Allergic Asthma: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Pulmonology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 July 2024 | Viewed by 3617

Special Issue Editor

Institute for Medical Microbiology and Virology, Technical University Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany
Interests: asthma; allergy; epigenetics; microbiome; T-cell; T-reg; viral infections

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my great pleasure and honor to announce this Special Issue on “Allergic Asthma: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment”.

As we all know, allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, and is often under- or ill-treated, and fatal for many people. The clinical, economic, and social impact of allergic asthma puts a strain on any national healthcare system and impairs patients’ quality of life. A thorough understanding of which factors may contribute to disease, and how, is critical to achieving progress in the goal of reducing disease incidence and morbidity.

This Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine aims to highlight the current challenges of and advances in mechanisms of disease, the diagnosis and treatment of asthma, and broader care for allergic diseases. We aim to attract original research articles, reviews, and communications on the latest updates in allergic asthma, to improve clinical outcomes and ensure the best lifetime management.

Dr. Hani Harb
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • asthma
  • allergy
  • allergen immunotherapy
  • atopic asthma
  • diagnostics and treatment

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 758 KiB  
Article
Clinical Remission in Patients Affected by Severe Eosinophilic Asthma on Dupilumab Therapy: A Long-Term Real-Life Study
by Carla Maria Irene Quarato, Pasquale Tondo, Donato Lacedonia, Piera Soccio, Paolo Fuso, Eugenio Sabato, Anela Hoxhallari, Maria Pia Foschino Barbaro and Giulia Scioscia
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010291 - 4 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
Background. Nowadays, highly selective biological drugs offer the possibility of treating severe type 2 asthma. However, in the real-life setting, it is crucial to confirm the validity of the chosen biological treatment by evaluating the achievement of clinical remission. Study purpose. The main [...] Read more.
Background. Nowadays, highly selective biological drugs offer the possibility of treating severe type 2 asthma. However, in the real-life setting, it is crucial to confirm the validity of the chosen biological treatment by evaluating the achievement of clinical remission. Study purpose. The main aims of this real-life study were to evaluate the efficacy of dupilumab in terms of clinical, functional, and inflammatory outcomes at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment and to estimate the percentage of patients achieving partial or complete clinical remission at 12 and 24 months of treatment. In addition, we attempted to identify whether baseline clinical characteristics of patients could be associated with clinical remission at 24 months of treatment. Materials and methods. In this observational prospective study, 20 outpatients with severe uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma were prescribed dupilumab and followed-up after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment. At each patient visit, the need for oral corticosteroids (OCS) and corticosteroid required dose, number of exacerbations during the previous year or from the previous visit, asthma control test (ACT) score, pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1), fractional exhaled nitric oxide at a flow rate of 50 mL/s (FeNO50), and blood eosinophil count were assessed. Results. The number of OCS-dependent patients was reduced from 10 (50%) at baseline to 5 (25%) at one year (T12) and 2 years (T24). The average dose of OCS required by patients demonstrated a significant reduction at T12 (12.5 ± 13.75 mg vs. 2.63 ± 3.94 mg, p = 0.015), remaining significant even at T24 (12.5 ± 13.75 mg vs. 2.63 ± 3.94 mg, p = 0.016). The number of exacerbators showed a statistically significant decrease at T24 (10 patients, 50% vs. 3 patients, 15%, p = 0.03). The mean number of exacerbations demonstrated a statistically significant reduction at T24 (1.45 ± 1.58 vs. 0.25 ± 0.43, p = 0.02). The ACT score improved in a statistically significant manner at T12 (15.30 ± 4.16 vs. 21.40 ± 2.35, p < 0.0001), improving further at T24 (15.30 ± 4.16 vs. 22.10 ± 2.59, p < 0.0001). The improvement in pre-bronchodilator FEV1 values reached statistical significance at T24 (79.5 ± 14.4 vs. 87.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.03). The reduction in flow at the level of the small airways (FEF25–75%) also demonstrated an improvement, although it did not reach statistical significance either at T12 or T24. A total of 11 patients (55%) showed clinical remission at T12 (6 complete + 5 partial) and 12 patients (60%) reached clinical remission at T24 (9 complete + 3 partial). Only obesity was associated with a negative odds ratio (OR) for achieving clinical remission at T24 (OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.002–0.41, p = 0.004). No other statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics emerged between patients who reached clinical remission at T24 and the group of patients who did not achieve this outcome. Conclusion. Dupilumab appears to be an effective drug in promoting achievement of clinical remission in patients with severe uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma. The achievement of clinical remission should be continuously evaluated during treatment. Further studies are needed to clarify whether certain baseline clinical characteristics can help predict dupilumab favorable outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Asthma: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment)
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Review

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13 pages, 275 KiB  
Review
Tele-Monitoring Applications in Respiratory Allergy
by Xenofon Aggelidis, Maria Kritikou, Michael Makris, Michael Miligkos, Niki Papapostolou, Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos and Paraskevi Xepapadaki
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(3), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13030898 - 4 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
Respiratory allergic diseases affect over 500 million people globally and pose a substantial burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Restrictive factors such as geographical disparities, infectious pandemics, limitations in resources, and shortages of allergy specialists in underserved areas impede effective [...] Read more.
Respiratory allergic diseases affect over 500 million people globally and pose a substantial burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Restrictive factors such as geographical disparities, infectious pandemics, limitations in resources, and shortages of allergy specialists in underserved areas impede effective management. Telemedicine encompasses real-time visits, store-and-forward option triage, and computer-based technologies for establishing efficient doctor-patient communication. Recent advances in digital technology, including designated applications, informative materials, digital examination devices, wearables, digital inhalers, and integrated platforms, facilitate personalized and evidence-based care delivery. The integration of telemonitoring in respiratory allergy care has shown beneficial effects on disease control, adherence, and quality of life. While the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the adoption of telemedicine, certain concerns regarding technical requirements, platform quality, safety, reimbursement, and regulatory considerations remain unresolved. The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) in telemonitoring applications holds promise for data analysis, pattern recognition, and personalized treatment plans. Striking the balance between AI-enabled insights and human expertise is crucial for optimizing the benefits of telemonitoring. While telemonitoring exhibits potential for enhancing patient care and healthcare delivery, critical considerations have to be addressed in order to ensure the successful integration of telemonitoring into the healthcare landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Asthma: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment)
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