Clinical Evaluation, Treatment and Prognostication of Ischemic Stroke Patients

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Neurology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2024) | Viewed by 11216

Special Issue Editor

Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
Interests: acute ischemic stroke intervention; young-onset ischemic stroke; stroke genetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade, there have been significant advances in the imaging techniques, biomarkers, treatment, and rehabilitation of ischemic stroke patients. Currently, the use of intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy in select patient cohorts has become the standard of care globally. This has translated into significant improvements in functional outcomes and reduced disability. However, the burden of ischemic stroke remains high, and ischemic stroke is still a leading cause of disability and mortality. The aim of this Special Issue is to feature recent advances in the context of the evaluation, imaging, treatment, and prognostication of patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Dr. Benjamin YQ Tan
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • ischemic stroke
  • endovascular thrombectomy
  • intravenous thrombolysis
  • prognostication
  • biomarkers
  • imaging

Published Papers (9 papers)

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10 pages, 1163 KiB  
Article
The Stream Device—A Retrospective Review of 51 Cases
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6384; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196384 - 06 Oct 2023
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Mechanical thrombectomy is the gold-standard treatment for patients that have suffered large-vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke. Various different stent-retrievers, aspiration catheters, and techniques have been developed to perform this procedure. We present our initial results regarding the Stream device. Materials and Methods: We performed [...] Read more.
Mechanical thrombectomy is the gold-standard treatment for patients that have suffered large-vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke. Various different stent-retrievers, aspiration catheters, and techniques have been developed to perform this procedure. We present our initial results regarding the Stream device. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database at our high-volume centre to identify all patients treated with the Stream device between February 2021 and January 2023. We recorded baseline demographics, NIHSS, ASPECT scores, eTICI scores, complications, and 90-day mRS. Results: We identified 51 patients, 49.0% of whom were male (n = 25), with a median age of 73 (range: 51–89) and a median NIHSS score of 17 (range 4–22), and 68.6% received IV tPA. The median ASPECT score was 10 (range 6–10). Hyperdense clots were seen in 34 cases (66.7%), with a mean clot length of 12 ± 6.2 mm (range 2–26 mm). Clots were located in the anterior circulation in 49 patients. The standard Stream device was used in 78.4% of cases, with Stream 17 being used in 19.6% of cases. The FPE was observed in 25.5% of cases (n = 13), with the mFPE being seen in 31.4% of cases (n = 16). A final eTICI score of ≥2b was achieved in 90.2% of cases (n = 46), and eTICI 2c/3 was seen in 84.3% of cases (n = 43). Furthermore, 24 h CT scans showed that the median ASPECT score was 8 (range 0–10). Good functional outcomes at 90 days (mRS ≤ 2) were achieved in 21.6% of cases (n = 11). Conclusions: The Stream device shows acceptable rates of FPE and mFPE compared to existing devices. Further larger studies are required alongside an understanding of the optimal technique for this device’s use. Full article
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11 pages, 486 KiB  
Article
Posterior Circulation Stroke Patients Receive Less Reperfusion Therapy Because of Late Arrival and Relative Contraindications: A Retrospective Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(16), 5181; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12165181 - 09 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
Background. Reperfusion treatment (RT) is administered to individuals with posterior circulation strokes (PCS) later and less frequently. We aimed to study the impact of demographic and clinical factors on the decision for RT in PCS. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the [...] Read more.
Background. Reperfusion treatment (RT) is administered to individuals with posterior circulation strokes (PCS) later and less frequently. We aimed to study the impact of demographic and clinical factors on the decision for RT in PCS. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the data from 500 subjects admitted to the tertiary stroke centre’s emergency department between 2018 and 2020 due to PCS. Demographic and clinical factors were analysed among three groups: the RT group, the group with no RT because of absolute contraindications (ACI), and the group with no RT because of relative contraindications (RCI). Results. Of the patients, 202 (40.3%) were female. The median NIHSS was four (4), and the subjects’ median age was 69 (18). RT was performed on 120 (24%) subjects. FAST symptoms (OR—5.62, 95% CI [2.90–12.28]) and higher NIHSS (OR—1.13, 95% CI [1.09–1.18]) at presentation, atrial fibrillation (OR—1.56, 95% CI [1.02–2.38]), hypertension (OR—2.19, 95% CI [1.17–4.53]) and diabetes (OR—1.70, 95% CI [1.06–2.71]) increased the chance of RT. Late arrival was the most prevalent ACI for 291 (58.2%) patients. FAST-negative subjects (OR—2.92, 95% CI [1.84–4.77]) and males (OR—1.58, 95% CI [1.11–2.28]) had a higher risk of arriving late. Because of RCI, 50 (10%) subjects did not receive RT; the majority were above 80 and had NIHSS ≤ 5. Subjects with RCI who received the RT had a higher NIHSS (4 vs. 3, p < 0.001), higher hypertension (59 (92.2%) vs. 35 (77.8%), p = 0.032) and heart failure (23 (35.9%) vs. 7 (15.6%), p = 0.018) prevalence. There was a trend for less RT in females with RCI. Conclusions. Late arrival was the most common barrier to RT, and the male gender increased this risk. because of relative contraindications, 10% of subjects were not considered for RT. The presence of FAST symptoms, vascular risk factors, and a higher NIHSS increased the chance of RT. Full article
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13 pages, 994 KiB  
Article
Association between Triglyceride-Glucose Index and Early Neurological Outcomes after Thrombolysis in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(10), 3471; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12103471 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Background: The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index is a novel biomarker of insulin resistance which might plausibly influence endogenous fibrinolysis and thus early neurological outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with intravenous thrombolysis using recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator. Methods: We included consecutive AIS [...] Read more.
Background: The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index is a novel biomarker of insulin resistance which might plausibly influence endogenous fibrinolysis and thus early neurological outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with intravenous thrombolysis using recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator. Methods: We included consecutive AIS patients within 4.5 h of symptom onset undergoing intravenous thrombolysis between January 2015 and June 2022 in this multi-center retrospective observational study. Our primary outcome was early neurological deterioration (END), defined as ≥2 (END2) or ≥ 4 (END4) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score worsening compared to the initial NIHSS score within 24 h of intravenous thrombolysis. Our secondary outcome was early neurological improvement (ENI), defined as a lower NIHSS score at discharge. TyG index was calculated using the log scale of fasting triglyceride (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2. We evaluated the association of END and ENI with TyG index using a logistic regression model. Results: A total of 676 patients with AIS were evaluated. The median age was 68 (Interquartile range, IQR (60–76) years old), and 432 (63.9%) were males. A total of 89 (13.2%) patients developed END2, 61 (9.0%) patients developed END4, and 492 (72.7%) experienced ENI. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding factors, TyG index was significantly associated with increased risks of END2 (categorical variable, vs. lowest tertile, medium tertile odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.54–2.02, highest tertile OR 2.94, 95%CI 1.64–5.27, overall p < 0.001) and END4 (categorical variable, vs. lowest tertile, medium tertile OR 1.21, 95%CI 0.54–2.74, highest tertile OR 3.80, 95%CI 1.85–7.79, overall p < 0.001), and a lower probability of ENI (categorical variable, vs. lowest tertile, medium tertile OR 1.00, 95%CI 0.63–1.58, highest tertile OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.38–0.93, overall p = 0.022). Conclusions: Increasing TyG index was associated with a higher risk of END and a lower probability of ENI in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Full article
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10 pages, 1011 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Relationship between LAMS and CT Perfusion Parameters in Acute Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Large Vessel Occlusion
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(10), 3374; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12103374 - 09 May 2023
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Abstract
Background: The Los Angeles Motor Scale (LAMS) is a rapid pre-hospital scale used to predict stroke severity which has also been shown to accurately predict large vessel occlusions (LVOs). However, to date there is no study exploring whether LAMS correlates with the computed [...] Read more.
Background: The Los Angeles Motor Scale (LAMS) is a rapid pre-hospital scale used to predict stroke severity which has also been shown to accurately predict large vessel occlusions (LVOs). However, to date there is no study exploring whether LAMS correlates with the computed tomography perfusion (CTP) parameters in LVOs. Methods: Patients with LVO between September 2019 and October 2021 were retrospectively reviewed and included if the CTP data and admission neurologic exams were available. The LAMS was documented based on emergency personnel exams or scored retrospectively using an admission neurologic exam. The CTP data was processed by RAPID (IschemaView, Menlo Park, CA, USA) with an ischemic core volume (relative cerebral blood flow [rCBF] < 30%), time-to-maximum (Tmax) volume (Tmax > 6 s delay), hypoperfusion index (HI), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) index. Spearman’s correlations were performed between the LAMS and CTP parameters. Results: A total of 85 patients were included, of which there were 9 intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA), 53 proximal M1 branch middle cerebral artery M1, and 23 proximal M2 branch occlusions. Overall, 26 patients had LAMS 0–3, and 59 had LAMS 4–5. In total, LAMS positively correlated with CBF < 30% (Correlation Coefficient (CC): 0.32, p < 0.01), Tmax > 6 s (CC:0.23, p < 0.04), HI (CC:0.27, p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with the CBV index (CC:−0.24, p < 0.05). The relationships between LAMS and CBF were < 30% and the HI was more pronounced in M1 occlusions (CC:0.42, p < 0.01; 0.34, p < 0.01 respectively) and proximal M2 occlusions (CC:0.53, p < 0.01; 0.48, p < 0.03 respectively). The LAMS also correlated with a Tmax > 6 s in M1 occlusions (CC:0.42, p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with the CBV index in M2 occlusions (CC:−0.69, p < 0.01). There were no significant correlations between the LAMS and intracranial ICA occlusions. Conclusions: The results of our preliminary study indicate that the LAMS is positively correlated with the estimated ischemic core, perfusion deficit, and HI, and negatively correlated with the CBV index in patients with anterior circulation LVO, with stronger relationships in the M1 and M2 occlusions. This is the first study showing that the LAMS may be correlated with the collateral status and estimated ischemic core in patients with LVO. Full article
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11 pages, 2927 KiB  
Article
Shoulder Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb Treatment for Chronic Stroke Patients with Upper Limb Dysfunction
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(3), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12031215 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Upper extremity dysfunction after stroke affects quality of life. Focusing on the shoulder joint, we investigated the safety and effectiveness of rehabilitation using a shoulder joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL). Eight patients with chronic stroke and upper extremity functional disability were enrolled and [...] Read more.
Upper extremity dysfunction after stroke affects quality of life. Focusing on the shoulder joint, we investigated the safety and effectiveness of rehabilitation using a shoulder joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL). Eight patients with chronic stroke and upper extremity functional disability were enrolled and used a shoulder joint HAL, which assisted shoulder movement based on the user’s intention, through myoelectric activation of the shoulder flexor. Ten training sessions of 30–40 min each were performed to assist voluntary movement of upper limb elevation on the affected side through triggering the deltoid muscle. All patients completed the interventions without shoulder pain. Surface electromyography evaluation indicated post-intervention improvement in coordinated movement of the affected upper extremity. Significant improvements in voluntary and passive shoulder joint range of motion were obtained after the intervention, suggesting improvement in shoulder muscle strength. A significant decrease in the modified Ashworth scale and improvements in functional scores in the upper limb were also observed. Along with safe use for our study patients, the shoulder HAL provided appropriate motor learning benefits. Improvements in shoulder joint function and whole upper limb function were observed, suggesting that HAL could be an optimal treatment method. Full article
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13 pages, 899 KiB  
Article
Association of Shunt Size and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke and Patent Foramen Ovale on Medical Management
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(3), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12030941 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Introduction: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a potential source of cardiac embolism in cryptogenic ischemic stroke, but it may also be incidental. Right-to-left shunt (RLS) size may predict PFO-related stroke, but results have been controversial. In this cohort study of medically-managed PFO patients [...] Read more.
Introduction: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a potential source of cardiac embolism in cryptogenic ischemic stroke, but it may also be incidental. Right-to-left shunt (RLS) size may predict PFO-related stroke, but results have been controversial. In this cohort study of medically-managed PFO patients with cryptogenic stroke, we aimed to investigate the association of shunt size with recurrent stroke, mortality, newly detected atrial fibrillation (AF), and to identify predictors of recurrent stroke. Methods: Patients with cryptogenic stroke who screened positive for a RLS using a transcranial Doppler bubble study were included. Patients who underwent PFO closure were excluded. Subjects were divided into two groups: small (Spencer Grade 1, 2, or 3; n = 135) and large (Spencer Grade 4 or 5; n = 99) shunts. The primary outcome was risk of recurrent stroke, and the secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and newly detected AF. Results: The study cohort included 234 cryptogenic stroke patients with medically-managed PFO. The mean age was 50.5 years, and 31.2% were female. The median period of follow-up was 348 (IQR 147-1096) days. The rate of recurrent ischemic stroke was higher in patients with large shunts than in those with small shunts (8.1% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.036). Multivariate analyses revealed that a large shunt was significantly associated with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic stroke [aOR 4.09 (95% CI 1.04–16.0), p = 0.043]. Conclusions: In our cohort of cryptogenic stroke patients with medically managed PFOs, those with large shunts were at a higher risk of recurrent stroke events, independently of RoPE score and left atrium diameter. Full article
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10 pages, 445 KiB  
Article
Risk of Liver Fibrosis Is Associated with More Severe Strokes, Increased Complications with Thrombolysis, and Mortality
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(1), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12010356 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
The Fibrosis (FIB)-4 index is an established non-invasive test to detect liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis is postulated to be one of the predictors of the risk of symptomatic Intracranial Haemorrhage (SICH) after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) therapy, the mainstay of treatment [...] Read more.
The Fibrosis (FIB)-4 index is an established non-invasive test to detect liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis is postulated to be one of the predictors of the risk of symptomatic Intracranial Haemorrhage (SICH) after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) therapy, the mainstay of treatment following acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, SICH is a feared complication of thrombolytic therapy. We aimed to evaluate the association of FIB-4 with outcomes of AIS after IV tPA. Consecutive AIS patients receiving IV tPA from 2006 to 2018 at a single stroke centre were studied in a retrospective cohort study. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression was performed to assess associations of FIB-4 with outcomes. The primary outcome was SICH, and secondary outcomes included functional independence (mRS of 0–2) and mortality measured at 90 days. Among 887 patients (median age: 67 (IQR: 57–77)), 342 had FIB-4 < 1.3 and 161 had FIB-4 > 2.67. A greater proportion of moderate to severe strokes (NIHSS ≥10) occurred in the FIB-4 > 2.67 group (n = 142, 88.8%) compared to the FIB-4 < 1.3 group (n = 208, 61.2%). Amongst the different stroke subtypes, median FIB-4 was highest in cardioembolic stroke (CES) compared to the 3 other non-CES stroke subtypes (1.90 (IQR: 1.41–2.69)). Following IV tPA, having FIB-4 > 2.67 was associated with an increased rate of SICH (adjusted OR: 4.09, 95% CI: 1.04–16.16, p = 0.045) and increased mortality (adjusted OR 3.05, 95% CI: 1.28–7.26, p = 0.012). Advanced liver fibrosis was associated with an increased rate of SICH and increased 90-day mortality after IV tPA. The FIB-4 score may be useful for prognostication after IV tPA. Full article
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13 pages, 1200 KiB  
Article
Impact of Traditional and Non-Traditional Lipid Parameters on Outcomes after Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(23), 7148; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11237148 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Contradicting evidence exists regarding the role of lipids in outcomes following intravenous (IV) thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Restricted cubic spline curves and adjusted logistic regression were used to evaluate associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), total cholesterol [...] Read more.
Contradicting evidence exists regarding the role of lipids in outcomes following intravenous (IV) thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Restricted cubic spline curves and adjusted logistic regression were used to evaluate associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio with poor functional outcome, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) and 90-day mortality, among 1004 acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients who received IV tPA in a comprehensive stroke center. Quartile (Q) 1, Q2 and Q3 of HDL-C were associated with increased odds of poor functional outcome (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.66, 95% CI 1.06–2.60, p = 0.028, adjOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.05–2.53, p = 0.027, adjOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.01–2.44, p = 0.048) compared to Q4. Q2 and Q4 of non-HDL-C were associated with increased odds of SICH (adjOR 4.28, 95% CI 1.36–18.90, p = 0.025, adjOR 5.17, 95% CI 1.64–22.81, p = 0.011) compared to Q3. Q1 and Q2 of LDL-C was associated with increased odds of mortality (adjOR 2.57, 95% CI 1.27–5.57, p = 0.011 and adjOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.10–5.02, p = 0.032) compared to Q3. In AIS patients who received IV tPA, low LDL-C was associated with increased odds of mortality while HDL-C may be protective against poor functional outcome. Full article
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24 pages, 1074 KiB  
Systematic Review
Functional and Mortality Outcomes with Medical and Surgical Therapy in Malignant Posterior Circulation Infarcts: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3185; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12093185 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Background: There remains uncertainty regarding optimal definitive management for malignant posterior circulation infarcts (MPCI). While guidelines recommend neurosurgery for malignant cerebellar infarcts that are refractory to medical therapy, concerns exist about the functional outcome and quality of life after decompressive surgery. Objective: This [...] Read more.
Background: There remains uncertainty regarding optimal definitive management for malignant posterior circulation infarcts (MPCI). While guidelines recommend neurosurgery for malignant cerebellar infarcts that are refractory to medical therapy, concerns exist about the functional outcome and quality of life after decompressive surgery. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of surgical intervention compared to medical therapy in MPCI. Methods: In this systematic review, MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from inception until 2 April 2021. Studies were included if they involved posterior circulation strokes treated with neurosurgical intervention and reported mortality and functional outcome data. Data were collected according to PRISMA guidelines. Results: The search yielded 6677 studies, of which 31 studies (comprising 723 patients) were included for analysis. From the included studies, we found that surgical therapy led to significant differences in mortality and functional outcomes in patients with severe disease. Neurological decline and radiological criteria were often used to decide the timing for surgical intervention, as there is currently limited evidence for preventative neurosurgery. There is also limited evidence for the superiority of one surgical modality over another. Conclusion: For patients with MPCI who are clinically stable at the time of presentation, in terms of mortality and functional outcome, surgical therapy appears to be equivocal to medical therapy. Reliable evidence is lacking, and further prospective studies are rendered. Full article
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