessment memory; neurological diseases; behavioral neuroscience; neurodegeneration neuroscience; Alzheimer’s disease; pharmaceutical development; neurology
Deptartment of Basic Psychology, Psychobiology and Methodology of Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Psychology, University of Salamanca, 37005 Salamanca, Spain
Interests: aging; dementia; mild cognitive impairment; memory; neuropsychology; Alzheimer’s disease; gerontology; health psychology; cognition disorders; clinical neuropsychology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other related progressive dementias result in significant medical, social and economic impact and are of great concern to the elderly population and their families. In the medical field, this concern is rightly justified. After more than 50 years of expensive research, the early identification of AD and even its nosological definition still presents difficulties, and the main therapeutic investments dedicated to removing beta-amyloid or tau deposits in the brain have been discouraging. The good news is that  controlling the environmental risk factors for dementia (lifestyle, lowering blood pressure, physical exercise, and others) can decrease the incidence of dementia and AD in developed countries.

In this Special Issue, we aim to present a state-of-the art revision of several aspects of dementia and AD: nosological concept, clinical diagnosis (AD and mild cognitive impairment) with psychological, biomarkers, and neuroimaging aids, and main neuropathological data. AD therapy and prevention will also be updated.  

We invite the readers of JCM to send articles on hot controversies about this subject, e.g., aging, immunity, diabetes, gut microbiome, nutrition, potential infectious agents, informal therapies, and chronic family and institutional care, in contributing toward providing a valuable update on this cumbersome disorder.

Prof. Dr. Félix P. Bermejo-Pareja
Dr. Teodoro Del-Ser
Prof. Dr. Israel Contador Castillo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • dementia, neurological diseases
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • brain diseases
  • neurobiology
  • clinical neurology
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • molecular neuroscience
  • aged

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
The Levels of Leptin, Cystatin C, Neuropilin-1 and Tau Protein in Relation to Dietary Habits in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6855; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216855 - 30 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older people. Its prevalence is expected to increase, and therefore it poses a serious challenge to the healthcare system. The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of leptin, cystatin [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older people. Its prevalence is expected to increase, and therefore it poses a serious challenge to the healthcare system. The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of leptin, cystatin C, neuropilin-1 and tau protein, as well as the influence of dietary habits on these parameters, in a group of AD patients (n = 110) compared to 60 healthy people (n = 60). It has been shown that AD patients, compared to healthy people, are characterized by significantly higher median concentrations of leptin (9.97 vs. 3.08), cystatin c (1.53 vs. 0.56) and tau protein (8.46 vs. 4.19), but significantly lower median neuropilin-1 (69.94 vs. 167.28). Multiple regression analyses showed that leptin levels could be explained by dietary habits in 27%, cystatin C in 51%, neuropilin-1 in 41% and tau protein in 25% of cases. Modification of eating habits may contribute to improving the values of the discussed parameters. Full article
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Review

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45 pages, 5992 KiB  
Review
Controversial Past, Splendid Present, Unpredictable Future: A Brief Review of Alzheimer Disease History
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020536 - 17 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Background: The concept of Alzheimer disease (AD)—since its histological discovery by Alzheimer to the present day—has undergone substantial modifications. Methods: We conducted a classical narrative review of this field with a bibliography selection (giving preference to Medline best match). Results: The following subjects [...] Read more.
Background: The concept of Alzheimer disease (AD)—since its histological discovery by Alzheimer to the present day—has undergone substantial modifications. Methods: We conducted a classical narrative review of this field with a bibliography selection (giving preference to Medline best match). Results: The following subjects are reviewed and discussed: Alzheimer’s discovery, Kraepelin’s creation of a new disease that was a rare condition until the 1970′s, the growing interest and investment in AD as a major killer in a society with a large elderly population in the second half of the 20th century, the consolidation of the AD clinicopathological model, and the modern AD nosology based on the dominant amyloid hypothesis among many others. In the 21st century, the development of AD biomarkers has supported a novel biological definition of AD, although the proposed therapies have failed to cure this disease. The incidence of dementia/AD has shown a decrease in affluent countries (possibly due to control of risk factors), and mixed dementia has been established as the most frequent etiology in the oldest old. Conclusions: The current concept of AD lacks unanimity. Many hypotheses attempt to explain its complex physiopathology entwined with aging, and the dominant amyloid cascade has yielded poor therapeutic results. The reduction in the incidence of dementia/AD appears promising but it should be confirmed in the future. A reevaluation of the AD concept is also necessary. Full article
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Other

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16 pages, 556 KiB  
Systematic Review
Radiomics and Artificial Intelligence for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review of Studies in the Field
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(16), 5432; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12165432 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
The use of radiomics and artificial intelligence applied for the diagnosis and monitoring of Alzheimer’s disease has developed in recent years. However, this approach is not yet completely applicable in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic analysis [...] Read more.
The use of radiomics and artificial intelligence applied for the diagnosis and monitoring of Alzheimer’s disease has developed in recent years. However, this approach is not yet completely applicable in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic analysis of the studies that have included the use of radiomics from different imaging techniques and artificial intelligence for the diagnosis and monitoring of Alzheimer’s disease in order to improve the clinical outcomes and quality of life of older patients. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in February 2023, analyzing manuscripts and articles of the last 5 years from the PubMed, Scopus and Embase databases. All studies concerning discrimination among Alzheimer’s disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and healthy older people performing radiomics analysis through machine and deep learning were included. A total of 15 papers were included. The results showed a very good performance of this approach in the differentiating Alzheimer’s disease patients—both at the dementia and pre-dementia phases of the disease—from healthy older people. In summary, radiomics and AI can be valuable tools for diagnosing and monitoring the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, potentially leading to earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. However, the results reported by this review should be read with great caution, keeping in mind that imaging alone is not enough to identify dementia due to Alzheimer’s. Full article
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12 pages, 433 KiB  
Study Protocol
The Effects of Methylfolate on Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Protocol for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3075; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12093075 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Introduction: Dementia and cognitive decline are highly prevalent in later life and are growing public health concerns worldwide due to the increasing aging population. Individuals diagnosed with dementia have reduced mental function, resulting in social and cognitive skill deficits, increased dependence, and reduced [...] Read more.
Introduction: Dementia and cognitive decline are highly prevalent in later life and are growing public health concerns worldwide due to the increasing aging population. Individuals diagnosed with dementia have reduced mental function, resulting in social and cognitive skill deficits, increased dependence, and reduced autonomy—all of which are conditions associated with higher mortality rates. This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness of treating dementia and cognitive decline with methylfolate. The main outcomes analyzed will be dementia and changes in cognitive function measured by different instruments in older adults treated with methylfolate. Secondary outcomes, such as inflammatory markers, plasma folic-acid levels, and total homocysteine, will also be assessed. Methods and Analysis: This study will be carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. This protocol is registered in the International Prospective Registry of Systematic Reviews, under the code CRD42021275755. We will include clinical trials conducted with older adults diagnosed with dementia or cognitive decline and treated with folic acid. The searches will be conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases, and the articles will be selected by reading their titles and abstracts first, followed by the full text. The quality of the selected studies will be assessed using GRADE and the risk of bias will be assessed using the Downs-and-Black method. Ethics and Dissemination: The results will be presented at scientific conferences and disseminated by publishing a scientific article in an international English-language journal. We hope to find robust and significant evidence regarding the effectiveness of methylfolate supplementation in improving dementia symptoms and cognitive decline among older adults. By systematizing this evidence and possibly performing a meta-analysis study, we expect to significantly contribute to the treatment of this health problem, reduce mortality, and improve the quality of life and health of this population, boosting the development of medical protocols capable of reducing the financial effects of public health. Full article
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